Экономика
От редакции
Политика
Выбор редакции
17 сентября, 18:04

### "$"???? I understand how to use "$" as delimiters for math expressions in Mathjax. For example: (3) ${Y _{t}} = {K _{t}}^\alpha {\left(L _{t}E _{t}\right)}^{1 - \alpha}$ But how do I then use "$" to denote, say,$50? The markdown/mathJax processors turn this line into: But how do I use "$" to denote, say,$50? The markdown/mathJax processors turn this line into: What happens when I try to write $50? What does markdown/mathJax do to that? Or$1,000? What happens when I try to write $50? What does markdown/mathJax do to that? Or$1,000? What if there is only one $50 on a line? Does having only one such dollar sign on a line (or in a paragraph) mean something to markdown/mathJax? What if there is only one$50 on a line? Does having only one such dollar sign on a line (or in a paragraph) mean something to markdown/mathJax? And is it only one $50 on a line that matters and triggers good behavior? Or does there have to be only one such dollar sign in a paragraph, becuase adding a second$50 triggers mathJax? And is it only one $50 on a line that matters and triggers good behavior?... Выбор редакции 16 сентября, 19:14 ### Six Graduate Student Posters from the Economic History Association Annual Meeting • 0 Выбор редакции 16 сентября, 14:04 ### Без заголовка • 0 **Should-Read**: On how today's Republican Party is sick, sick, sick... **Jay Nordlinger**: Seeing the Confederacy Clear: On the terrible issue of monuments and all that: "Ed Gillespie... is running for governor of Virginia... >...Born and raised in New Jersey... he knows his territory... is running... on the monument issue: the retention of Confederate monuments. He recently sent a mass e-mail headed “Save Virginia’s Statues.” He said that his opponent had “promised to do everything he can to remove Virginia’s Confederate monuments and statues if he is elected governor.” The issue must poll well for Gillespie and the GOP. >The Democratic nominee is Ralph Northam, currently the lieutenant governor. He says that he recently discovered that some of his ancestors owned slaves. The Virginia GOP issued a tweet — alleging that Northam “has turned his back on his own family’s heritage in demanding monument removal.” After a backlash, the party deleted the tweet, and apologized for it. If I were a cynic, I would say, The party had made its position clear. More people believed the tweet than the apology. >Every now and then, the issue of the Confederacy re-erupts.... I said that I would not wade into the issue, or... Выбор редакции 16 сентября, 13:40 ### Без заголовка • 0 **Should-Read: Jeffrey Friedman**: TRUMP VOTERS AND ECONOMIC GRIEVANCES (IT'S THE MEDIA, STUPID): "This economic theory of Trump’s victory is attractive because it tracks many Trump voters’ words... >...It’s more interpretively charitable than other popular theories about Trump’s supporters—e.g., that they are authoritarians or xenophobes—which portray them as victims of irrational fears and aversions.... Economic theories of Trump’s election were resisted on the grounds that Trump voters in the primaries were not predominantly members of the working class: their median income was considerably higher than that of most Americans, and was comparable to the income of Republicans in general.... However, economic explanations don’t necessarily require that Trump’s supporters were themselves in dire economic straits. They may simply have heard about economic problems that seemed to require “change.”... >What type of change did Trump voters want? Economic change seems to have been important, although other types of change were even more important. Among voters who rated the condition of the economy as “poor,” Trump prevailed, 79 percent to 15 percent. But he lost, 42 to 52, among those who rated the economy as the most important issue. In contrast, among voters who viewed immigration as the most important issue, Trump won, 64... Выбор редакции 16 сентября, 03:51 ### Без заголовка • 0 **Book of the Month: Charles Petzold**: The Annotated Turing: A Guided Tour Through Alan Turing's Historic Paper on Computability and the Turing Machine * **A.M. Turing**: ON COMPUTABLE NUMBERS, WITH AN APPLICATION TO THE _ENTSCHEIDUNGSPROBLEM_ * **A. M. Turing**: ACE Report of 1946 and Other Papers * **A.M. Turing**: Proposed Electronic Calculator * **A.M. Turing**: Intelligent Machinery * **B.E. Carpenter**: Turing and ACE: Lessons from a 1946 Computer Design * **Andrew Hodges**: Alan Turing: the enigma * **Historian**: Alan Turing's ACE Выбор редакции 15 сентября, 22:24 ### For the Weekend: Stephen Vincent Benet: The Devil and Daniel Webster IV • 0 **For the Weekend: Stephen Vincent Benet**: The Devil and Daniel Webster IV : "Well, Jabez told his family it was a lawyer, come to see him about a legacy... >...But he knew who it was. He didn't like the looks of the stranger, nor the way he smiled with his teeth. >They were white teeth, and plentiful—some say they were filed to a point, but I wouldn't vouch for that. And he didn't like it when the dog took one look at the stranger and ran away howling, with his tail between his legs. But having passed his word, more or less, he stuck to it, and they went out behind the barn and made their bargain. Jabez Stone had to prick his finger to sign, and the stranger lent him a silver pin. The wound healed clean, but it left a little white scar. >After that, all of a sudden, things began to pick up and prosper for Jabez Stone. His cows got fat and his horses sleek, his crops were the envy of the neighbourhood, and lightning might strike all over the valley, but it wouldn't strike his barn. Pretty soon, he was one of the prosperous people... Выбор редакции 15 сентября, 22:21 ### Без заголовка **Should-Read: Charlie Stross** (2015): _The Present in Deep History_: "Assume you are a historian in the 30th century, compiling a pop history text about the period 1700-2300AD. What are the five most influential factors in that period of history?... >...Please note that this is a 600 year span—around the duration of the entire mediaeval period. Events a mere 20 years apart, such as the first and second world wars, merge together when viewed through the wrong end of a temporal telescope, just like the 30 years' war or the Wars of the Roses. Individual people, even hugely influential thinkers and rulers and tyrants, are a jumbled mass of names with dates attached. This is a question about the big issues—the ones big enough to remember half a millennium hence, like the Black Death, the Crusades, or the conquest of the Americas. >I'm not asking for specific historical events but for major trends. Anthropogenic climate change is obviously one of the big ones, and I have a number of others in mind; I want to see if I've missed anything obvious. (For the sake of argument we assume: no singularity/rapture of the nerds, no breakthroughs that lead to wholesale invalidation of... Выбор редакции 15 сентября, 22:17 ### Без заголовка • 0 **Should-Read: Liz Hipple**: Weekend reading: “labor markets and income” edition: "Tax reform is unlikely to benefit workers, argues Kimberly Clausing... >...The release this week of the U.S. Census Bureau’s annual report on income and poverty underscores why better official measures of economic inequality are sorely needed, write Heather Boushey and Austin Clemens....Nick Bunker discusses a new working paper that examines the rise in price markups by companies in the United States as an indicator of increasing market power and the macroeconomic implications of that rise.... The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics released new data on hiring, firing, and other labor market flows from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, better known as JOLTS.... Greg Leiserson shows how the tax rate on business-level capital income is much lower than the 35 percent statutory rate. In fact, the average effective marginal tax rate is only 8 percent under current law... Выбор редакции 15 сентября, 22:11 ### Без заголовка • 0 **Must-Read**: How is one to think about America's transition from the age of interest-group liberalism to the age of Fox News? **Jerry Taylor**: How to Change Public Opinion: "Political scientists... offer a pretty good road map for those who want to effectively go about “waging and winning the war of ideas”... >...John Zaller’s _The Nature & Origins of Mass Opinion_.... (1) There is a high variance in political awareness around a very low mean. (2) Public opinion is extremely unstable on matters large and small.... (3) There are numerous examples of dramatic shifts in public opinion over very short periods of time. (4)The vast majority of people have no discernable ideology... partially independent and contradictory ideas and beliefs that co-exist comfortably with one another.... (6) Elite discourse is the most important driver of public opinion.... >Zaller constructs... the RAS (Receive-Accept-Sample) Model.... The Reception Axiom.... Elite discourse—not interpersonal discourse or influence—is the dominant means of transmitting political messages. The Resistance Axiom–People tend to resist arguments that are inconsistent with their political predispositions... only to the extent that they posses the contextual information necessary to perceive a relationship between the message and their predispositions.... The Accessibility Axiom.... “A long unused set of... Выбор редакции 15 сентября, 20:52 ### Arshama the Boss from Hell; or, "Questioned Forcefully, and a Severe Sentence Will Be Produced for You..." • 0 And now, moving from the twenty-first century back 2500 years to a much earlier age of information technology: John Ma —much peace and strength attend him!—reminds me of his "accessible edition of some letters of a member of the Achaimenid elite, the actual satrap of Egypt", Prince Arshama, quite possibly the great-grandson of King of Kings Darayavush I, writing in the late 400s B.C. to various of his subordinates : * the Persian Artavanta on the ground on Egypt, who appears to be serving more-or-less in a public law capacity—recognizing property rights, and inflicting and remitting punishments. * the Egyptian Nakhthor, bailiff of Arshama in more-or-less a private management capacity. * the Persian Armapiya, commanding armed forces in Egypt, concerning his unwillingness to follow the instructions of Psamšek, who appears to be another of Arshama's bailiffs in Egypt. * plus some others, and a few letters from others to Nakhthor as well... Arshama sounds like the boss from hell: threatening people with being "questioned forcefully, and a severe sentence will be produced for you" appears to be his favorite thing to say. Nakhthor sounds like he is trying to grab what he can and live an easy life. And yet... Выбор редакции 15 сентября, 19:31 ### Do "They" Really Say: "Technological Progress Is Slowing Down"? • 0 **Consider the 256 GB memory iPhone X**: Implemented in vacuum tubes in 1957, the transistors in an iPhoneX alone would have: * cost 150 trillion of today's dollars: one and a half times today's global annual product * taken up a hundred-story square building 300 meters high, and 3 kilometers long and wide * drawn 150 terawatts of power—30 times the world's current generating capacity ---- iPhoneX: * 4.3 billion transistors in the A-11 * 2,199,023,255,552 bits in the 256 GB memory—each of which needs a transistor (and a capacitor) * Let's say 2.5 trillion transistors... * And you can buy 256 GB of memory for$100—of which, say, 1/4 is the cost of a transistor. * So, say, 125 dollars' worth of transistors in an iPhoneX How much would it have cost you to buy a vacuum tube sixty years ago, back in 1957? * Well, in 1959 you could buy a one-byte—8-bit—Phister 366 for 65 dollars * So, say, 8 dollars a bit. * 8 dollars in 1957 is 60 dollars today via the GDP deflator * 8 dollars in 1957 is 160 dollars today as a share of U.S. nominal GDP per capita * 8 dollars in...

Выбор редакции
14 сентября, 17:56

### Без заголовка

• 0

**Should-Read: David Card and A. Abigail Payne**: High School Choices and the Gender Gap in STEM: "Women who graduate from university are less likely than men to specialize in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM)... >...High school students in Ontario, Canada... the province's university admission system... the dynamic process leading to this gap.... Most of the gender gap in STEM entry can be traced to differences in the rate of STEM readiness; less than a fifth is due to differences in the choice of major conditional on readiness.... >Decompose the gap in STEM readiness... into... the gender gap in the fraction of high school students with the necessary prerequisites... [and] differences in the fractions of females and males who enter university. The gender gap in the fraction of students with STEM prerequisites is small. The main factor is the lower university entry rate by men–a difference that is due to the lower fraction of non-science oriented males who complete enough advanced level courses to qualify for university entry.... >Differences in course-taking patterns and preferences for STEM conditional on readiness contribute to male-female differences in the rate of entering STEM, but that the main source of the gap is the lower...