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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
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18 июля, 19:05

Hepatic ZIP14-mediated zinc transport is required for adaptation to endoplasmic reticulum stress [Applied Biological Sciences]

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Extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress damages the liver, causing apoptosis and steatosis despite the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Restriction of zinc from cells can induce ER stress, indicating that zinc is essential to maintain normal ER function. However, a role for zinc during hepatic ER stress is...

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18 июля, 19:05

Self-affirmation facilitates minority middle schoolers' progress along college trajectories [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

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Small but timely experiences can have long-term benefits when their psychological effects interact with institutional processes. In a follow-up of two randomized field experiments, a brief values affirmation intervention designed to buffer minority middle schoolers against the threat of negative stereotypes had long-term benefits on college-relevant outcomes. In study 1,...

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18 июля, 19:05

Brain regions and functional interactions supporting early word recognition in the face of input variability [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

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Perception and cognition in infants have been traditionally investigated using habituation paradigms, assuming that babies’ memories in laboratory contexts are best constructed after numerous repetitions of the very same stimulus in the absence of interference. A crucial, yet open, question regards how babies deal with stimuli experienced in a fashion...

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18 июля, 19:05

Quadrupling efficiency in production of genetically modified pigs through improved oocyte maturation [Agricultural Sciences]

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Assisted reproductive technologies in all mammals are critically dependent on the quality of the oocytes used to produce embryos. For reasons not fully clear, oocytes matured in vitro tend to be much less competent to become fertilized, advance to the blastocyst stage, and give rise to live young than their...

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18 июля, 19:05

Changes in ventromedial prefrontal and insular cortex support the development of metamemory from childhood into adolescence [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

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Metamemory monitoring, or the ability to introspect on the accuracy of one’s memories, improves considerably during childhood, but the underlying neural changes and implications for intellectual development are largely unknown. The present study examined whether cortical changes in key brain areas hypothesized to support metacognition contribute to the development of...

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18 июля, 19:05

Redox-dependent interaction between thaumatin-like protein and {beta}-glucan influences malting quality of barley [Plant Biology]

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Barley is the cornerstone of the malting and brewing industry. It is known that 250 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the grain are associated with 19 malting-quality phenotypes. However, only a few of the contributing genetic components have been identified. One of these, on chromosome 4H, contains a major malting...

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18 июля, 19:05

Spontaneous fine-tuning to environment in many-species chemical reaction networks [Physics]

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A chemical mixture that continually absorbs work from its environment may exhibit steady-state chemical concentrations that deviate from their equilibrium values. Such behavior is particularly interesting in a scenario where the environmental work sources are relatively difficult to access, so that only the proper orchestration of many distinct catalytic actors...

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18 июля, 19:05

Observing a quantum Maxwell demon at work [Physics]

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In apparent contradiction to the laws of thermodynamics, Maxwell’s demon is able to cyclically extract work from a system in contact with a thermal bath, exploiting the information about its microstate. The resolution of this paradox required the insight that an intimate relationship exists between information and thermodynamics. Here, we...

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18 июля, 19:05

Rapid phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing using nanoliter arrays [Engineering]

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Antibiotic resistance is a major global health concern that requires action across all sectors of society. In particular, to allow conservative and effective use of antibiotics clinical settings require better diagnostic tools that provide rapid determination of antimicrobial susceptibility. We present a method for rapid and scalable antimicrobial susceptibility testing...

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18 июля, 19:05

Elucidating reaction mechanisms on quantum computers [Physics]

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With rapid recent advances in quantum technology, we are close to the threshold of quantum devices whose computational powers can exceed those of classical supercomputers. Here, we show that a quantum computer can be used to elucidate reaction mechanisms in complex chemical systems, using the open problem of biological nitrogen...

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18 июля, 19:05

LGI1 tunes intrinsic excitability by regulating the density of axonal Kv1 channels [Neuroscience]

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Autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features results from mutations in leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), a soluble glycoprotein secreted by neurons. Animal models of LGI1 depletion display spontaneous seizures, however, the function of LGI1 and the mechanisms by which deficiency leads to epilepsy are unknown. We investigated the effects of pure...

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18 июля, 19:05

Glacial/interglacial wetland, biomass burning, and geologic methane emissions constrained by dual stable isotopic CH4 ice core records [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

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Atmospheric methane (CH4) records reconstructed from polar ice cores represent an integrated view on processes predominantly taking place in the terrestrial biogeosphere. Here, we present dual stable isotopic methane records [δ13CH4 and δD(CH4)] from four Antarctic ice cores, which provide improved constraints on past changes in natural methane sources. Our...