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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
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20 ноября, 20:01

Is “choline and geranate” an ionic liquid or deep eutectic solvent system? [Biological Sciences]

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The definition of CAGE (choline and geranate) presented by Banerjee et al. (1) in PNAS as both an ionic liquid (IL) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) is contradictory, goes against their previous classification of CAGE, and prevents the work from being discussed or understood in context with the appropriate literature....

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20 ноября, 20:01

Reply to Rogers and Gurau: Definitions of ionic liquids and deep eutectic solvents [Biological Sciences]

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Regarding classification of materials as ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs), Rogers and coworkers elegantly stated in their previous article (1) that the current definitions are based on extreme behaviors and the reality is somewhere in the middle. By definition, the behavior of ILs is dominated by ionic...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Tagging the musical beat: Neural entrainment or event-related potentials? [Biological Sciences]

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In a recent issue of PNAS, Lenc et al. (1) report that steady-state responses (SSRs) induced by rhythmic auditory stimuli are enhanced when listeners attend to low-frequency sounds, particularly when these sounds reflect salient periodicities like the beat or the meter. Lenc et al. (1) interpret this finding as an...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Reply to Novembre and Iannetti: Conceptual and methodological issues [Biological Sciences]

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In a recent study in PNAS on musical rhythm (1), we show that EEG responses at beat- and meter-related frequencies are selectively enhanced when conveyed by low-frequency sounds, especially in complex syncopated rhythms with no prominent acoustic energy at beat- and meter-related frequencies in the stimulus. In their letter, Novembre...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Ocean circulation, ice shelf, and sea ice interactions explain Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

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The last glacial interval experienced abrupt climatic changes called Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) events. These events manifest themselves as rapid increases followed by slow decreases of oxygen isotope ratios in Greenland ice core records. Despite promising advances, a comprehensive theory of the DO cycles, with their repeated ups and downs of isotope...

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20 ноября, 20:01

A flexible organic reflectance oximeter array [Engineering]

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Transmission-mode pulse oximetry, the optical method for determining oxygen saturation in blood, is limited to only tissues that can be transilluminated, such as the earlobes and the fingers. The existing sensor configuration provides only single-point measurements, lacking 2D oxygenation mapping capability. Here, we demonstrate a flexible and printed sensor array...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Engineering the protein secretory pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables improved protein production [Applied Biological Sciences]

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Baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important and widely used cell factories for recombinant protein production. Many strategies have been applied to engineer this yeast for improving its protein production capacity, but productivity is still relatively low, and with increasing market demand, it is important to identify...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Combinatorial regulation of hepatic cytoplasmic signaling and nuclear transcriptional events by the OGT/REV-ERB{alpha} complex [Biochemistry]

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The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα integrates the circadian clock with hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism by nucleating transcriptional comodulators at genomic regulatory regions. An interactomic approach identified O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) as a REV-ERBα−interacting protein. By shielding cytoplasmic OGT from proteasomal degradation and favoring OGT activity in the nucleus, REV-ERBα cyclically increased...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Coupled molecular dynamics mediate long- and short-range epistasis between mutations that affect stability and aggregation kinetics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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Multiple mutations are typically required to significantly improve protein stability or aggregation kinetics. However, when several substitutions are made in a single protein, the mutations can potentially interact in a nonadditive manner, resulting in epistatic effects, which can hamper protein-engineering strategies to improve thermostability or aggregation kinetics. Here, we have...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Evolution of weak cooperative interactions for biological specificity [Cell Biology]

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A hallmark of biological systems is that particular functions and outcomes are realized in specific contexts, such as when particular signals are received. One mechanism for mediating specificity is described by Fisher’s “lock and key” metaphor, exemplified by enzymes that bind selectively to a particular substrate via specific finely tuned...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein blocks miRNA-124 biogenesis to enforce its neuronal-specific expression in the mouse [Developmental Biology]

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MicroRNA (miRNA)-124 is expressed in neurons, where it represses genes inhibitory for neuronal differentiation, including the RNA binding protein PTBP1. PTBP1 maintains nonneuronal splicing patterns of mRNAs that switch to neuronal isoforms upon neuronal differentiation. We find that primary (pri)-miR-124-1 is expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells where mature miR-124...

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20 ноября, 20:01

Silencing of retrotransposon-derived imprinted gene RTL1 is the main cause for postimplantational failures in mammalian cloning [Developmental Biology]

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Substantial rates of fetal loss plague all in vitro procedures involving embryo manipulations, including human-assisted reproduction, and are especially problematic for mammalian cloning where over 90% of reconstructed nuclear transfer embryos are typically lost during pregnancy. However, the epigenetic mechanism of these pregnancy failures has not been well described. Here...