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28 января, 20:06

Brain-wide functional architecture remodeling by alcohol dependence and abstinence [Neuroscience]

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Alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence are key factors in the development of alcohol use disorder, which is a pervasive societal problem with substantial economic, medical, and psychiatric consequences. Although our understanding of the neurocircuitry that underlies alcohol use has improved, novel brain regions that are involved in alcohol use and...

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28 января, 20:06

Oligodendroglial connexin 47 regulates neuroinflammation upon autoimmune demyelination in a novel mouse model of multiple sclerosis [Neuroscience]

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In multiple sclerosis plaques, oligodendroglial connexin (Cx) 47 constituting main gap junction channels with astroglial Cx43 is persistently lost. As mice with Cx47 single knockout exhibit no demyelination, the roles of Cx47 remain undefined. We aimed to clarify the effects of oligodendroglia-specific Cx47 inducible conditional knockout (icKO) on experimental autoimmune...

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28 января, 20:06

TrkB hyperactivity contributes to brain dysconnectivity, epileptogenesis, and anxiety in zebrafish model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex [Neuroscience]

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Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC) is a rare genetic disease that manifests with early symptoms, including cortical malformations, childhood epilepsy, and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TANDs). Cortical malformations arise during embryonic development and have been linked to childhood epilepsy before, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship remain insufficiently understood. Zebrafish have...

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28 января, 20:06

Imaging breast cancer using hyperpolarized carbon-13 MRI [Medical Sciences]

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Our purpose is to investigate the feasibility of imaging tumor metabolism in breast cancer patients using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of hyperpolarized 13C label exchange between injected [1-13C]pyruvate and the endogenous tumor lactate pool. Treatment-naïve breast cancer patients were recruited: four triple-negative grade 3 cancers; two invasive ductal...

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28 января, 20:06

Structure of a rabies virus polymerase complex from electron cryo-microscopy [Microbiology]

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Nonsegmented negative-stranded (NNS) RNA viruses, among them the virus that causes rabies (RABV), include many deadly human pathogens. The large polymerase (L) proteins of NNS RNA viruses carry all of the enzymatic functions required for viral messenger RNA (mRNA) transcription and replication: RNA polymerization, mRNA capping, and cap methylation. We...

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28 января, 20:06

Precise CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the NHE1 gene renders chickens resistant to the J subgroup of avian leukosis virus [Microbiology]

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Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an important concern for the poultry industry. Replication of ALV-J depends on a functional cellular receptor, the chicken Na+/H+ exchanger type 1 (chNHE1). Tryptophan residue number 38 of chNHE1 (W38) in the extracellular portion of this molecule is a critical amino acid for...

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28 января, 20:06

Coordination of host and symbiont gene expression reveals a metabolic tug-of-war between aphids and Buchnera [Microbiology]

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Symbioses between animals and microbes are often described as mutualistic, but are subject to tradeoffs that may manifest as shifts in host and symbiont metabolism, cellular processes, or symbiont density. In pea aphids, the bacterial symbiont Buchnera is confined to specialized aphid cells called bacteriocytes, where it produces essential amino...

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28 января, 20:06

A molecularly engineered antiviral banana lectin inhibits fusion and is efficacious against influenza virus infection in vivo [Microbiology]

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There is a strong need for a new broad-spectrum antiinfluenza therapeutic, as vaccination and existing treatments are only moderately effective. We previously engineered a lectin, H84T banana lectin (H84T), to retain broad-spectrum activity against multiple influenza strains, including pandemic and avian, while largely eliminating the potentially harmful mitogenicity of the...

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28 января, 20:06

Ras acts as a molecular switch between two forms of consolidated memory in Drosophila [Neuroscience]

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Long-lasting, consolidated memories require not only positive biological processes that facilitate long-term memories (LTM) but also the suppression of inhibitory processes that prevent them. The mushroom body neurons (MBn) in Drosophila melanogaster store protein synthesis-dependent LTM (PSD-LTM) as well as protein synthesis-independent, anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM). The formation of ARM inhibits...

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28 января, 20:06

Nociceptin attenuates the escalation of oxycodone self-administration by normalizing CeA-GABA transmission in highly addicted rats [Neuroscience]

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Approximately 25% of patients who are prescribed opioids for chronic pain misuse them, and 5 to 10% develop an opioid use disorder. Although the neurobiological target of opioids is well known, the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of addiction-like behaviors in some but not all individuals are...

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28 января, 20:06

Physiological responses to gravity in an insect [Physiology]

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Gravity is one of the most ubiquitous environmental effects on living systems: Cellular and organismal responses to gravity are of central importance to understanding the physiological function of organisms, especially eukaryotes. Gravity has been demonstrated to have strong effects on the closed cardiovascular systems of terrestrial vertebrates, with rapidly responding...

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28 января, 20:06

HSD3B1 genotype identifies glucocorticoid responsiveness in severe asthma [Physiology]

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Asthma resistance to glucocorticoid treatment is a major health problem with unclear etiology. Glucocorticoids inhibit adrenal androgen production. However, androgens have potential benefits in asthma. HSD3B1 encodes for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (3β-HSD1), which catalyzes peripheral conversion from adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to potent androgens and has a germline missense-encoding polymorphism. The adrenal...