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20 июня, 19:04

Dynamics of avian haemosporidian assemblages through millennial time scales inferred from insular biotas of the West Indies [Population Biology]

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Although introduced hemosporidian (malaria) parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) have hastened the extinction of endemic bird species in the Hawaiian Islands and perhaps elsewhere, little is known about the temporal dynamics of endemic malaria parasite populations. Haemosporidian parasites do not leave informative fossils, and records of population change are lacking beyond a...

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20 июня, 19:04

Temperature variability is integrated by a spatially embedded decision-making center to break dormancy in Arabidopsis seeds [Plant Biology]

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Plants perceive and integrate information from the environment to time critical transitions in their life cycle. Some mechanisms underlying this quantitative signal processing have been described, whereas others await discovery. Seeds have evolved a mechanism to integrate environmental information by regulating the abundance of the antagonistically acting hormones abscisic acid...

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20 июня, 19:04

Establishment of a vernalization requirement in Brachypodium distachyon requires REPRESSOR OF VERNALIZATION1 [Plant Biology]

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A requirement for vernalization, the process by which prolonged cold exposure provides competence to flower, is an important adaptation to temperate climates that ensures flowering does not occur before the onset of winter. In temperate grasses, vernalization results in the up-regulation of VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) to establish competence to flower; however,...

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20 июня, 19:04

Phosphorylation and negative regulation of CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 by PINOID in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

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CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) plays crucial roles in various cellular processes via its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in organisms, ranging from fungi to humans. As a key component in regulating various biological events, COP1 itself is precisely controlled at multiple layers. Here, we report a negative regulator of COP1, PINOID...

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20 июня, 19:04

Dapagliflozin suppresses glucagon signaling in rodent models of diabetes [Physiology]

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Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of antidiabetic drug used for the treatment of diabetes. These drugs are thought to lower blood glucose by blocking reabsorption of glucose by SGLT2 in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney. To investigate the effect of inhibiting SGLT2 on pancreatic hormones,...

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20 июня, 19:04

Sensorimotor integration on a rapid time scale [Neuroscience]

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Sensing is fundamental to the control of movement: From grasping objects to speech production, sensing guides action. So far, most of our knowledge about sensorimotor integration comes from visually guided reaching and oculomotor integration, in which the time course and trajectories of movements can be measured at a high temporal...

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20 июня, 19:04

Histamine modulation of the basal ganglia circuitry in the development of pathological grooming [Neuroscience]

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Aberrant histaminergic function has been proposed as a cause of tic disorders. A rare mutation in the enzyme that produces histamine (HA), histidine decarboxylase (HDC), has been identified in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Hdc knockout mice exhibit repetitive behavioral pathology and neurochemical characteristics of TS, establishing them as a...

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20 июня, 19:04

Asymmetric distribution of type IV pili triggered by directional light in unicellular cyanobacteria [Microbiology]

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The type IV pili (T4P) system is a supermolecular machine observed in prokaryotes. Cells repeat the cycle of T4P extension, surface attachment, and retraction to drive twitching motility. Although the properties of T4P as a motor have been scrutinized with biophysics techniques, the mechanism of regulation remains unclear. Here we...

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20 июня, 19:04

Protein composition of the hepatitis A virus quasi-envelope [Microbiology]

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The Picornaviridae are a diverse family of RNA viruses including many pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Classically considered “nonenveloped,” recent studies show that some picornaviruses, notably hepatitis A virus (HAV; genus Hepatovirus) and some members of the Enterovirus genus, are released from cells nonlytically in membranous vesicles. To better...

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20 июня, 19:04

Functional proteogenomics reveals biomarkers and therapeutic targets in lymphomas [Medical Sciences]

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Identification of biomarkers and therapeutic targets is a critical goal of precision medicine. N-glycoproteins are a particularly attractive class of proteins that constitute potential cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets for small molecules, antibodies, and cellular therapies. Using mass spectrometry (MS), we generated a compendium of 1,091 N-glycoproteins (from 40 human...

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20 июня, 19:04

Recent evolution of extreme cestode growth suppression by a vertebrate host [Evolution]

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Parasites can be a major cause of natural selection on hosts, which consequently evolve a variety of strategies to avoid, eliminate, or tolerate infection. When ecologically similar host populations present disparate infection loads, this natural variation can reveal immunological strategies underlying adaptation to infection and population divergence. For instance, the...

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20 июня, 19:04

Solitary bees reduce investment in communication compared with their social relatives [Evolution]

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Social animals must communicate to define group membership and coordinate social organization. For social insects, communication is predominantly mediated through chemical signals, and as social complexity increases, so does the requirement for a greater diversity of signals. This relationship is particularly true for advanced eusocial insects, including ants, bees, and...