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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
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18 апреля, 19:47

Correction for Zhong et al., B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial [Correction]

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MEDICAL SCIENCES Correction for “B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial,” by Jia Zhong, Oskar Karlsson, Guan Wang, Jun Li, Yichen Guo, Xinyi Lin, Michele Zemplenyi, Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Letizia Trevisi, Bruce Urch, Mary Speck, Liming Liang, Brent A. Coull, Petros Koutrakis,...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Correction for Mylvaganam et al., Dynamics of SIV-specific CXCR5+ CD8 T cells during chronic SIV infection [Correction]

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IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for “Dynamics of SIV-specific CXCR5+ CD8 T cells during chronic SIV infection,” by Geetha H. Mylvaganam, Daniel Rios, Hadia M. Abdelaal, Smita Iyer, Gregory Tharp, Maud Mavinger, Sakeenah Hicks, Ann Chahroudi, Rafi Ahmed, Steven E. Bosinger, Ifor R. Williams, Pamela J. Skinner, Vijayakumar Velu, and Rama...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate-binding protein AtPH1 controls the localization of the metal transporter NRAMP1 in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

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“Too much of a good thing” perfectly describes the dilemma that living organisms face with metals. The tight control of metal homeostasis in cells depends on the trafficking of metal transporters between membranes of different compartments. However, the mechanisms regulating the location of transport proteins are still largely unknown. Developing...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Parathyroid hormone controls paracellular Ca2+ transport in the thick ascending limb by regulating the tight-junction protein Claudin14 [Physiology]

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Renal Ca2+ reabsorption is essential for maintaining systemic Ca2+ homeostasis and is tightly regulated through the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) signaling pathway. We investigated the role of PTH1R in the kidney by generating a mouse model with targeted deletion of PTH1R in the thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL)...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Neuroendocrine androgen action is a key extraovarian mediator in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome [Physiology]

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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex hormonal disorder characterized by reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic abnormalities. As the origins of PCOS remain unknown, mechanism-based treatments are not feasible and current management relies on treatment of symptoms. Hyperandrogenism is the most consistent PCOS characteristic; however, it is unclear whether androgen excess,...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Trk receptor signaling and sensory neuron fate are perturbed in human neuropathy caused by Gars mutations [Neuroscience]

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Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2D (CMT2D) is a peripheral nerve disorder caused by dominant, toxic, gain-of-function mutations in the widely expressed, housekeeping gene, GARS. The mechanisms underlying selective nerve pathology in CMT2D remain unresolved, as does the cause of the mild-to-moderate sensory involvement that distinguishes CMT2D from the allelic disorder distal...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Parietal neurons encode expected gains in instrumental information [Neuroscience]

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In natural behavior, animals have access to multiple sources of information, but only a few of these sources are relevant for learning and actions. Beyond choosing an appropriate action, making good decisions entails the ability to choose the relevant information, but fundamental questions remain about the brain’s information sampling policies....

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18 апреля, 19:47

Dynamic neural architecture for social knowledge retrieval [Neuroscience]

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Social behavior is often shaped by the rich storehouse of biographical information that we hold for other people. In our daily life, we rapidly and flexibly retrieve a host of biographical details about individuals in our social network, which often guide our decisions as we navigate complex social interactions. Even...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Nimodipine fosters remyelination in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis and induces microglia-specific apoptosis [Immunology and Inflammation]

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Despite continuous interest in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, there is still a lack of neuroprotective strategies, because the main focus has remained on modulating the immune response. Here we performed in-depth analysis of neurodegeneration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in in vitro studies regarding the effect of the well-established...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Intracellular metabolite {beta}-glucosylceramide is an endogenous Mincle ligand possessing immunostimulatory activity [Immunology and Inflammation]

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Sensing and reacting to tissue damage is a fundamental function of immune systems. Macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) is an activating C-type lectin receptor that senses damaged cells. Notably, Mincle also recognizes glycolipid ligands on pathogens. To elucidate endogenous glycolipids ligands derived from damaged cells, we fractionated supernatants from damaged...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Climate change both facilitates and inhibits invasive plant ranges in New England [Ecology]

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Forecasting ecological responses to climate change, invasion, and their interaction must rely on understanding underlying mechanisms. However, such forecasts require extrapolation into new locations and environments. We linked demography and environment using experimental biogeography to forecast invasive and native species’ potential ranges under present and future climate in New England,...

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18 апреля, 19:47

Conformational equilibria of light-activated rhodopsin in nanodiscs [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

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Conformational equilibria of G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are intimately involved in intracellular signaling. Here conformational substates of the GPCR rhodopsin are investigated in micelles of dodecyl maltoside (DDM) and in phospholipid nanodiscs by monitoring the spatial positions of transmembrane helices 6 and 7 at the cytoplasmic surface using site-directed spin labeling...