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14 ноября, 21:46

Better choices than optical angular momentum multiplexing for communications [Physical Sciences]

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Using optical angular momentum (OAM) beams, Shi et al. (1) demonstrate multiple acoustic channels between arrays of sources and detection points. Even better channels with fewer resources are, however, possible. OAM is not an additional degree of freedom beyond normal spatial multiplexing; using only the OAM “topological charge,” l particularly...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Reply to Miller: Misunderstanding and mix-up of acoustic and optical communications [Physical Sciences]

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In a Letter in PNAS, Miller (1) comments on our work on high-speed acoustic communication (2) by stating “using optical angular momentum (OAM) beams.” This clearly is a misunderstanding by the author: we did not use optical angular momentum; rather, we use the acoustic wave modulation. The author also misunderstands...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Theory, simulations, and experiments show that proteins fold by multiple pathways [Biological Sciences]

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In PNAS (1), Englander and Mayne repeat an assertion, already made by them along with Bai and Sosnick in 1995 (2), that the modern energy landscape theory of protein folding, by emphasizing the parallelism of potential folding pathways, is incompatible with evidence that in some cases a single particular sequence...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Reply to Eaton and Wolynes: How do proteins fold? [Biological Sciences]

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Eaton and Wolynes (1) take issue with our recent paper on protein folding (2) in which we compare the defined-pathway model (3, 4) and the many-pathway funneled-energy landscape model (5, 6) with informative experimental results. Eaton and Wolynes (1) do not dispute our main points. Over a dozen proteins have...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Harmful algal blooms in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean [Biological Sciences]

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Applying a mathematical model to the period 1982–2016, in PNAS Gobler et al. (1) propose that ocean warming has expanded the niche for harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the species Dinophysis acuminata and Alexandrium fundyense, which can generate shellfish toxicity and pose risks to human health. The authors’ model predicts...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Reply to Dees et al.: Ocean warming promotes species-specific increases in the cellular growth rates of harmful algal blooms [Biological Sciences]

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Recently, we (1) reported that, since 1982, several regions across the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans have experienced warming in specific seasons and locations that have significantly increased the potential cellular growth rates and bloom seasons of two harmful algae, Alexandrium fundyense and Dinophysis acuminata, and that new blooms...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Continuum limit of the vibrational properties of amorphous solids [Applied Physical Sciences]

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The low-frequency vibrational and low-temperature thermal properties of amorphous solids are markedly different from those of crystalline solids. This situation is counterintuitive because all solid materials are expected to behave as a homogeneous elastic body in the continuum limit, in which vibrational modes are phonons that follow the Debye law....

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14 ноября, 21:46

Interplay of hemilability and redox activity in models of hydrogenase active sites [Chemistry]

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The hydrogen evolution reaction, as catalyzed by two electrocatalysts [M(N2S2)·Fe(NO)2]+, [Fe-Fe]+ (M = Fe(NO)) and [Ni-Fe]+ (M = Ni) was investigated by computational chemistry. As nominal models of hydrogenase active sites, these bimetallics feature two kinds of actor ligands: Hemilabile, MN2S2 ligands and redox-active, nitrosyl ligands, whose interplay guides the...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Combining disparate data sources for improved poverty prediction and mapping [Computer Sciences]

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More than 330 million people are still living in extreme poverty in Africa. Timely, accurate, and spatially fine-grained baseline data are essential to determining policy in favor of reducing poverty. The potential of “Big Data” to estimate socioeconomic factors in Africa has been proven. However, most current studies are limited...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Enhanced antibacterial activity through the controlled alignment of graphene oxide nanosheets [Environmental Sciences]

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The cytotoxicity of 2D graphene-based nanomaterials (GBNs) is highly important for engineered applications and environmental health. However, the isotropic orientation of GBNs, most notably graphene oxide (GO), in previous experimental studies obscured the interpretation of cytotoxic contributions of nanosheet edges. Here, we investigate the orientation-dependent interaction of GBNs with bacteria...

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14 ноября, 21:46

Reverse chemical ecology: Olfactory proteins from the giant panda and their interactions with putative pheromones and bamboo volatiles [Biochemistry]

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The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca belongs to the family of Ursidae; however, it is not carnivorous, feeding almost exclusively on bamboo. Being equipped with a typical carnivorous digestive apparatus, the giant panda cannot get enough energy for an active life and spends most of its time digesting food or sleeping....

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14 ноября, 21:46

Molecular basis of the 14-3-3 protein-dependent activation of yeast neutral trehalase Nth1 [Biochemistry]

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The 14-3-3 proteins, a family of highly conserved scaffolding proteins ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells, interact with and regulate the function of several hundreds of partner proteins. Yeast neutral trehalases (Nth), enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of trehalose to glucose, compared with trehalases from other organisms, possess distinct structure...