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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
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19 февраля, 23:06

Experimental evolutionary studies on the genetic autonomy of the cytoplasmic genome “plasmon” in the Triticum (wheat)-Aegilops complex [Genetics]

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The term “plasmon” is used to indicate the whole cytoplasmic genetic system, whereas “genome” refers to the whole nuclear genetic system. Although maternal inheritance of the plasmon is well documented in angiosperms, its genetic autonomy from the coexisting nuclear genome still awaits critical examination. We tested this autonomy in two...

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19 февраля, 23:06

Comparative transcriptomics method to infer gene coexpression networks and its applications to maize and rice leaf transcriptomes [Genetics]

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Time-series transcriptomes of a biological process obtained under different conditions are useful for identifying the regulators of the process and their regulatory networks. However, such data are 3D (gene expression, time, and condition), and there is currently no method that can deal with their full complexity. Here, we developed a...

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19 февраля, 23:06

High ambient temperature dampens adaptive immune responses to influenza A virus infection [Immunology and Inflammation]

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Although climate change may expand the geographical distribution of several vector-borne diseases, the effects of environmental temperature in host defense to viral infection in vivo are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that exposure of mice to the high ambient temperature of 36 °C impaired adaptive immune responses against infection with viral...

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19 февраля, 23:06

DGAT1 inhibits retinol-dependent regulatory T cell formation and mediates autoimmune encephalomyelitis [Immunology and Inflammation]

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The balance of effector versus regulatory T cells (Tregs) controls inflammation in numerous settings, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that memory phenotype CD4+ T cells infiltrating the central nervous system during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely studied animal model of MS, expressed high levels of mRNA for...

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19 февраля, 23:06

Breaking tolerance with engineered class I antigen-presenting molecules [Immunology and Inflammation]

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Successful efforts to activate T cells capable of recognizing weak cancer-associated self-antigens have employed altered peptide antigens to activate T cell responses capable of cross-reacting on native tumor-associated self. A limitation of this approach is the requirement for detailed knowledge about the altered self-peptide ligands used in these vaccines. In...

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19 февраля, 23:06

A collaborative multiyear, multimodel assessment of seasonal influenza forecasting in the United States [Medical Sciences]

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Influenza infects an estimated 9–35 million individuals each year in the United States and is a contributing cause for between 12,000 and 56,000 deaths annually. Seasonal outbreaks of influenza are common in temperate regions of the world, with highest incidence typically occurring in colder and drier months of the year....

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19 февраля, 23:06

Increased gene copy number of DEFA1/DEFA3 worsens sepsis by inducing endothelial pyroptosis [Medical Sciences]

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Sepsis claims an estimated 30 million episodes and 6 million deaths per year, and treatment options are rather limited. Human neutrophil peptides 1–3 (HNP1–3) are the most abundant neutrophil granule proteins but their neutrophil content varies because of unusually extensive gene copy number polymorphism. A genetic association study found that...

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19 февраля, 23:06

Comparative 3D genome organization in apicomplexan parasites [Microbiology]

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The positioning of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell is highly organized and has a complex and dynamic relationship with gene expression. In the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the clustering of a family of virulence genes correlates with their coordinated silencing and has a strong influence on...

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19 февраля, 23:06

Intercellular cooperation in a fungal plant pathogen facilitates host colonization [Microbiology]

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Cooperation is associated with major transitions in evolution such as the emergence of multicellularity. It is central to the evolution of many complex traits in nature, including growth and virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Whether cells of multicellular parasites function cooperatively during infection remains, however, largely unknown. Here, we show that...

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19 февраля, 23:06

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pup-proteasome system regulates nitrate metabolism through an essential protein quality control pathway [Microbiology]

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The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that carries out regulated degradation of bacterial proteins. It has been proposed that the proteasome contributes to nitrogen metabolism in M. tuberculosis, although this hypothesis had not been tested. Upon assessing M. tuberculosis growth in several nitrogen sources, we found that a...

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19 февраля, 23:06

Movement dynamics of divisome proteins and PBP2x:FtsW in cells of Streptococcus pneumoniae [Microbiology]

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Bacterial cell division and peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis are orchestrated by the coordinated dynamic movement of essential protein complexes. Recent studies show that bidirectional treadmilling of FtsZ filaments/bundles is tightly coupled to and limiting for both septal PG synthesis and septum closure in some bacteria, but not in others. Here we...

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19 февраля, 23:06

Legionella pneumophila translocated translation inhibitors are required for bacterial-induced host cell cycle arrest [Microbiology]

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The cell cycle machinery controls diverse cellular pathways and is tightly regulated. Misregulation of cell division plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many disease processes. Various microbial pathogens interfere with the cell cycle machinery to promote host cell colonization. Although cell cycle modulation is a common theme among...