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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
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23 мая, 22:19

Biological origins of color categorization [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

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The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of...

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23 мая, 22:19

Functional genomics in Brugia malayi reveal diverse muscle nAChRs and differences between cholinergic anthelmintics [Pharmacology]

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Many techniques for studying functional genomics of important target sites of anthelmintics have been restricted to Caenorhabditis elegans because they have failed when applied to animal parasites. To overcome these limitations, we have focused our research on the human nematode parasite Brugia malayi, which causes elephantiasis. Here, we combine single-cell...

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23 мая, 22:19

Intersectin 1 is a component of the Reelin pathway to regulate neuronal migration and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus [Neuroscience]

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Brain development and function depend on the directed and coordinated migration of neurons from proliferative zones to their final position. The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is an important factor directing neuronal migration. Loss of Reelin function results in the severe developmental disorder lissencephaly and is associated with neurological diseases in humans....

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23 мая, 22:19

Metaplasticity mechanisms restore plasticity and associativity in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease [Neuroscience]

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Dynamic regulation of plasticity thresholds in a neuronal population is critical for the formation of long-term plasticity and memory and is achieved by mechanisms such as metaplasticity. Metaplasticity tunes the synapses to undergo changes that are necessary prerequisites for memory storage under physiological and pathological conditions. Here we discovered that,...

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23 мая, 22:19

Heritability analysis with repeat measurements and its application to resting-state functional connectivity [Neuroscience]

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Heritability, defined as the proportion of phenotypic variation attributable to genetic variation, provides important information about the genetic basis of a trait. Existing heritability analysis methods do not discriminate between stable effects (e.g., due to the subject’s unique environment) and transient effects, such as measurement error. This can lead to...

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23 мая, 22:19

Social propinquity in rodents as measured by tube cooccupancy differs between inbred and outbred genotypes [Neuroscience]

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Existing assays of social interaction are suboptimal, and none measures propinquity, the tendency of rodents to maintain close physical proximity. These assays are ubiquitously performed using inbred mouse strains and mutations placed on inbred genetic backgrounds. We developed the automatable tube cooccupancy test (TCOT) based on propinquity, the tendency of...

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23 мая, 22:19

Structural basis for spumavirus GAG tethering to chromatin [Microbiology]

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The interactions between a retrovirus and host cell chromatin that underlie integration and provirus expression are poorly understood. The prototype foamy virus (PFV) structural protein GAG associates with chromosomes via a chromatin-binding sequence (CBS) located within its C-terminal region. Here, we show that the PFV CBS is essential and sufficient...

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23 мая, 22:19

Combined HMG-COA reductase and prenylation inhibition in treatment of CCM [Medical Sciences]

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Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular anomalies that develop in the central nervous system and, more rarely, the retina. The lesions can cause headache, seizures, focal neurological deficits, and hemorrhagic stroke. Symptomatic lesions are treated according to their presentation; however, targeted pharmacological therapies that improve the outcome of CCM...

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23 мая, 22:19

Microbiota promotes systemic T-cell survival through suppression of an apoptotic factor [Immunology and Inflammation]

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Symbiotic microbes impact the severity of a variety of diseases through regulation of T-cell development. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which this is accomplished. Here we report that a secreted factor, Erdr1, is regulated by the microbiota to control T-cell apoptosis. Erdr1 expression was identified by...

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23 мая, 22:19

Autoantibody-induced internalization of CNS AQP4 water channel and EAAT2 glutamate transporter requires astrocytic Fc receptor [Immunology and Inflammation]

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Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel-specific IgG distinguishes neuromyelitis optica (NMO) from multiple sclerosis and causes characteristic immunopathology in which central nervous system (CNS) demyelination is secondary. Early events initiating the pathophysiological outcomes of IgG binding to astrocytic AQP4 are poorly understood. CNS lesions reflect events documented in vitro following IgG interaction...

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23 мая, 22:19

Uric acid priming in human monocytes is driven by the AKT-PRAS40 autophagy pathway [Immunology and Inflammation]

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Metabolic triggers are important inducers of the inflammatory processes in gout. Whereas the high serum urate levels observed in patients with gout predispose them to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, soluble urate also primes for inflammatory signals in cells responding to gout-related stimuli, but also in other common...

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23 мая, 22:19

Shelterin components mediate genome reorganization in response to replication stress [Genetics]

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The dynamic nature of genome organization impacts critical nuclear functions including the regulation of gene expression, replication, and DNA damage repair. Despite significant progress, the mechanisms responsible for reorganization of the genome in response to cellular stress, such as aberrant DNA replication, are poorly understood. Here, we show that fission...