Источник
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RSS feed -- current issue
Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Defect engineering using crystal symmetry [Physics]

  • 0

Defects in solids can be broadly classified based on their dimensionality (1). Zero-dimensional defects (point defects) arise as a consequence of entropy considerations (configurational entropy) and thus are thermodynamically required in any material. One-dimensional defects such as dislocations are not required by thermodynamics but arise anyway as a consequence of...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Infrastructure to enable deployment of carbon capture, utilization, and storage in the United States [Sustainability Science]

  • 0

In February 2018, the United States enacted significant financial incentives for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) that will make capture from the lowest-capture-cost sources economically viable. The largest existing low-capture-cost opportunity is from ethanol fermentation at biorefineries in the Midwest. An impediment to deployment of carbon capture at ethanol...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Gain control explains the effect of distraction in human perceptual, cognitive, and economic decision making [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

  • 0

When making decisions, humans are often distracted by irrelevant information. Distraction has a different impact on perceptual, cognitive, and value-guided choices, giving rise to well-described behavioral phenomena such as the tilt illusion, conflict adaptation, or economic decoy effects. However, a single, unified model that can account for all these phenomena...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Infants distinguish between leaders and bullies [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

  • 0

We examined whether 21-month-old infants could distinguish between two broad types of social power: respect-based power exerted by a leader (who might be an authority figure with legitimate power, a prestigious individual with merited power, or some combination thereof) and fear-based power exerted by a bully. Infants first saw three...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Altered ER-mitochondria contact impacts mitochondria calcium homeostasis and contributes to neurodegeneration in vivo in disease models [Applied Biological Sciences]

  • 0

Calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is essential for neuronal function and survival. Altered Ca2+ homeostasis has been consistently observed in neurological diseases. How Ca2+ homeostasis is achieved in various cellular compartments of disease-relevant cell types is not well understood. Here we show in Drosophila Parkinson’s disease (PD) models that Ca2+ transport from...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Structural elements required for coupling ion and substrate transport in the neurotransmitter transporter homolog LeuT [Biochemistry]

  • 0

The coupled transport of ions and substrates allows transporters to accumulate substrates using the energy of transmembrane ion gradients and electrical potentials. During transport, conformational changes that switch accessibility of substrate and ion binding sites from one side of the membrane to the other must be controlled so as to...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Photoaffinity-engineered protein scaffold for systematically exploring native phosphotyrosine signaling complexes in tumor samples [Biochemistry]

  • 0

Phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-regulated protein complexes play critical roles in cancer signaling. The systematic characterization of these protein complexes in tumor samples remains a challenge due to their limited access and the transient nature of pTyr-mediated interactions. We developed a hybrid chemical proteomics approach, termed Photo-pTyr-scaffold, by engineering Src homology 2 (SH2)...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

14-3-3ϵa directs the pulsatile transport of basal factors toward the apical domain for lumen growth in tubulogenesis [Biochemistry]

  • 0

The Ciona notochord has emerged as a simple and tractable in vivo model for tubulogenesis. Here, using a chemical genetics approach, we identified UTKO1 as a selective small molecule inhibitor of notochord tubulogenesis. We identified 14-3-3εa protein as a direct binding partner of UTKO1 and showed that 14-3-3εa knockdown leads...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Fc{alpha}RI binding at the IgA1 CH2-CH3 interface induces long-range conformational changes that are transmitted to the hinge region [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

  • 0

IgA effector functions include proinflammatory immune responses triggered upon clustering of the IgA-specific receptor, FcαRI, by IgA immune complexes. FcαRI binds to the IgA1–Fc domain (Fcα) at the CH2–CH3 junction and, except for CH2 L257 and L258, all side-chain contacts are contributed by the CH3 domain. In this study, we...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Structure of the membrane proximal external region of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

  • 0

The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) bears epitopes of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) from infected individuals; it is thus a potential vaccine target. We report an NMR structure of the MPER and its adjacent transmembrane domain in bicelles that mimic a lipid-bilayer membrane. The MPER...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

A cancer-associated polymorphism in ESCRT-III disrupts the abscission checkpoint and promotes genome instability [Cell Biology]

  • 0

Cytokinetic abscission facilitates the irreversible separation of daughter cells. This process requires the endosomal-sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and is tightly regulated by charged multivesicular body protein 4C (CHMP4C), an ESCRT-III subunit that engages the abscission checkpoint (NoCut) in response to mitotic problems such as persisting chromatin bridges...

Выбор редакции
18 сентября, 19:52

Evolution of metazoan morphological disparity [Evolution]

  • 0

The animal kingdom exhibits a great diversity of organismal form (i.e., disparity). Whether the extremes of disparity were achieved early in animal evolutionary history or clades continually explore the limits of possible morphospace is subject to continuing debate. Here we show, through analysis of the disparity of the animal kingdom,...