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30 декабря 2013, 09:00

Addressing climate change in fragile states : an example from Yemen

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It is predicted that the effects of climate change, especially extreme floods and droughts, will significantly affect the world's fragile and least developed countries. Yemen, with its struggling economy and various levels of fagility and conflict, faces daunting development challenges. Challenged with diminishing water resources, increasing reliance on agriculture half of which is rain-fed and frequent floods and droughts, Yemenis face the daunting task of coping with the potentially devastating effects of climate variability and further climate change as the growth of global greenhouse gas emissions continues apace. It is estimated that climate change induced price increases will increase agricultural gross domestic product (GDP), while decreasing real household incomes and food security. Yemen has approached this task by creating a strategic program for climate resilience, encouraging donor support for climate related projects, and requiring cross-government implementation of climate-smart policies. The pilot program for climate resilience (PPCR) is making the first significant investment in Yemen. The program is demonstrating ways in which climate risk and resilience can be incorporated into developmental planning and the daily decisions of people.

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30 декабря 2013, 09:00

Iraq - Emergency School Construction and Rehabilitation Project

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Ratings for the Emergency School Construction and Rehabilitation Project for Iraq were as follows: outcomes were moderately satisfactory, risk to development outcome was moderate, Bank performance was moderately satisfactory, and Grantee performance was moderately satisfactory. Some lessons learned included: development progress in conflict-affected environments is rarely predictable or linear and cannot be fully mitigated through design. In fragile situations where conventional supervision missions are not possible a Fiduciary Management Agent (FMA) can help provide implementation support. In fragile states, the World Bank should always assume low institutional capacity and high turnover, and the design of emergency projects in conflict affected situations should be very simple, manageable in scope, and suitable to context, with a primary focus on outputs. An early restructuring may be advisable whenever a project implementation is faced with major and persistent difficulties that seem to resist all attempts to remedy. While the World Development Report (WDR) 2011 notes that institutional development is a generational proposition, emergency responses can successfully develop pockets of institutional capacity over the short-term. In civil works projects, disbursement mechanisms need to be designed in ways that facilitate project implementation and that do not expose contractors to cash flow problems.

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30 декабря 2013, 09:00

Mainstreaming citizen engagement in the Middle East and North Africa region : a briefing note

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This brief provides an introduction to the issue of citizen engagement (CE) as well as the piloting of the agenda in the Bank's Middle East and North Africa (MNA) region. The objective is to develop sustainable country systems for CE. It includes participation of citizens in all spheres of development, whether the making of policies and decisions that affect citizens, the formulation and execution of budgets, or delivery of public services. At the policy, program, and project level, CE work includes strengthening government-citizen interaction and results through citizen-beneficiary consultation, participation, and collaboration in all aspects of projects, programs, or policies. As part of its new strategy, the World Bank Group (WBG) has committed to mainstreaming CE in country engagements and operations to achieve improved development results through participatory planning, management and monitoring, participatory budgeting, and grievance mechanisms. Citizen movements globally and in MNA have mobilized to demand greater voice and participation in decisions affecting their lives in places where they are not heard or given opportunities to engage. CE brings dividends at the national and subnational, as well as project levels. The WBG is developing a strategy to scale up the use of CE principles, mechanisms, and processes in its engagement with non-state actors, as well as with government counterparts.

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