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20 января, 12:32

China launches targeted RRR cuts to bolster liquidity

THE People’s Bank of China cut reserve ratios for big banks temporarily amid liquidity tightness, the central bank said today. The PBOC has cut the reserve requirement ratio (RRR) for those big lenders

17 января, 19:01

Closer ties with HK

SHANGHAI should strengthen financial sector cooperation with Hong Kong to improve the economies of both cities, Tse Yung Hoi, chairman of Bank of China International-Prudential Asset Management Ltd, said

16 января, 19:01

Yuan funds for forex drop in December

THE central bank’s yuan funds outstanding for foreign exchange declined again in December as capital outflow continued. The funds declined 317.8 billion yuan (US$46.1 billion) in December month on month

15 января, 15:02

Why Trump's Contempt For The Emoluments Clause Matters

As many people have pointed out, President-elect Donald Trump has a problem: It’s called Article 1, Section 9, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution, better known as the “Emoluments Clause.” It says this: “No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.” “The idea behind the clause is pretty intuitive,” Harvard Law professor Noah Feldman notes at Bloomberg View. “If federal officials can be compensated by foreign governments, they can be bought.” He adds: “It’s pretty clear that the clause was intended to stop foreign governments from currying favor with federal officials through gifts.” But Trump’s massive business holdings ― more than 500 different corporate entities around the world ― and his refusal to sell them before he takes office places him on a collision course with the Constitution. The Trump International Hotel in Washington is one of the more talked-about entities in which the incoming president will run afoul of this constitutional stipulation. The $800-a-night showpiece was already a source of ethical woes for Trump, owing to the fact that the building is leased from the government, which by law is prohibited from renting property to officials in said government. This means that as soon as Trump is sworn into office, he will technically be on both sides of the lease, as both tenant and landlord. But we digress. The more serious issue with the new hotel is that representatives of foreign governments could decide to book rooms as a way of currying favor with the Trump administration, which is already happening. And despite the efforts of Trump’s tax attorney, Sheri Dillon — who this week said that Trump would give away the profits (after expenses) his hotels made from foreign governments ― big concerns remain about foreign money flowing through Trump’s resorts. All the attention this week to Trump’s plan for avoiding profiting from foreign delegations at his hotels only served to distract from the real news that came out of his press conference on Wednesday: Trump is not planning to do anything to keep foreign influence from flowing into the other 500-plus companies he owns. Here’s the thing: The Trump Organization is not one, single corporate entity that can be said to be “Trump Inc.” Instead, the president-elect’s business empire is made up of hundreds of individual LLCs, each housing assets that range from a high-rise in Uruguay to a helicopter in Manhattan. Judging from Trump’s financial disclosure forms, scores of these companies are basically dormant ― little more than a name on a piece of paper and a license to sell stuff. This is fairly common in commercial real estate, where deals can take decades to finalize, and where partnerships can run into trouble during periods of recession and spring back to life when times are good. Trump’s own development of Manhattan’s West Side Yards — which Trump has said was the “best deal” he ever made — took years to develop, and was dormant for several years after Trump and then-Mayor Ed Koch got into a scrap in the late 1980s over tax abatements, which Koch ultimately refused to provide. While the development was on hold, Trump received an offer from fellow developer William Zeckendorf Jr. in 1989 to buy the property, but Trump wouldn’t sell, even though Zeckendorf offered nearly four times what Trump paid to acquire it. It wasn’t until 1994 that Trump’s creditors forced him to sell. (The property ended up in the hands of Hong Kong developers, who used Trump’s name on some of the buildings; he eventually walked away with minority stakes in a pair of office buildings now worth $640 million.) Now that we know Trump has hundreds of paper companies in dozens of countries, it’s time to revisit the Emoluments Clause from a new angle. Take, for example, Trump’s two inactive companies in Egypt — Trump Marks Egypt Corp. and Trump Marks Egypt LLC. Both were incorporated in 2007, but currently exist in a form of suspended animation. Egypt, like many developing countries, has high levels of public corruption, and low rates of prosecution for high-ranking officials accused of misusing government funds. In this environment, it’s not a stretch to see how it might be in the interest of the Egyptian state to revive Trump Marks Egypt Corp., in the hopes that doing business with Trump’s sons in Egypt could help strengthen the fragile government’s relationship with an American administration that currently provides Egypt with $1.46 billion a year in foreign aid. I mean, it’s hard to make the argument, if you’re Egypt, that you should do anything but revive the deal you struck years ago to do who-knows-what with Donald Trump. In order to shield the fact that such a deal was being financed with government funds, in many parts of the world it would be relatively easy to pass the money through a corporate entity run by an ally of the current leadership. Heck, that kind of stuff already happens all the time! As it happens, Trump’s lawyer’s only assurance in this regard was that his “company would make no new foreign deals,” which leaves the door open for Trump to reap riches off any foreign deals set up in the past. Whether they’re lying dormant, were put on hold for a minute, or are furiously being negotiated in the eight weeks between Trump’s election and his inauguration, these projects all share one thing in common: They could technically be considered ongoing business matters that existed prior to Trump taking the oath of office. If any of these foreign deals suddenly come back to life during Trump’s presidency, it’s safe to assume Trump’s attorneys would argue that they were pre-existing business affairs, like his D.C. hotel and his Manhattan skyscrapers — not new deals struck between Trump’s family members (who want to make money), and state actors (who want a business partner in the Oval Office). “The notion that there won’t be new deals doesn’t solve the problem of all the existing businesses,” Walter Shaub, director of the Office of Government Ethics (whom congressional Republicans are now threatening to subpoena), noted this week.  Although Trump has announced that he will be handing off these affairs to his two eldest sons, the president-elect cannot unknow the existence of his hundreds of shell companies or his stalled overseas deals, any more than he can forget that he has two grown sons. While Trump insists he will not discuss these matters with his adult children, there’s no way to either police or enforce this promise. In case you weren’t already freaking out, consider this. Just as foreign favor-seekers can look for ways to enlarge Trump’s empire, they can also threaten to shrink it as well. As The New York Times reported in November: And in Turkey, officials including President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, a religiously conservative Muslim, demanded that Mr. Trump’s name be removed from Trump Towers in Istanbul after he called for a ban on Muslims entering the United States. More recently, after Mr. Trump came to the defense of Mr. Erdogan — suggesting that he had the right to crack down harshly on dissidents after a failed coup — the calls for action against Trump Towers have stopped, fueling worries that Mr. Trump’s policies toward Turkey might be shaped by his commercial interests. Mr. Trump has acknowledged a conflict of interest in Turkey. “I have a little conflict of interest because I have a major, major building in Istanbul,” he said during a radio interview last year with Stephen K. Bannon, the Breitbart News executive who has since been designated his chief White House strategist. “It’s a tremendously successful job. It’s called Trump Towers — two towers, instead of one. Not the usual one. It’s two.” And even here, we’ve only begun to scratch the surface of the constitutional conflicts. In addition to the aforementioned entanglements, Norm Eisen (who served as a presidential ethics adviser in the Obama administration), Richard Painter (who served in the same capacity for President George W. Bush), and Laurence Tribe (constitutional law professor at Harvard University) outline several more in a paper published by the Brookings Institution in December, titled, “The Emoluments Clause: Its Text, Meaning, and Application to Donald J. Trump.” According to Eisen, et al., areas of concern include: “Shortly before the election, President Duterte of the Philippines named Jose E.B. Antonio, a business partner of Mr. Trump and founder of a company behind Trump Tower Manila, as a special envoy to the United States.” “The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China ― owned by the People’s Republic of China ― is the single largest tenant in Trump Tower. Its valuable lease will expire, and thus come up for re-negotiation, during Mr. Trump’s presidency.” Trump’s businesses owe hundreds of millions to Deutsche Bank, which in December agreed to a $7.2 billion settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice ― “a settlement that will now be overseen by an Attorney General and many other appointees selected by and serving at the pleasure of Mr. Trump.” The authors’ overall assessment is very straightforward: Wholly apart from any quid pro quo arrangements of demonstrable bribes or payoffs, the Emoluments Clause will be violated whenever a foreign diplomat stays in a Trump hotel or hosts a reception in one; whenever foreign-owned banks offer loans to Mr. Trump’s businesses or pay rent for office space in his buildings; whenever projects are jump-started or expedited or licensed or otherwise advantaged because Mr. Trump is associated with them; whenever foreign prosecutors and regulators treat a Trump entity favorably; and whenever the Trump Organization makes a profit on a business transaction with any foreign state or foreign-owned entity. Despite what you’ve just read, all is not lost. There is one more avenue of influence that could be exerted over the incoming president and his future foreign business partners: Public pressure from public exposure. That’s right, folks, the crooked media with its fake news and its rude questions might just be our last, best hope to stop the president from becoming the world’s most popular business partner. Indeed, two such projects have already fallen victim to the hot glare of investigative reporting: The first was a Trump-branded resort on the Black Sea in Batumi, Georgia. The second was a Trump-branded office tower in Buenos Aires. Both of these developments were briefly revived in the weeks after the election — but have since been canceled. In all likelihood, the media attention on strained U.S. relations with the countries where these deals were situated likely played a role in killing them.. But if reporters are the last, best hope, we’ve got to do a much better job than we’ve been doing these past few weeks. Case in point: Given the opportunity to probe the president-elect and his attorney on foreign business dealings at this week’s press conference, only one reporter opted to do so, weakly inquiring, “What is your response to your critics who say not only you, but also your Cabinet is filled with conflicts of interest?” If that’s the best the media can do, then Trump and his family are poised to make billions of dollars by running roughshod over the Constitution. ~~~~~  Christina Wilkie is a White House reporter for the Huffington Post, where she covers the incoming Trump administration. Jason Linkins edits “Eat The Press” for The Huffington Post and co-hosts the HuffPost Politics podcast “So, That Happened.” Subscribe here, and listen to the latest episode below.  -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

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13 января, 21:14

Турецкий банковский регулятор разрешил Bank of China открыть депозитный банк в Турции

Турецкое Агентство банковского регулирования и надзора (BDDK) разрешило Bank of China открыть депозитный банк в Турции для осуществления операций на территории страны. Об этом говорится в сообщении на сайте регулятора.Уставный капитал банка в турецких лирах будет эквивалентен $300 млн.В заявлении BDDK...

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13 января, 19:45

Defusing risks on customers’ money

China’s central bank has ordered third-party payment platforms to put part of their customer provisions in specific official accounts to reduce financial risks. From April 17, non-bank payment institutions

12 января, 19:01

Firms fuel rise in new yuan loans

BANKS in China lent more than expected in December, with analysts saying that this signaled a recovery in corporate demand. New yuan loans stood at 1.04 trillion yuan (US$151 billion) in December, 446.6

11 января, 19:01

Bets on Bitcoin: a bit of luck, a bite of risk

IT’S been a great start to the New Year for Kevin Sun. He raked in about 5 million yuan (US$724,630) in the first days of January by shorting bitcoins just before the price of the digital currency plunged

11 января, 19:01

Bets on bitcoin: a bit of luck, a bite of risk

IT’S been a great start to the New Year for Kevin Sun. He raked in about 5 million yuan (US$724,630) in the first days of January by shorting bitcoins just before the price of the digital currency plunged

11 января, 19:01

PBOC starts checks on Bitcoin exchanges

CHINA’S central bank yesterday launched spot checks on leading Bitcoin exchanges in Beijing and Shanghai, pulling the price of the cryptocurrency down over 12 percent against the US dollar. The People’s

10 января, 19:01

No need to panic for China’s forex reserve drop

DESPITE continued drops in China's foreign exchange (forex) reserves, economists believe there is no need to panic as reserves are still abundant for the country to fend off external risks. Forex reserves

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10 января, 19:01

Chinese bank picks blockchain

THE Postal Savings Bank of China said yesterday that it has become the first Chinese bank to use blockchain. A PSBC asset-management system using blockchain allows real-time information sharing and enhanced

10 января, 05:40

China consumer prices up 2% in 2016

CHINA'S producer price growth beat market expectations in December supported by rising commodity prices and robust demand, while consumer inflation remained mild, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS)

08 января, 19:01

Forex reserves drop US$320b last year

China’s foreign exchange reserves fell to near six-year lows in December, but held just above the critical US$3 trillion level.

06 января, 19:45

Bitcoin falls again after PBOC warning

BITCOIN plunged another 12 percent yesterday after China's central bank urged investors to take a rational approach to the digital currency, which is on track for its heaviest two-day falls in two years. Bitcoin

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06 января, 19:45

China’s monetary policy to be prudent and neutral

CHINA’S monetary policy will be kept prudent and neutral in 2017, said a central bank statement issued yesterday, echoing the tone set at the Central Economic Work Conference. In the statement issued

06 января, 19:45

Offshore yuan set for biggest weekly increase

CHINA’S offshore yuan pared some of its sharp gains racked up this week, but is still on course for its biggest weekly rise. Both onshore and offshore yuan have been rallying, driven predominantly by

05 января, 19:01

Yuan’s rise knocks the wind out of US dollar

SOME of the biggest gains on record for the yuan sent currency markets spinning yesterday, driving the US dollar broadly lower and threatening to quash one of the central bets of global investors for

05 января, 02:13

The Markets Say Farewell To An Eventful 2016

The S&P 500 traded 10.5% lower during the first 28 days of 2016, the worst-ever start to a year. However, after turning on a dime in February U.S. stocks never looked back, with the S&P posting a nearly 10% annual gain. If stocks continue on their upward trajectory in 2017, a nine-year bull market would set an all-time record. It was anything but a smooth road. This year brought political upheaval unprecedented in the post-World War II globalist movement. Most notably (as you might have heard), the U.K. voted to leave the European Union and Donald Trump pulled off a shocking victory in the U.S. presidential election. Both surprises shook up global markets, but not in the way analysts predicted. The pound plummeted versus the dollar but the dislocation hasn't yet significantly harmed the real U.K. economy and British equity indexes are trading at fresh highs. U.S. stocks did not recoil from Trump's electoral victory, instead setting a record for election-to-year-end gains. The biggest move came in U.S. bond markets, where the 30-year treasury bull market appears on life support as investors anticipate inflationary policies from the incoming administration. The "Trump Trade" cooled off in the last two weeks of the year, however, with stocks digesting rapid gains and bonds moderating after a steep decline. Great uncertainty remains in Europe, where elections in France and Germany next year will reveal the full extent of Euroskepticism on the continent. Yields on 10-year German and U.K. government bonds fell Thursday to their lowest levels since the U.S. election at 0.18% and 1.24%, respectively. Growing central bank divergence, with the ECB announcing new stimulus and Federal Reserve tightening monetary policy, is contributing to decreasing global market correlation. An imminent banking crisis in Italy appears to have been averted, but without more substantial growth the entire European banking system remains a ticking time bomb. The most compelling economic and geopolitical story in 2017 will almost certainly revolve around China. The world's most populous country bankrolled an economic boom with high levels of debt and leverage, with which the government is now forced to reckon. Beijing is trying to split the baby between simultaneously liberalizing the economy and maintaining economic stability, but those two factors are increasingly mutually exclusive. Adjustments will likely be gradual in the first half of the year with President Xi Jinping prioritizing growth ahead of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, where he is expected to replace a slew of retiring Politburo Standing Committee members with trusted lieutenants. After that, the biggest questions are whether his government will consider ripping the band-aid off with a large one-time yuan devaluation and opening the door to greater foreign direct investment. If 2016 is any indication, the next 12 months will almost certainly not disappoint when it comes to gripping storylines and investable surprises. Now, for a recap of the final week of the year... China Takes Baby Steps Toward Accepting Economic Realities China continues to prioritize economic stability while taking baby steps toward liberalization. According to Societe Generale, China will abandon its rigid 6.5% GDP growth target sometime in the next two years in favor of a guidance range with lower bounds dipping as low as 5.5%. Such a move would offer evidence of the government's willingness to accept lower growth if it means dealing with the sour debt overhang plaguing the country's banking system. The People's Bank of China (PBoC) also announced it is adjusting the mix of foreign currencies used in setting the yuan's daily value. Because of the dollar's extraordinary strength, the central bank has been forced to burn through a trillion dollars in foreign exchange reserves to maintain its peg. By adding 11 new currencies to the basket (for a total of 24) and reducing the weighting of the dollar from 26.4% to 22.4%, the PBoC will slow the headline depreciation figures for the renminbi. However, in reality the move allows the central bank to more quietly ease the value of the currency against the dollar. The Chinese government is hoping to stop the cycle of currency depreciation and capital outflows. Investors will be closely watching capital accounts in January as the clock resets on foreign exchange quotas. Chinese citizens are permitted to convert up to $50,000 worth of yuan per year. Given the rising popularity of alternative strategies (like buying bitcoin) for moving money out of the country, analysts expect a fresh wave of cash outflows. The pace at which China is burning through foreign exchange reserves to support the yuan is unsustainable, and tighter capital controls can't solve the problem. The currency fell 7% against the dollar this year to levels not seen since before the global financial crisis. The ratio of M2 broad money to forex reserves rose this year from 6.3 to 7.4, with sharp increases typically foreshadowing economic crises in emerging market economies. In recent years the Chinese economy has relied on capital inflows to boost the money supply, but that trend has reversed markedly. Meanwhile, Chinese debt-to-GDP has spiked from 150% in 2008 to nearly 290% today, according to McKinsey estimates, further eroding confidence. The Chinese government needs to come up with a plan to move non-performing loans off bank balance sheets, recapitalize its financial system, close the debt spigot, shutter zombie companies and more closely crack down on opaque securitization in its shadow banking industry, which in itself Moody's estimates at around 80% of GDP. However, President Xi is unlikely to take such extreme measures before his expected consolidation of power in the fall. The Chinese government is inching toward one solution for reversing capital flows: opening up its economy to more foreign direct investment. Beijing unveiled plans Friday to allow greater foreign investment in banking, insurance, securities and credit-rating firms. The announcement was short on details like extent and time-frame, but most expect the 49% cap on foreign ownership in non-critical financial companies to be eased. Economically, conditions in China are improving slowly as industrial profits climbed 14.5%, led by coal and metals, mainly due to higher prices. Militarily, China continues to flex its muscles ahead of President-elect Trump's January inauguration. China's lone aircraft carrier has been prowling the Pacific. A trade war is more likely than a naval battle, but both the United States and China have a lot to lose if economic cooperation diminishes in the coming years. Italy Provides Details On Bank Bailout We now know what the Monte dei Paschi di Siena (MPS) bailout will look like, and it's going to require more money than originally thought. The Italian government will have to inject around 6.5 billion euros into the country's oldest and third-largest lender after the European Central Bank (ECB) revised the bank's estimated capital shortfall up from 5 billion to 8.8 billion euros. The ECB's Supervisory Board came up with the higher figure in a special meeting to determine how much liquidity MPS would need to meet minimum capital requirement thresholds. The Italian government will have around a 70% stake in MPS after the bailout. To fill the remaining gap while staying within bounds of European banking rules, Monte dei Paschi will raise an additional 2.3 billion euros by converting subordinated bonds held by institutional investors into equity. As part of the plan, the Italian government will reimburse the roughly 40,000 retail investors holding an estimated 2 billion euros worth of Monte dei Paschi junior debt. Those investors will be able to swap their new shares for senior bonds, then the government will buy back shares from MPS. EU officials have reportedly signed off on the deal. With the bailout agreement ratified, Monte dei Paschi plans to further boost confidence and liquidity by issuing 15 billion euros worth of debt in 2017. The bonds, two-thirds of which mature in three years, will be supported by government guarantees. The liquidity scheme requires special approval from EU finance officials on a case-by-case basis, but the European Commission has reportedly agreed to extend the window for six months. The final third of the debt raise will come in the form of short-term commercial paper. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

03 января, 19:01

Yuan falls again while new rules taken calmly

THE yuan weakened again yesterday against the US dollar while the market responded calmly to new rules on tighter inspection of Chinese residents’ purchase and transfer of foreign exchange. The yuan

03 марта 2016, 21:04

Bank of Сhina предоставит «Газпрому» рекордный кредит: €2 млрд на 5 лет

Гости: замдиректор Института Дальнего Востока РАН Андрей Островский; политолог Дмитрий Орешкин; зампред комитета Госдумы по конституционному законодательству и госстроительству Вадим Соловьёв. Подпишитесь на канал РБК: http://www.youtube.com/user/tvrbcnews?sub_confirmation=1 ------------------------ Получайте новости РБК в социальных сетях: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/rbc.ru Twitter: https://twitter.com/ru_rbc ВКонтакте: https://vk.com/rbc Одноклассники: http://ok.ru/rbc

22 сентября 2014, 17:22

IPO китайской Alibaba установило мировой рекорд

Первичное публичное размещение акций (IPO) китайской Alibaba официально стало крупнейшим в истории, после того как банки-организаторы исполнили опцион «green shoe» – право разместить дополнительные акции в условиях высокого спроса. Андеррайтеры IPO (35 банков) продали 48 млн акций, исполнив опцион в полном объеме, сообщила компания в пресс-релизе. В результате сумма размещения увеличилась на 15% – до $25 млрд – и на те же 15% увеличились комиссионные банков. Предыдущий мировой рекорд принадлежал также китайскому эмитенту: в 2010 году Agricultural Bank of China провел IPO на $22,1 млрд (с учетом опциона). Гигант электронной коммерции Alibaba разместился в Нью-Йорке в минувшую пятницу: компания и акционеры продали 320 млн бумаг (около 13% уставного капитала) по $68 за штуку. Весь бизнес был оценен в $168 млрд. Дебют Alibaba на Нью-йоркской фондовой бирже, как и ожидалось, оказался сверхудачным: в первый день акции подорожали на 38% (до $93,9), а рыночная капитализация достигла $231 млрд. Ни одна компания до этого не росла так сильно в первый день торгов после IPO размером от $10 млрд, проверил Bloomberg. Банки-андеррайтеры могли реализовать опцион до 15 октября по цене размещения ($68 за акцию). На практике банки выкупают бумаги у эмитента с небольшой скидкой к цене IPO, зарабатывая на этой разнице. В сделке Alibaba скидки и комиссионные андеррайтерам составили 1,2% от суммы размещения, раскрыла компания в понедельник в финальной версии проспекта IPO. Это означает, что банки заработали $300 млн. В размещении участвовало 35 банков, а ключевую роль играли шесть – Citigroup, Credit Suisse, Deutsche Bank, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan Chase и Morgan Stanley (совместные букраннеры). К рекордному IPO хотели быть причастны абсолютно все ведущие инвестбанки, но трем – Bank of America, UBS и Barclays – пришлось уйти в сторону: ранее в этом году они вели IPO китайского ретейлера JD.com (конкурента Alibaba), получился конфликт интересов. Из 48 млн доразмещенных акций 26,1 млн пришлись на долю самой Alibaba, 18,3 млн – на долю американской Yahoo. Основатель Alibaba, председатель совета директоров Джек Ма дополнительно реализовал 2,7 млн бумаг, а вице-председатель Джозеф Тсаи – 903 тыс. Таким образом, Yahoo увеличила свою выручку от продажи акций Alibaba в рамках IPO до $9,5 млрд, а Джек Ма – до $1 млрд. Alibaba установила не только рекорд по размеру IPO, но и по стоимости компании на IPO, отмечает Dealogic. Оценка Alibaba с учетом опциона «green shoe» составила $169,4 млрд, прежний рекорд удерживал все тот же Agricultural Bank of China с капитализацией $133,4 млрд на IPO. Акции Alibaba на NYSE в понедельник вечером торговались в минусе после впечатляющего пятничного роста. По состоянию на 19:45 мск бумаги подешевели на 4,1% (до $90). Alibaba в цифрах (2013 год): Годовой оборот - $296 млрд Число покупателей - 279 млн человек Число продавцов - 8,5 млн человек Число заказов - 14,5 млрд заказов Иван Ткачев

24 января 2014, 08:14

Под чьим контролем глобальная фин.система?

Не стоит лишний раз теребить рану на Украине, по крайней мере, до поступления новых разведданных. Нефин.сектор достаточно рассмотрел, но что там с банками? Активы публичных банков и инвестиционных фондов планеты (2110 фин.организации) составляют по оценочным данным около 109.2 трлн долл, из которых 90 трлн (82%) приходится на первые 150 банка. 50 самых крупных фин.организаций держат 67 трлн, а первые 25 почти 50 трлн по данным за 2012 год. Здесь не учитываются страховые, пенсионные, ипотечные, взаимные, денежные, хэдж фонды и гос.фонды. И еще. Здесь не учитываются деривативы и забалансовые активы коммерческих банков, что весьма мощно развито в США. Только банки и инвест.банки по данным из корп.отчетов. Вот собственно под чьим контролем глобальная фин.система - крупнейшие банки и инвестфонды с активами свыше 500 млрд на 3 квартал 2013.  Самый крупный банк в мире находится в Китае - Industrial and Commercial Bank of China – уже более 3 трлн долларов активов. Для сравнения наш мега монстр Сбер всего 515 млрд долларов и в конце списка. Удивляет нашествие китайских банков? Ну-ну ) Сейчас 4 китайских банка превзошли таких гигантов, как Citi и Bank of America. Получается, что всего 1% публичных банков держит до половины всех активов глобальной фин.системы. Сейчас в мире 242 банка и инвест.фонда с активами более 50 млрд, 145 с активами более 100 млрд, всего 50 с активами более 500 млрд и 25 банков с активами свыше 1 трлн. Из этих 109 трлн около 62 трлн сосредоточено в 5 странах (США, Китай, Япония, Англия и Франция).  Мои расчеты по США - 16.6 трлн (624 организации) по всем и 12.3 трлн только по коммерческим банкам отчасти совпадают с расчетами ФРС из Z1 http://www.federalreserve.gov/apps/FOF/Guide/P_76_coded.pdf Однако, следует понимать, что говоря о США в расчетах я имею в виду банки, имеющие американскую нац.принадлежность, а сами эти активы распределены по всему миру в различных фин.инструментах, т.е. далеко не только в США. Но из этого выходит, что американские банки не столь огромные по сравнению с тем, насколько выросли китайские? На истории это смотрится еще более невероятно.  В 2007 китайские банки имели немногим более 4 трлн активов и выросли с тех пор в 2.5 раза(!) В 2009 обогнали французские и английские, в прошлом году превзошли японские и в этом году обойдут американские! Всего за один год китайские банки «рожают» больше активов, чем все развитые страны вместе взятые. Активы банков БРИК выросли с 6 трлн в 2007 до 17 трлн в 2013 (!) 11 трлн за 6 лет! Активы Франции, Англии, Германии, Испании, Италии, Швейцарии, Швеции, Нидерландов, Дании, Австрии, Норвегии, Греции, Португалии и Бельгии в совокупности в 2007 были 32.7 трлн долл, а в 2013 32.2 трлн, т.е. упали на пол триллиона. В таблице выборка по ТОП 500 мировых банков и инвест.банков для 30 крупнейших стран.  Но это были данные в долларах, где динамика может искажаться из-за валютного курса. Теперь в нац.валюте, процентное отношение к 2007.  Из 30 крупнейших стран наибольший процентный прирост по отношению к 2007 по настоящий момент в России – в 3.5 раза активы выросли, потом Индия (в 3 раза), в 2.8 раза увеличились активы в Турции, в 2.6 раза – Бразилия и в 2.5 раза у китайских банков. Все в нац.валюте. Сократились в Германии (-3%), Нидерланды (-14%), Бельгия (-30%) Швейцария (-35%). Интересно, что активы греческих банков выросли во многом из-за переоценки активов по причине мощного роста облигаций в 2013 и рекапитализации. Рост активов в США и Японии почти полностью за счет ФРС и Банк Японии, но причем рост активов значительно меньше, чем влили денег. Куда ушли деньги от QE – более 5 трлн, которые раздали банкам? А черт его знает. Основной поток QE ушел в различные забалансовые схемы через ряд жульнических махинаций. Часть на компенсацию убытков, часть на выкуп акций, которые прямым образом не отобразили в балансах. Много мути. ДОП. Из расчета в таблицах выпала Австралия, Ирландия и Южная Африка. Как нибудь потом добавлю. Первичные данные из Eikon