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19 мая, 22:51

Judge Compares Trump's Travel Ban Defense To Case For Japanese-American Incarceration

function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); In the thick of his argument defending President Donald Trump’s travel ban earlier this week, a top lawyer for the Department of Justice was thrown a curveball from a dark period in American history. Richard Paez, a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit, asked Jeffrey Wall, the acting solicitor general, if the government’s case for the executive order banning travelers from six Muslim-majority countries resembled the legal justifications for the displacement and incarceration of Japanese-Americans during World War II. Without addressing the question head-on, Wall rejected the comparison. “This case is not Korematsu, and if it were, I wouldn’t be standing here and the United States would not be defending it,” Wall proclaimed, alluding to the landmark Supreme Court ruling that upheld the conviction of Fred Korematsu, a California man who defied the military exclusion order that forcibly removed and effectively imprisoned 120,000 Japanese-Americans during the war. About two-thirds of those incarcerated were U.S. citizens, and many were children.  Justice Frank Murphy, one of the three justices who dissented in the 1944 Korematsu decision, likened his colleagues’ ruling to the “legalization of racism.” The exchange was a marquee moment during this week’s court hearing — one of two that could decide the fate of Trump’s so-called “Muslim ban.” Trump’s executive order hasn’t been enforced since a pair of federal judges put it on hold after concluding that it was driven by unconstitutional animus against Muslims. The exchange was also a highlight for the Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equality, housed at the law school at Seattle University, which filed one of dozens of friend-of-the-court briefs from around the country opposing Trump’s travel restrictions. In his question to Wall, Judge Paez specifically singled out the arguments laid out in the center’s brief. “The Supreme Court’s decision in Korematsu gave virtually a blank check to the Executive Branch to take action against disfavored minorities in the name of national security,” read the center’s brief, which also listed as signatories Korematsu’s daughter and the children of other Japanese-Americans who challenged the U.S. government’s discriminatory wartime policies in court. For Robert Chang, the executive director of the Korematsu Center, the mention of his team’s work in such a prominent session gave them a thrill they weren’t expecting — and inspired hope that the courts will reclaim their place in the system of checks and balances. “To the extent that this pushes and really reasserts the judiciary and its role as acting as a check of the excesses of Congress and the executive, that’s our democratic system,” Chang said in an interview. Korematsu v. United States — a discredited court decision that affirmed the legality of Japanese-Americans’ wartime incarceration — is not directly implicated in the travel ban challenge filed by the state of Hawaii that is pending before the 9th Circuit. To date, the ruling is an anti-canon in American law: Even though it has never been overturned, there’s wide consensus that it was wrongly decided and should be given no weight as legal precedent. In 1988, the U.S. government formally apologized for Japanese-Americans’ wartime experiences ― saying they were “motivated largely by racial prejudice, wartime hysteria, and a failure of political leadership” ― and issued reparations to survivors. Years later, the Justice Department confessed error over its role in these cases. Still, Korematsu reared its head at two recent court hearings examining the legality of Trump’s executive order, both times at the behest of judges. function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_2'),onPlayerReadyVidible); Last week, James Wynn, a judge on the federal appeals court based in Richmond, Virginia, wondered what would happen if his court accepted one of Trump’s rationales for the travel ban — a blanket assertion by the president that his order is intended to protect the country from foreign threats. “If we followed that line of reasoning, would we think differently of Korematsu now? Can we follow that reasoning?” Wynn asked. “If we don’t lock them all up and something bad happens, then it’s on the president. If we do, then you violate the law.” The balance between protecting national security and constitutional rights is as old as the republic, and the two courts now considering the travel ban could well choose to put those two interests on the scale. But in the travel ban litigation, the Trump administration has pushed courts to not even walk that line, urging them instead to completely defer to the government because judges shouldn’t second-guess the president’s judgment in the immigration realm — where Congress has vested the executive with broad powers to exclude non-citizens. If we followed that line of reasoning, would we think differently of Korematsu now? U.S. Circuit Judge James Wynn In its brief, the Korematsu Center contends that American history teaches the opposite: That government action that paints an entire group with a broad brush should be subject to tough judicial scrutiny, and that anything less would be an abdication of courts’ constitutional role. The Korematsu decision “remains a black mark on our Nation’s history and serves as a stark reminder of the dire consequences that result when abuses by the political branches go unchecked by the Judiciary,” observes the brief. It remains to be seen whether the upcoming rulings will name-check Korematsu. At least one legal scholar has made a case that courts should resist that temptation — in part because there are critical differences, constitutionally speaking, between executive actions that discriminate against U.S. minorities and those that target people outside the U.S. The courts, and eventually the Supreme Court, will settle that and other issues implicated in the travel ban cases. Back at the Korematsu Center — where a picture of Korematsu and Rosa Parks standing together is visible — Chang said the travel ban case reminds him of the center’s broader mission and “serves as a reminder about the courage of ordinary people.” “What I would love for people to learn from Fred and Rosa Parks’ example,” Chang said, “is that change comes about when people say ‘no’ to abuses of power. Change comes about when people say ‘no’ to discrimination.” -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

18 мая, 19:41

The pilgrims of progress who are leading us to self-destruction | Giles Fraser: Loose canon

The word ‘progressive’ is everywhere in politics these days. So how come the planet is hurtling towards environmental catastrophe?I’m sitting at the bottom of my garden, reading Paul Kingsnorth’s astonishing new book, Confessions of a Recovering Environmentalist. It’s too late, he says. There is no way we can reverse the environmental changes that will lead to our destruction. And the very idea of progress, of continual forward momentum, is precisely the engine of our destruction. I start to daydream. My thinking slips sideways. I start puzzling about the Progressive Alliance. What is a progressive? And how are they related to the progress Kingsnorth believes has been destroying our planet?The word “progressive” twists and turns in our political life, constantly shifting its meaning. Tony Blair repurposed the term for those broadly on the left who didn’t want to call themselves socialists. Yet David Cameron was also frequently described that way. Now, however, the term progressive means not Tory. The Progressive Alliance urges tactical voting from Labour, Lib Dem and Green voters, to limit the size of Theresa May’s victory. Being progressive is a big party, and almost everyone is welcome. How about Rick Wakeman, I wonder? After all, he was the poster boy of progressive rock … you remember, interminable keyboard solos by men with long hair and silly silver boots. I know, I’m being slightly facetious. But these days he’s a big donor to the Conservatives. It’s hard to know who progressives would not invite to their party. Continue reading...

17 мая, 15:00

How Blockchain Could Help Emerging Markets Leap Ahead

Much has been made of the potential for blockchain technologies to open up new vistas for business and society. But is there a way for this revolutionary technology to empower the rich and poor alike? We argue that, like previous revolutionary ideas, blockchain has the potential to help developing nations leapfrog more-developed economies. Leapfrogging — using the lack of existing infrastructure as an opportunity to adopt the most advanced methods — has been a highly effective strategy for developing nations over the last few decades. The most visible example of leapfrogging today is in nations like Kenya and South Africa, which have rolled out near-universal telephone access using 3G networks instead of laying down copper cables, and provided internet access by smartphone rather than with desktop PCs. But it’s not just physical infrastructure that can be leapfrogged. One of the 20th century’s most celebrated examples of leapfrogging happened in Japan, when the country recovered from the ravages of World War II by embracing sophisticated new manufacturing techniques. Quality control revolutionized Japanese manufacturing in the 1960s and 1970s, even though the concept could not find a foothold in American manufacturing (although it was originally developed by an American, W. Edwards Deming). Quality control became a cornerstone of industry in Japan, reshaping the country’s national brand around companies known for manufacturing excellence, such as Toyota, Canon, and Nikon. European and American companies had to play catch-up for decades. How Blockchain WorksHere are five basic principles underlying the technology. 1. Distributed Database Each party on a blockchain has access to the entire database and its complete history. No single party controls the data or the information. Every party can verify the records of its transaction partners directly, without an intermediary. 2. Peer-to-Peer Transmission Communication occurs directly between peers instead of through a central node. Each node stores and forwards information to all other nodes. 3. Transparency with Pseudonymity Every transaction and its associated value are visible to anyone with access to the system. Each node, or user, on a blockchain has a unique 30-plus-character alphanumeric address that identifies it. Users can choose to remain anonymous or provide proof of their identity to others. Transactions occur between blockchain addresses. 4. Irreversibility of Records Once a transaction is entered in the database and the accounts are updated, the records cannot be altered, because they’re linked to every transaction record that came before them (hence the term “chain”). Various computational algorithms and approaches are deployed to ensure that the recording on the database is permanent, chronologically ordered, and available to all others on the network. 5. Computational Logic The digital nature of the ledger means that blockchain transactions can be tied to computational logic and in essence programmed. So users can set up algorithms and rules that automatically trigger transactions between nodes. One of today’s most celebrated examples of leapfrogging is the M-Pesa mobile payment system in Kenya and Tanzania, which lets people bank in their national currency using only their phones, leapfrogging traditional banking practices and creating a mobile banking revolution. This in turn boosted development by allowing relatively poor farmers to reliably send and receive payments at affordable rates, fostering economic growth by lowering transaction costs. Research funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has found that mobile money services have lifted 194,000 Kenyans out of poverty, with a particularly large impact in female-headed households. Simply copying the banking systems of the West, which have been built up over centuries, would not have been as easy or as effective for the people of Kenya and Tanzania. An added benefit is that mobile money services such as M-Pesa are more advanced and sophisticated than those found in many developed economies. It simply made more sense to leapfrog the financial infrastructure of the developed world, rather than support outdated legacy systems. Where are the opportunities for developing economies to leapfrog now? India’s Aadhaar biometric ID card system is a great example. It secures transactions by “anchoring” people’s identities, thus facilitating trade. The system assigns a unique 12-digit number to all Indian residents, which is stored in a central database along with biometrics such as fingerprints and iris scans. If someone wants to perform a transaction, such as opening a bank account, they present the card and have their fingerprint or iris scanned. This helps to prove their identity, cutting down on fraud and creating market efficiencies. The system currently serves a billion people. This is by far the largest and most comprehensive adoption of biometrics technology by any government in the world; transactional security is a priority in India. Aadhaar can be used to sign up for new mobile phone service, a process that still requires paper ID in many countries and is frequently subject to fraud. Transactional security extends beyond biometrics, which only secure the last link in a financial transaction; blockchain could secure the entire transactional process. For developing economies, this security is vital for ordinary people who want to trade. Even better, blockchains can spur local high-tech innovation. The natural decentralization of blockchain means that distance to infrastructure like data centers doesn’t matter. Developing nations can build their own technology hubs, and any code created there would be as secure as services created anywhere else in the world. Everywhere is the same to blockchain, which could support home-grown technology industries in many developing countries. Blockchains can also address the most pressing needs of developing-world governments: the modernization and digitization of government functions. The current world leader in blockchain adoption is Dubai, and there is much in Dubai’s approach that could be adopted by developing world nations. The Dubai Blockchain Strategy (disclosure: Vinay is the designer) envisions moving all government documents — more than 100 million documents per year — onto a blockchain by 2020, creating a new platform for innovation and huge cost savings. The approach Dubai is taking to blockchain adoption, with the central government providing services on the blockchain as a way to spur innovation, could be an example for developing countries looking to kick their economic growth into a higher gear by establishing standards of integrity in fundamental systems of trade — particularly where exports require strong evidence about the origins of goods, like coffee or timber. The Internet of Agreements is our technology vision for trade facilitation, building on core concepts in the blockchain space. We believe that any agreement or transaction can be supported by technology, and our vision is simple: global trade, local regulation, and computers handle the red tape. Global trade, with local regulation facilitated by technology, works because technology makes the transaction costs manageable. We don’t necessarily need huge unifying platform agreements like the Trans-Pacific Partnership or even the European Economic Area to reduce the paperwork associated with trade and borders — if we have the right technologies. Blockchains default to being open data, which would allow governments and companies to rapidly learn from, test, and evolve new, more efficient best practices for conducting and facilitating trade. In such a future, the transaction costs of economic activity are drastically reduced in much the same way that the internet reduced the transaction costs of publishing and communication, resulting in the explosion of ideas we associate with it today. The usefulness of blockchain has similar promise. Just getting the costs of regulation and compliance down would open world markets and create wealth, but that doesn’t have to mean changing local regulations. Blockchain has already drawn the attention of the economist Hernando de Soto, who has worked for decades on improving access to the formal economy for the world’s poor. He has commented that the reason poor people don’t have more access to the formal economy is twofold: (1) the record-keeping systems in their developing world countries are unreliable and (2) they won’t give up information about themselves and their transactions because they don’t trust the people they’d be giving it to (i.e., their own governments). “They don’t want to be vulnerable to something that can be used against them,” says de Soto. “And that’s what’s interesting about the tamper-proof blockchain — if you can get the right message about it out there, [people will see] that it’s worthwhile recording yourself.” Because it was explicitly designed to function in an environment where participants cannot necessarily trust each other, blockchain technology is extremely secure. Records held on a blockchain database are immune to being tampered with by third parties, and can thus be authoritative. Smart contracts can provide automatic and predictable execution, again removing the ability for third parties to subvert agreed-upon processes. The benefits for a developing economy are clear: There’s less potential for fraud and corruption, trade becomes more efficient and less costly, government becomes more effective, and local technology hubs can form to build out the infrastructure and export the knowledge gained. If M-Pesa and similar services could lift tens of thousands of people out of poverty, imagine what a full-scale transformation built on blockchain might do. It could create hyperefficient government with provably trustworthy infrastructure; new markets and opportunities for citizens to access the formal economy on equal terms; efficiencies of operations that lower prices and improve the quality of goods for all consumers; and a kickstart to high-tech innovation around the world. All the goods flowing in and out of developing world countries could be tagged. For example, safe medication, protected from fraud, could flow in, while properly harvested wood and safely manufactured goods flow out. Educational records, business histories, health care information, and credit ratings could all be made usable the world over, helping those who want to trade or travel to prove their credentials. Anybody who has ever paid too much for a college transcript or tried to clear a shadow on their credit score can see how systems like this would be helpful in our daily lives. Nations that already have somewhat efficient systems might lack the incentive to adopt blockchain technologies at this time, but the rest of the world may well see an opportunity to innovate on internet time. If they do, the many ways they might leapfrog developed nations are limited only by the imagination of billions of people whose first real access to governance and trade infrastructure will look entirely 21st-century. Those are big dreams, and we should not be surprised if some of the world’s next leading megabrands and global platforms are born far away from the traditional centers of technology development. The future is global, and so is blockchain innovation.

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17 мая, 14:22

How American Gods changed the game for gay sex on TV

Two Muslim men of colour just had a lengthy explicit encounter in the Neil Gaiman adaptation. Gay sex on screen has never been so frank or so vulnerableThroughout the history of media, the portrayal of sex has been consistently met with varying shades of outrage. Yet no graphic depiction has felt the wrath quite like that of homosexuality. This week, American Gods offered up a new addition to the canon – and in terms of male gay sex on television, it was a game-changer: an explicit, frank and deeply intimate moment between two Muslim men of colour. Continue reading...

17 мая, 11:50

Where Russia Is Seen as a Buffer Against the U.S.

As some Americans worry about alleged undue influence from Russia, many Orthodox Christians are anxious about the inverse.

16 мая, 08:19


Оригинал взят у ded6442 в НЕВИДИМАЯ РУКА РЫНКА ИЛИ ПЛАНОВАЯ ЭКОНОМИКА? ЧИСТЕЙШИЙ РАЗВОД ДЛЯ ЛОХОВ.Словосочетание "плановая экономика" заставляет многих у нас биться в припадке, крутить пальцем у виска или осенять себя крестным знамением. Это тоже не чудо, а естественный результат либеральных реформ — как в народном хозяйстве, так и в образовании. Со школьной скамьи нам прививают мысль о том, что плановая экономика неэффективна. Между тем, даже самая рыночная экономика является по сути своей плановой. Хотя бы задним умом это должен понимать любой офисный работник, любой мерчандайзер или сейлс-менеджер.Даже на уровне мелкой фирмы всегда планируются продажи и закупки, планируется сбыт, планируются издержки и прибыли. В микромасштабах каждая фирма — это вообще тоталитарное государство со всеми ненавистными атрибутами: единоличным руководителем (генеральный директор), сдерживающей его партократией (совет директоров), бессловесным народом (сотрудники, рабочая сила), ГУЛАГом (ЧОП, вышибалы, служба безопасности) и, разумеется, Госпланом (от финансового директора до последнего бухгалтера). Назовите фирму или корпорацию любого размера, которая изнутри (а не в своем поведении на рынке) руководствовалась бы принципами свободной конкуренции и демократии?Вот пришлось мне однажды проходить стажировку на американском телеканале NBC (принадлежит Comcast, то есть General Electric). Все началось с принесения полуторатысячным коллективом практикантов (interns) обязательной присяги на верность ее величеству Корпорации в громадном зале головной конторы NBC, разместившейся в похожем на зиккурат небоскребе Rockefeller Plaza. Стены небоскреба, между прочим, украшены изображениями масонских циркулей и цитатами из английского поэта У.Блейка, воспевающими разумное обустройство Вселенной человеком. Но это так, мелкая подробность. Клятва будущих интернов более всего напоминала принесение нашим взводом военной присяги на плацу 32-го военного городка в Екатеринбурге. Худосочная тетка армейским голосом выкрикивает со сцены фамилию за фамилией. Фамилия поднимается и рассказывает, почему она пришла именно на NBC, в лучшую на свете компанию. Затем все дружно смотрят короткий фильм о лучшей на свете компании. Затем несколько раз в форме похожего на ЕГЭ теста разъясняются правила поведения в лучшей на свете компании. Это чтобы не вылететь из неё на следующий день, да еще и с перспективой судебного разбирательства. Солженицын и Оруэлл, Замятин и Хаксли, Лондон и Уэллс не смогли бы покурить в сторонке, потому что курение в радиусе нескольких сотен метров от офиса лучшей на свете компании, конечно же, запрещено.Перед одной из поездок на БАМ мне доводилось бывать в головной конторе нашего Трансстроя, тоталитарном здании с массивными дверями и окнами. Так вот стилистически между сталинскими высотками и небоскребами рокфеллеров нет никакой разницы. И там, и там гигантские проекты, гигантские задачи, требующие непременного планирования. Цели разные. Вектор задач разный. Но механика повседневной жизни корпорации как две капли воды напоминает работу какого-нибудь советского министерства. Вот, скажем, на NBC, в нашем ничтожном по размерам и уровню ответственности подразделении вся съемка производилась на допотопные и медлительные камеры Sony.— Давайте заведем ходя бы один фотоаппарат, к примеру, Canon?— Нет, отвечают, не положено. У General Electric корпоративное соглашение с Sony. Мы получим судебный иск. Полетят головы.И так во всем. Контроль, систематизация, планирование. Контроль, систематизация, планирование. Контроль, систематизация... От общей базы данных, в которой фигурируют все сотрудники Comcast, до субсидирования корпоративных забегаловок.На другой телекомпании, CBS, через которую мы когда-то перегоняли репортажи в Москву:— Не смейте прикасаться к кнопке "Перемотка вперед"!— Почему?— По трудовому соглашению управлять этим магнитофоном может только уполномоченный корпорацией сотрудник.То же самое ведь, ненавистное вам, планирование. Вид сбоку. Просто поскольку на Западе государство, по сути, приватизировано разросшимися до размера государства корпорациями, Госплан там — это КорпПлан. Но без КорпПлана не было бы ни Apple, ни Microsoft, ни Samsung, ни Boeing. Все это, конечно, видят и сами американцы, воспитанные на сказках Айн Рэнд и Мильтона Фридмана. И они, наверное, не могут не замечать, как мало общего осталось между описанным в этих книжках миром свободной конкуренции и миром КорпПлана, где властвуют всесильные ТНК. Однако сделать следующий шаг, осознать, что происходящее — лишь закономерное следствие развития капитализма, результат неотвратимого процесса монополизации/укрупнения капитала, американцы в большинстве своем не в состоянии. Их "левые" бредят о том, что приватизированное государство сможет (если победят демократы) "доить" КорпПлан и получать дополнительные деньги на здравоохранение. Их "правые" бредят о том, что когда-нибудь фарш удастся провернуть назад, сверхкорпорации исчезнут, а на их месте вновь появятся шустрые фермеры и ковбои, со своими маленькими и независимыми деловыми интересами.Вывод, к которому я пытаюсь аккуратно вырулить, состоит в том, что при любом экономическом укладе и общественном строе Госплан в явной или неявной форме существует. Отказываясь от самой идеи планирования (соотнесения отраслевых интересов), регулирования народного хозяйства, мы просто-напросто отдаем свою экономику под контроль другой, более мощной регулирующей системы — КорпПлана. Стремление к укрупнению, рационализации и планированию свойственно всей человеческой цивилизации. Иным способом стоящие перед человечеством задачи (одна из которых — выживание самого человечества) решить невозможно. Мысль о том, что несогласные с доктриной Золотого Тельца/Вавилонской Башни национальные государства смогут закупориться в своих норах и как-то перезимовать — абсурдна и нелепа. Можно либо быть раздавленным или переработанным одним глобальным проектом, либо противопоставить ему свой собственный, но обязательно глобальный. Сталинская идея строительства социализма в отдельно взятом государстве, за которой пытаются спрятаться современные традиционалисты, не являлась ведь окончательной задачей. Это был способ сохранить СССР, дать ему окрепнуть и подняться на ноги, чтобы продолжить движение. В этом смысле ненависть КорпПлана к Госплану, выплеснувшаяся сначала во Второй Мировой, а потом в Холодной Войне, абсолютно рациональна и обоснованна. Боливар не выдержит двоих.Предрассудки о плановой экономикеОднако существует принципиальная разница между проклятым либеральными теоретиками Советским Государственным Планированием и западным Корпоративистским/фашистским планированием. Как уже было сказано, разница эта — в целях. И в средствах. Западный мондиализм замешан на иудео-протестантской, социал-дарвинистской этике. Этике выживания сильнейших/мудрейших. Поскольку ориентированный исключительно на извлечение прибыли капиталистический способ производства неизбежно рождает диспропорции и противоречия (мы чаще называем их кризисами, рецессиями или депрессиями), КорпПлан, со свойственным ему рационализмом, не задумываясь заносит в графу "издержки" миллионы "не вписавшихся в смету" людей. Собственно, Хиросима и Нагасаки нагляднейшим образом это подтверждают. Советский проект, появившийся как ответ на первое такое "списание издержек" (1914-1918) предлагает противоположную по смыслу бухгалтерию, противоположное планирование. Во главу угла такой проект ставит не прибыль, не бабло, а Человека, его потребности и его развитие.В эсхатологическом смысле разница между двумя системами планирования аналогична разнице между добром и злом. При этом, разумеется, для КорпПлана злом всегда будет Госплан ("Империя Зла"), а для Госплана — наоборот.Что же касается распространенных у нас предрассудков о слишком сложном характере экономический отношений, которыми человек, якобы, не в состоянии управлять в принципе, то здесь помогут простые аналогии. Каждый день в небо поднимаются десятки тысяч самолетов. Они движутся по разнонаправленным траекториям, подвергаются воздействию многих непредсказуемых природных факторов. Однако разве в небе царит броуновское движение, хаос? Нет, каждая траектория находится под полным контролем диспетчерских служб. Таких, например, как американская NORAD. Американская же, КорпПлановская спецслужба АНБ способна контролировать каждый байт получаемой и отправляемой вами информации, прямо сейчас, когда вы читаете этот текст. Иными словами, современный уровень автоматических систем управления делает экономическое планирование любого уровня абсолютно посильной задачей. В СССР это тоже предчувствовали, поэтому группа ученых под руководством академика В.Глушкова (Киевский Госуниверситет им. Т.Шевченко) занималась разработкой систем, которые позволили бы Госплану перейти от бобин и перфокарт к более современным и восприимчивым способам организации народного хозяйства.Сегодня о Викторе Михайловиче Глушкове вспоминают довольно редко. Зато регулярно собирается гайдаровский экономический форум. Это не говорит о том, что мы отказались от планирования. Это говорит лишь о том, что похоронив Госплан, мы дали себя вписать в балансовую ведомость КорпПлана.Евгений Васин

15 мая, 18:31

Is all of Russian literature a chamber pot?

Translated by Alex Cigale; Northwestern World Classics, February 2017. Source: Amazon.com“The power that words are invested with must be liberated,” wrote Daniil Kharms in 1931. His modernist literary experiments continued to influence Soviet counterculture for decades after his untimely death. Kharms, whose original surname was Yuvachev, was born in 1905 and formed the absurdist OBERIU movement, together with Alexander Vvedensky. Censored, arrested and sent to a psychiatric hospital, he starved during the siege of Leningrad in 1942, and his writings survived mostly in secret manuscripts, passed from hand to hand. Russian soul? Translator Alex Cigale writes in his cerebral introduction to this new anthology, Russian Absurd, that Kharms’s aesthetic includes: “the ridiculous as a reaction and an alternative to revulsion and resignation before an absurd age.” Cigale sees Kharms as part of a wider generation of 20th-century existentialist writers, and hopes to help enlist him “in the canon of world literature” alongside Sartre, Beckett and Camus. Cigale also claims that: “There is something about Kharms that is emblematic of the condition of the Russian soul…” Kharms wrote in a letter, capturing the dual essence of his own work, that the Russian spirit is “always either divine, or entirely laughable.” Bathos (a sudden shift of registers from high to low – or divine to laughable) is one of Kharms’ chief satirical tools. A prose piece from 1932 that opens “The infinite: that is the answer to all questions...” ends with the writer staring out at “cocks and hens” in the yard outside. In a poem of 1939, he writes: “I thought a long time about eagles / but confused them, I think, with flies.” The deliberate undermining of heroic images is in stark contrast with the officially sanctioned grandeur of socialist realist art in the Soviet era. Russian literature is a chamber pot His surrealism mixes comedy and horror, and many of his stories have a dream-like disregard for logic and causation. In “The Fate of the Professor’s Wife” a professor’s unhappy widow dreams: “Leo Tolstoy is walking towards her with a chamber pot in his hands…” Tolstoy turns into a barn, where she is trying to catch a chicken, which becomes a rabbit. But her real life is even more brutally surreal and the mounting absurdities give a strange and poignant weight to the short story’s abrupt ending. “All of Russian literature is a chamber pot,” Kharms wrote at the end of a poem in 1936. In overturning conventional literary forms, he makes fun of 19th-century writers living in an era when traditional narratives still made sense. “The time of theatre, of grand epic poems, of beautiful architecture came to an end one hundred years ago,” he wrote in a letter of 1933. I am the world In his early “manifestos”, Kharms proclaims: “Our work is about to begin and it consists of registering the world…” Some of his writing evokes everyday trials: waiting for the communal bathroom, running out of cigarettes, being bitten by fleas. At other times, he obsesses over number theory or circular conversations with himself about the nature of existence: “But I am the world / But the world isn’t me”. The relatively playful 1929 prose “rules” for “sentinels on the roof of the State Publishing House” (the sentinel is not permitted “to ride the roof’s crest as though it were a horse” or to “chase after sparrows”) have become bleak, brutal fragments by the early 1940s. A one-paragraph story called “Mob Justice” describes a pointless murder and ends: “The crowd, its lust for violence appeased, disperses”. Portrait of Daniil Kharms. Source: Tatyana Druchinina Opening his selection of prose from the last years of Kharms’s life, Cigale reproduces the author’s 1931 confession letter, extorted by the murderous Soviet security services or NKVD. This document gives the cruelty of the writing that follows its chilling context, what Cigale calls “the surreal, nightmarish quality of Soviet reality. Ironically, there are moments of creative truthfulness in this forced fabrication.  “Our trans-sense language is antithetical to the materialist purposes of Soviet artistic literature,” Kharms confesses. This anti-sense was deliberate and was indeed intended to undermine the status quo. “I find heroics, pathos, moralizing … abhorrent,” Kharms wrote in 1937. Like Vvedensky, Kharms saw “pure nonsense” as the only sensible reaction to the madness of the world around him. Cigale has chosen a roughly chronological order for the works he includes in this illuminating selection, reflecting different periods in Kharms’ unhappy life and deteriorating mental state. Poetry is gathered in a final, 40-page coda and ranges from an un-Soviet prayer, reminiscent of Gerard Manly Hopkins, (“Unthrottle, Lord, the brakes of my inspiration”) to an ode to cunnilingus (“I’m in love with your pudenda…”). Moments of despairing lyricism intermingle with characteristic bitter jokes and glimpses of Kharms’s home city, “still unpeopled Leningrad.” Read more: Book review: The Pirate Who Does Not Know the Value of Pi

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13 мая, 20:22

Faithful Tell Why They Came From Far and Wide for a Day in Fátima

Hundreds of thousands of Roman Catholics from around the world traveled to Portugal to attend a canonization ceremony and see Pope Francis. Four explain what motivated them to make the trip.

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13 мая, 14:50

Pope Canonizes Two Child Saints in Fátima, Portugal

Celebrating Mass Saturday morning, 100 years after three shepherd children in Fátima reported seeing an apparition of the Virgin Mary there, Pope Francis canonized two of the visionaries as saints, saying Mary had given them a message of hope.

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13 мая, 13:52

Pope canoness Fatima visionaries, giving Church new children saints

FATIMA, Portugal (Reuters) - Pope Francis gave the Catholic Church two of its youngest saints on Saturday, canonizing shepherd siblings believed to have seen the Madonna 100 years ago in a Portuguese town that is now a major pilgrimage site.

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13 мая, 13:52

Pope canonizes Fatima visionaries, giving Church new children saints

FATIMA, Portugal (Reuters) - Pope Francis gave the Catholic Church two of its youngest saints on Saturday, canonizing shepherd siblings believed to have seen the Madonna 100 years ago in a Portuguese town that is now a major pilgrimage site.

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13 мая, 11:48

Pope makes 2 Fatima children saints on centenary of visions

Pope Francis added two Portuguese shepherd children to the roster of Catholic saints Saturday, honoring young siblings whose reported visions of the Virgin Mary 100 years ago turned the Portuguese farm town of Fatima into one of the world’s most important Catholic shrines.

13 мая, 09:28

Making a Pilgrimage for the Canonization of Fátima Siblings

Francis canonized the shepherd children during a Mass on Saturday. The siblings, who said they saw a vision of the Virgin Mary 100 years ago, are credited with a miracle.

13 мая, 00:00

Trump Is Terrible at Firing!

Gail Collins, New York TimesDonald Trump is going to meet soon with the pope. How do you think that will go? Maybe when Trump emerges, he’ll announce that Francis promised him canonization. Then the Vatican will deny it. Then Sean Spicer will hold a press conference in which he will explain that the president was simply working off a memo written by the deputy secretary of state.

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12 мая, 18:24

Fatima pilgrims wary ahead of Pope visit

As Pope Francis flies in for a canonization mass in Fatima, pilgrims express anxiety over security threats. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and international news. For over 160 years, Reuters has maintained its reputation for speed, accuracy, and impact while providing exclusives, incisive commentary and forward-looking analysis. http://reuters.com/ https://www.facebook.com/Reuters https://plus.google.com/u/0/s/reuters https://twitter.com/Reuters

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11 мая, 19:51

Brazilian boy’s survival of brain injury is Fatima ‘miracle’

The parents of a Brazilian boy whose recovery from a severe brain injury is being cited by the Vatican as the “miracle” needed to canonize two Portuguese children broke their silence Thursday to share the story.

11 мая, 19:00

The Lizzie Borden murder industry won't die – but its feminism has

Not long ago, fiction took a thoughtful line on the perennially compelling true crime tale. But zombies and other kitsch are taking over the franchiseThe Borden house really is, as Angela Carter put it, “as narrow as a coffin”. When a vistor walks around the building, which sits on Second St in the sleepy town of Fall River, Massachusetts, its macabre reputation still hangs over it, despite it being a bed and breakfast now. For a fee of a little more than $200 (£154) a night, curious tourists can spend a night in the very rooms where, 125 years ago on a steamy August morning, Lizzie Borden reportedly hacked her father and stepmother to death.But for those who wish to forego the literary pilgrimage and sate their curiosity with a book, a hefty canon of Bordenalia awaits. Her story has remained alive in the American literary imagination ever since; 50 years ago, one could find numerous novels, short stories, at least two plays, a ballet and an opera, and for those who like their murder stories to come with electric guitars there was also a rock musical. The tradition has continued, and in 1985 added Carter’s story, in her collection Black Venus. A single woman’s misery – or maybe treachery – has been the muse of many. Continue reading...

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11 мая, 18:31

Brazilian boy’s survival of brain injury is Fatima ‘miracle’

The parents of a Brazilian boy whose recovery from a severe brain injury is being cited by the Vatican as the “miracle” needed to canonize two Portuguese children are breaking their silence to share the story.

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11 мая, 13:34

Pope to canonize Portuguese shepherd children for Madonna visions

FATIMA, Portugal (Reuters) - Pope Francis will make two Portuguese shepherd children saints this week, crowning a belief that started with reported visions of the Madonna 100 years ago which have turned the Shrine of Fatima into one of the most famous in Christianity.

11 мая, 10:37

Expect to See These 11 Big-Name NFL Players Get Cut This Offseason

With the 2017 NFL Draft in the books and training camp rapidly approaching, here is a look at 11 big-name veteran players who could still get cut.