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27 октября, 02:00

Без заголовка

I do wonder whether in the end historians will lay root responsibility for the destruction of America's Republican Party to Anthony Kennedy, John Roberts, Nino Scalia, Sam Alito, and Clarence Thomas's decision that what they really wanted to do was to transform the political order to enable whack doodle billionaires...

25 октября, 20:35

On-line education increases total enrollment and reaches new groups

Though online technology has generated excitement about its potential to increase access to education, most research has focused on comparing student performance across online and in-person formats. We provide the first evidence that online education affects the number of people pursuing formal education. We study the Georgia Institute of Technology’s Online M.S. in Computer Science, […] The post On-line education increases total enrollment and reaches new groups appeared first on Marginal REVOLUTION.

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25 октября, 13:00

Computer Science Education from Google

Learn Computer Science here:

24 октября, 16:32

Искусственный интеллект в 79% случаев предсказал результат судов в ЕСПЧ

Группа учёных из университетов Великобритании и США создала программу, способную предсказать результаты рассмотрения дел в Европейском суде по правам человека. Искусственный интеллект, проанализировав почти 600 дел, рассмотренных ЕСПЧ, оказался в состоянии принять решение, совпадающее с вердиктом суда, в 79% случаев. Согласно исследованию, опубликованному в журнале PeerJ Computer Science в понедельник, программе, созданной на основе технологий искусственного интеллекта, были предложены описания дел, куда включались юридические аргументы, история дела и другие подробности. Рассматриваемые дела касались трёх основных групп нарушений законодательства в области прав человека, в том числе запрещение пыток и унижающего человеческое достоинство обращения, право на справедливое судебное разбирательство и право на "уважение к частной и семейной жизни". Создатели программы считают, что эта разработка может быть полезна для выявления общих закономерностей в судебных делах, но не верят в то, что искусственный интеллект сможет когда-либо заменить человека в этих случаях, пишет The Verge. Искусственный интеллект позволил вывить некоторые закономерности в принятии судебных решений. Так, было обнаружено, что решения более зависимы от конкретных обстоятельств дела, чем от юридических составляющих. Другими словами, судьи были чаще реалистами, чем формалистами, то есть более заинтересованными в справедливом суде, нежели в строгом применении буквы закона. Учёные считают, что искусственный интеллект может быть полезным в определении приоритетов рассмотрения судебных дел. Например, в ЕСПЧ есть огромное число ещё не рассмотренных дел, и искусственный интеллект мог бы определить, какие из них стоит рассматривать в первую очередь.

24 октября, 16:25

Can Online Delivery Increase Access to Education? -- by Joshua Goodman, Julia Melkers, Amanda Pallais

Though online technology has generated excitement about its potential to increase access to education, most research has focused on comparing student performance across online and in-person formats. We provide the first evidence that online education affects the number of people pursuing formal education. We study the Georgia Institute of Technology's Online M.S. in Computer Science, the earliest model to combine the inexpensive nature of online education with a highly-ranked degree program. Regression discontinuity estimates exploiting an admissions threshold unknown to applicants show that access to this online option substantially increases overall enrollment in formal education, expanding the pool of students rather than substituting for existing educational options. Demand for the online option is driven by mid-career Americans. By satisfying large, previously unmet demand for mid-career training, this single program will boost annual production of American computer science master's degrees by about seven percent. More generally, these results suggest that low-cost, high-quality online options may open opportunities for populations who would not otherwise pursue education.

21 октября, 05:40

The 7 Highest-Paying College Degrees All Earn Over $60,000

Are you trying to decide on a college major? Here are the ones that can give you the most bang for your buck.

20 октября, 00:08

Facebook Cites ‘Diversity’ As Reason To Keep Billionaire Trump Donor On Board

In the name of diversity, Facebook founder and chief executive Mark Zuckerberg is standing by the company’s controversial board member, billionaire Peter Thiel, an outspoken Donald Trump donor and booster ― and the man who brought down Gawker. “We can’t create a culture that says it cares about diversity and then excludes almost half the country because they back a political candidate,” Zuckerberg wrote in a Facebook post shared with employees that leaked to Hacker News on Tuesday. Thiel has been facing growing criticism from the tech and venture capital community for supporting Trump. Last week, he donated a reported $1.25 million to the Republican presidential nominee’s campaign. “There are many reasons a person might support Trump that do not involve racism, sexism, xenophobia or accepting sexual assault,” Zuckerberg said. “It may be because they believe strongly in smaller government, a different tax policy, health care system, religious issues, gun rights or any other issue where he disagrees with Hillary.”  Thiel’s support for Trump was hardly a secret ― he spoke at the Republican National Convention this summer. The surprise was his October donation, which comes as many Republicans are running away from Trump, who is facing accusations of sexual assault and is claiming the U.S. election is rigged, among other things. It’s notable that Facebook is making an argument for diversity. The company has publicly struggled to diversify its ranks: Women represent just 35 percent of employees. And people of color are hard to find: 4 percent of workers are Hispanic; 2 percent are black. To Facebook’s credit, it shares this data publicly. This summer, the social network blamed its diversity problem on a lack of qualified candidates ― a move that some critics thought was a bit disingenuous, since the company has many positions available that are open to those with computer science degrees. Black representation in non-tech roles at the company is only 5 percent. Meanwhile, Facebook’s more than 1 billion users come from everywhere on the political spectrum, and it has sometimes strained to appear politically neutral.   The social network was criticized earlier this year for favoring so-called liberal news outlets over conservative websites in its trending news section. And it reacted swiftly by cutting loose human editors in favor of an algorithm that highlights trending news. Zuckerberg’s message of support for Thiel was reminiscent of one from Sam Altman, who heads Y Combinator, a Silicon Valley investment firm where Thiel works in an advisory role.   1) I am voting against Trump because I believe the principles he stands for represent an unacceptable threat to America.— Sam Altman (@sama) October 17, 2016 2) I think he's absuvie, erratic, and prone to fits or rage. I think he is unfit to be President and would be a threat to national security.— Sam Altman (@sama) October 17, 2016 3) Thiel is a high profile supporter of Trump. I disagree with this. YC is not going to fire someone for supporting a major party nominee.— Sam Altman (@sama) October 17, 2016 Altman’s message was met with outrage. Gizmodo called for his resignation. He also drew a response from Ellen Pao, the former Reddit CEO known for filing a widely publicized sex discrimination suit against stalwart venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins. In a post on Medium, she argued that Thiel has to go: “We agree that people shouldn’t be fired for their political views, but this isn’t a disagreement on tax policy, this is advocating hatred and violence,” she wrote. Pao now helps run Project Include, a group that aims to further diversity in the Valley. Thiel cofounded PayPal and Palantir and is worth an estimated $2.7 billion. He’s also a professed libertarian with some edgy views. He wrote that women’s suffrage and welfare were bad for democracy. He’s also professed an interest in colonizing the ocean and living forever. “We were confused by his seasteading funding, angered by his negative views on women’s voting rights, amused by his reported fixation with living to 120, and annoyed by his keynoting the Republican National Convention,” Pao wrote. “But we are completely outraged to read about Thiel donating $1.25 million to Trump.” The billionaire drew wide attention ― and ire from the media ― this summer for bankrolling wrestler Hulk Hogan’s lawsuit against Gawker. Angry with Gawker for publishing stories about his sexuality, his publicly stated goal was to put the news site out of business.  Thiel’s tie-up with Trump seems fitting, then. The GOP nominee has sued at least one journalist and threatened many more lawsuits himself.   -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

20 октября, 00:08

Facebook Cites ‘Diversity’ As Reason To Keep Billionaire Trump Donor On Board

In the name of diversity, Facebook founder and chief executive Mark Zuckerberg is standing by the company’s controversial board member, billionaire Peter Thiel, an outspoken Donald Trump donor and booster ― and the man who brought down Gawker. “We can’t create a culture that says it cares about diversity and then excludes almost half the country because they back a political candidate,” Zuckerberg wrote in a Facebook post shared with employees that leaked to Hacker News on Tuesday. Thiel has been facing growing criticism from the tech and venture capital community for supporting Trump. Last week, he donated a reported $1.25 million to the Republican presidential nominee’s campaign. “There are many reasons a person might support Trump that do not involve racism, sexism, xenophobia or accepting sexual assault,” Zuckerberg said. “It may be because they believe strongly in smaller government, a different tax policy, health care system, religious issues, gun rights or any other issue where he disagrees with Hillary.”  Thiel’s support for Trump was hardly a secret ― he spoke at the Republican National Convention this summer. The surprise was his October donation, which comes as many Republicans are running away from Trump, who is facing accusations of sexual assault and is claiming the U.S. election is rigged, among other things. It’s notable that Facebook is making an argument for diversity. The company has publicly struggled to diversify its ranks: Women represent just 35 percent of employees. And people of color are hard to find: 4 percent of workers are Hispanic; 2 percent are black. To Facebook’s credit, it shares this data publicly. This summer, the social network blamed its diversity problem on a lack of qualified candidates ― a move that some critics thought was a bit disingenuous, since the company has many positions available that are open to those with computer science degrees. Black representation in non-tech roles at the company is only 5 percent. Meanwhile, Facebook’s more than 1 billion users come from everywhere on the political spectrum, and it has sometimes strained to appear politically neutral.   The social network was criticized earlier this year for favoring so-called liberal news outlets over conservative websites in its trending news section. And it reacted swiftly by cutting loose human editors in favor of an algorithm that highlights trending news. Zuckerberg’s message of support for Thiel was reminiscent of one from Sam Altman, who heads Y Combinator, a Silicon Valley investment firm where Thiel works in an advisory role.   1) I am voting against Trump because I believe the principles he stands for represent an unacceptable threat to America.— Sam Altman (@sama) October 17, 2016 2) I think he's absuvie, erratic, and prone to fits or rage. I think he is unfit to be President and would be a threat to national security.— Sam Altman (@sama) October 17, 2016 3) Thiel is a high profile supporter of Trump. I disagree with this. YC is not going to fire someone for supporting a major party nominee.— Sam Altman (@sama) October 17, 2016 Altman’s message was met with outrage. Gizmodo called for his resignation. He also drew a response from Ellen Pao, the former Reddit CEO known for filing a widely publicized sex discrimination suit against stalwart venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins. In a post on Medium, she argued that Thiel has to go: “We agree that people shouldn’t be fired for their political views, but this isn’t a disagreement on tax policy, this is advocating hatred and violence,” she wrote. Pao now helps run Project Include, a group that aims to further diversity in the Valley. Thiel cofounded PayPal and Palantir and is worth an estimated $2.7 billion. He’s also a professed libertarian with some edgy views. He wrote that women’s suffrage and welfare were bad for democracy. He’s also professed an interest in colonizing the ocean and living forever. “We were confused by his seasteading funding, angered by his negative views on women’s voting rights, amused by his reported fixation with living to 120, and annoyed by his keynoting the Republican National Convention,” Pao wrote. “But we are completely outraged to read about Thiel donating $1.25 million to Trump.” The billionaire drew wide attention ― and ire from the media ― this summer for bankrolling wrestler Hulk Hogan’s lawsuit against Gawker. Angry with Gawker for publishing stories about his sexuality, his publicly stated goal was to put the news site out of business.  Thiel’s tie-up with Trump seems fitting, then. The GOP nominee has sued at least one journalist and threatened many more lawsuits himself.   -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

19 октября, 16:50

Hewlett Packard Enterprise Provides Spinoff Details, '17 View

Hewlett Packard Enterprise Co. (HPE) recently discussed details about the previously announced spinoff. Moreover, the company provided its fiscal 2017 outlook while reaffirming the fiscal 2016 guidance.

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19 октября, 01:35

The World's 12 Best Schools For Computer Science In 2016

A degree in computer science can open up many doors to a young tech-minded student. But which schools offer the best programs? (image credit: Shutterstock) If youre a young computer enthusiast and want to hone your skills at the best university on

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18 октября, 22:50

The World's 12 Best Schools For Computer Science In 2016

A degree in computer science can open up many doors to a young tech-minded student. But which schools offer the best programs?

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18 октября, 09:45

Sony выпустит несколько альбомов, созданных искусственным интеллектом

Команда исследователей Sony Computer Science Laboratory уверена, что в будущем искусственному интеллекту удастся создавать музыку на основе предпочтений пользователей. Меломан сможет выбрать любое количество композиций из огромной базы данных (более 13 тыс. музыкальных треков) и получить желаемый результат. На основе алгоритма, разработанного исследователями, искусственный интеллект проанализирует такие музыкальные характеристики, как ритм и гармония, и создаст свой плей-лист. Система искусственного интеллекта Flow Machines, по мнению руководителя проекта Франсуа Паше, расширяет возможности для создания новой музыки. "Это позволяет сделать многое гораздо легче. Например, вы можете попробовать смешать один стиль с другим", — считает он. В то же время Франсуа Паше считает, искусственный интеллект должен не заменять композитора, а помогать ему. "Этот алгоритм, я думаю, помогает в том смысле, что делает музыкальные эксперименты легче. В противном случае это занимает слишком много времени", — добавил он. Бывшему музыканту из New Order Питеру Хуку такая идея не нравится. "Я не слышал трек The Beatles [созданный искусственным интеллектом], говорят, это замечательно. Но как музыкант я скажу: мы ведь не хотим этого, не так ли? Почти любая песня, которую я сочинил в New Order, была сделана с кем-то ещё, и в этом её красота. Писать музыку с машиной? Какую обратную связь мы можем получить от неё?" — считает он. Специалисты парижской исследовательской лаборатории корпорации Sony уже представили музыку, созданную искусственным интеллектом. Одна из композиций воспроизводит стилистические особенности The Beatles.

17 октября, 20:07

Remarks by the President on Education

Benjamin Banneker Academic High School Washington, D.C. 11:21 A.M. EDT THE PRESIDENT:  Hello, Bulldogs!  (Applause.)  Good to see you guys.  How’s everybody doing?  You all look good.  You look good.  (Applause.)  Hey!  How’s everybody?  Well, it is so nice to see you guys.  Everybody have a seat, though.  Have a seat.  I know you've been waiting here a while.  Good thing you all had your phones with you.  (Applause.)  As the father of two teenage daughters, I know the whole time you were just like, "And then he said -- girl, I couldn’t believe it."  (Laughter.)  Anyway, it’s so good to see you.  (Applause.)  A couple of people I want to acknowledge.  First of all, I want to thank our Secretary of Education, who has done outstanding work, John King is in the house.  (Applause.)  And then, my great friend and former Education Secretary and multiple winner of the three-on-three contest, as well as at the NBA All-Star Game -- he can ball -- Arne Duncan.  (Applause.)  We’ve got your mayor, Muriel Bowser is here.  Give her a big round of applause.  (Applause.)  Your representative, Eleanor Holmes Norton.  (Applause.)  And we are so grateful not only for their service to the country, but the amazing work they’re doing with their philanthropic work and America’s Promise, Colin and Alma Powell.  (Applause.)  So, by now you’ve settled into the new year.  Right?  Adjusted to classes.  You’re preparing for Spirit Week.  (Applause.)  Learning how to ballroom dance.  (Laughter.)  I remember having to do that.  Getting the nerve to text that cute girl or boy in your English class.  (Laughter.)  I don’t remember that; we did not have texts.  We had to send little notes.  And then we used to actually have to go up to somebody if we liked them and talk to them.  So that may happen to you someday.  (Laughter.)  Seniors are looking at colleges, taking tests, filling out all the forms.  (Applause.)  Malia just went through this, so I know how tough this is for you and for the parents.  But as I’m winding down my presidency -- I was so impressed with Banneker the last time I was here in 2011 that I wanted to come back -- (applause) -- because you’re an example of a school that’s doing things the right way.  And I believe that if you’re going to be able to do whatever you want to do in your lives –- if you want to become a teacher, or a doctor, or start a business, or develop the next great app, or be President -- then you’ve got to have great education.  We live in a global economy.  And when you graduate, you’re no longer going to be competing just with somebody here in D.C. for a great job.  You’re competing with somebody on the other side of the world, in China or in India, because jobs can go wherever they want because of the Internet and because of technology.  And the best jobs are going to go to the people who are the best educated -- whether in India or China, or anywhere in the world.  So when I took office almost eight years ago, we knew that our education system was falling short when it came to preparing young people like you for that reality.  Our public schools had been the envy of the world, but the world caught up.  And we started getting outpaced when it came to math and science education.  And African American and Latino students, in part because of the legacy of discrimination, too often lagged behind our white classmates -- something called the achievement gap that, by one estimate, costs us hundreds of billions of dollars a year.  And we were behind other developed countries when it came to the number of young people who were getting a higher education.  So I said, when I first came into office, by 2020 I want us to be number one again.  I want us to be number one across the board.  So we got to work, making real changes to improve the chances for all of our young people, from the time they're born all the way through until they got a career.  And the good news is that we’ve made real progress.  So I just wanted to talk to you about the progress we've made, because you are the reason we've made progress -- some outstanding young people all across the country. We recently learned that America’s high school graduation rate went up to 83 percent, which is the highest on record.  That's good news.  (Applause.)  More African American and Latino students are graduating than ever before.  (Applause.)  Right here in D.C., in just five years, the graduation rate in the District of Columbia public schools went from just 53 percent to 69 percent.  (Applause.)  So D.C.'s graduation rates grew faster than any other place in the country this year -- this past year.  That's something to be really proud of.  (Applause.)  Now, of course, here at Banneker, you graduated 100 percent of your seniors last year.  (Applause.)  One hundred percent.  It's been a while since I did math, but 100 percent is good.  (Laughter.)  You can't do better than that.  So what all these numbers mean is that more schools across D.C. and across the country are starting to catch up to what you guys are doing here, at this school. Now, some of the changes we made were hard, and some of them were controversial.  We expected more from our teachers and our students.  But the hard work that people have put in across the country has started to pay off. And I just want to talk to you a little bit about some of the things that we did.  It starts with our youngest learners.  High-quality early education is one of the best investments we can make, which is why we’ve added over 60,000 children to Head Start.  We called for high-quality preschool for every four-year-old in America.  And when I took office, only 38 states offered access to state-funded preschool.  Today, it’s up to 46. We're trying to get those last holdouts to do the right thing.   And, by the way, the District of Columbia leads the nation with the highest share of children -- nearly 9 out of 10 -- in high-quality preschool.  And that's a big achievement.  (Applause.)   We launched then a competition called Race to the Top, which inspired states to set higher, better standards so that we could out-teach and out-compete other nations, and make sure that we've got high expectations for our students.  D.C. was one of the winners of this competition.  It upgraded standards, upgraded curriculum, worked to help teachers build their skills.  And that, in part, is why D.C. has done so well.  We realized that in today’s world, when you all have a computer in your pocket in those phones, then you need to learn not just how to use a phone, you need to learn computer science.  So we’re working with private and philanthropic partners to bring high schools into the 21st century and give you a more personalized and real-world experience.  We're bringing in high-speed internet into schools and libraries, reaching 20 million more students and helping teachers with digital learning.  And coding isn’t, by the way, just for boys in Silicon Valley, so we’re investing more in getting girls and young women and young people of color and low-income students into science and engineering and technology and math.  (Applause.)  And because we know that nothing is more important than a great teacher -- and you’ve got some great teachers here, as well as a great principal at Banneker -- (applause) -- we have focused on preparing and developing and supporting and rewarding excellent educators.  You all know how hard they work.  They stay up late grading your assignments.  That's why you got all those marks all over your papers.  They pull sometimes money out of their own pockets to make that lesson extra special.  And I promise you, the teachers here and the teachers around the country, they’re not doing it for the pay -- because teachers, unfortunately, still aren't paid as much as they should be.  They’re not doing it for the glory.  They’re doing it because they love you, and they believe in you, and they want to help you succeed.  So teachers deserve more than just our gratitude -- they deserve our full support.  And we've got to make their lives easier, which is why we enacted a law to fix No Child Left Behind, which gives teachers more flexibility to spend more time teaching creatively than just spending all their time teaching to a test.  Give your teachers a big round of applause.  (Applause.)  They deserve it.    So we've made real progress, but here’s the thing -- and I think all of you know this because you go to this great school -- a high school education these days is not enough.  By 2020, two out of three job openings require some form of higher education.  Now, that doesn’t always mean a four-year college degree, but it does mean -- whether it's a four-year university, or a community college, or some sort of training program -- you’ve got to get a little bit more than just what you're getting in high school.  It used to be that a high school job might be enough because you could go into a factory or even go into an office and just do some repetitive work, and if you were willing to work hard you could make a decent living.  But the problem is repetitive work now is done by machines.  And that's just going to be more and more true.  So in order for you to succeed in the marketplace, you’ve got to be able to think creatively; you’ve got to be able to work with a team; you’ve got to be able to work with a machine and figure out how to make it tailored for the specific requirements of your business and your job.  All those things require some more sophisticated thinking than just sitting there and just doing the same thing over and over again.  And that's why you’ve got to have more than just a high school education.  And if you doubt that, I just want to give you some statistics.  Compared to a high school diploma, just getting a degree from a two-year school, going to a community college and getting an associate’s degree could earn you more than $300,000 over the course of your lifetime.  And a four-year degree earns you a million dollars more than if you just had a high school degree.  Think about that.  A million dollars -- that's real money. So one of the things that we’re trying to do is to make it easier for you to access free money for college -- to figure out how you can pay for your college without having a mountain of debt.  And the key thing, as you know here at Banneker, but I want all the students around the country to do this -- and Michelle and I and others have been really emphasizing this -- is to fill out your FAFSA, the Free Application for Federal Student Aid. How many people -- how many seniors here have already filled out their FAFSA forms?  (Applause.)  All right.  How many seniors here have not filled out their FAFSA forms?  Fess up now.  (Laughter.)  You sure?  All right, I just want to make sure now.  And, juniors, you can start getting ready now. Because what the FAFSA does is it puts you in the running for scholarships, grants, loans, work-study jobs, all to help you pay for college.  And we've made it simpler than ever.  And it's available right now at FAFSA.gov -- FAFSA.gov. And since this is one of the most important investments of your life, next year's FAFSA is also going to direct you to something we created, called our College Scorecard.  Now, here's what this is.  It gives you comprehensive information on every college in America.  Now, some of you who have started applying for colleges, you know about these college rankings, right?  It's like, oh, this is the best school.  And some of that information is useful; some of it not so much.  But unlike traditional rankings that focus on which school has the fanciest dorm or the nicest football stadiums, or is the most expensive or the most exclusive, what our College Scorecard does is it focuses on some of the things that really matter for your future.  Things like how many students actually graduate from the school -- because it's not enough just to enroll in college; you've got to graduate from college.  How much money do their alumni earn?  What percentage of their students can pay back their loans?  And what we’ve done is we've worked with companies like Google to put this information right at your fingertips.  So for a decision this important, we want you to be able to comparison shop to figure out how do you get the best value for your money, just like if you were buying something on Amazon.  If you were buying a car or you're buying a phone or you're buying anything, especially if it's a pretty big purchase, you want to know ahead of time, is this legit.  And what this does is makes you think about what your options are.  Now, you've got some great counselors here.  Obviously, you should work with them.  But not every student may be going to a school like Banneker that has as many good counselors to think about their college education.  And using this College Scorecard is going to be helpful for them to do a little comparison shopping.  Because you don't want to go to the school just because it's the closest one, and it turns out it's more expensive and doesn't do as good of a job as if you were willing to maybe travel someplace else, and it turns out that you could get the financial aid you need to go to a school that's more suited toward your needs. So we also reformed, by the way, the student loan system.  When I came into office, you had tens of billions of dollars that were going to big banks, serving as middlemen for your student loans.  We said, well, let's cut out the banks.  Let's give the money directly to the students so they can afford college and we can make the loans cheaper, and we can expand Pell grants.  And now, what we're trying to do is to push to make two years of community college free for every responsible student all across the country.  All across the country.  (Applause.)  And we're starting to work with colleges and universities around the country to bring down the cost of college so that at the end of four years of college you're not saddled with a whole bunch of debt -- because nobody should be priced out of a higher education.  (Applause.)  So bottom line is:  higher graduation rates, higher college attendance rates, more money for Pell grants and work to make sure that the interest rate on student loans haven't gone up; working to expand early childhood education and preschool; continuing to watch and work with states as they try to implement reforms to make K-12 better; holding colleges more accountable for giving information so that students can make good decisions.  We've made a lot of progress.  We have made a lot of progress in terms of making sure that young people across the country get the kind of great education that you're getting here at Banneker.  And I am really proud of what we've accomplished.  I'm proud of what the District of Columbia has accomplished. But I just want to be honest with you:  We've still got more work to do.  So as I go, I'm giving you kind of a final report card, transcript on what more we’ve got to get done. There are still too many states that are cutting back on public education.  And part of the reason tuition is going up is because states aren’t putting as much money into state education, universities, community colleges as they used to.  That’s why, if you’re 18, by the way, you’ve got to vote to make sure that the folks who represent you actually deliver.  (Applause.) We’ve still got too many states that have not really worked in a serious way to raise standards and improve performance.  In too many school districts, we still have schools that, despite the heroic efforts of a lot of great teachers, are not fully preparing our kids for success because they just don’t have the resources to do it or the structure to do it.  We’ve still got too many high schools where a third of their students do not earn their diplomas on time. For too many students in America, zip code still determines how far they’ll go.  And that’s not acceptable.  Some of you probably have friends or family who are just as smart or talented or as capable as you, but they didn’t have the same support or the right opportunities or didn’t get in the right school, and so now don’t have the same shot at success.  Am I right?  Because I know that’s true in our family.  Michelle and I, we’ve got cousins and friends who we’ve known since they were shorties, little kids -- (laughter) -- and they -- we know how smart they are because they were just as smart as we were, but just the luck of the draw was they didn’t get the same chance as we did.  And that’s not right.  So that’s why I started something called My Brother’s Keeper initiative, because what we want to do is help more young people, especially kids of color, get mentorships and the resources and the guidance they need to succeed.  And I’m going to stay involved with that even after I’m done being President.  (Applause.)  Because we all have a part to play in making sure every single child has every single opportunity to achieve his or her dreams. That’s what Banneker is all about.  That’s what you can see in somebody like Ifunaya.  I mean, that’s an incredible young lady who’s going to succeed because she has an incredible school in addition to an incredible family.  (Applause.)  And so we’re so proud of her.  There’s another person I want to just call out -- Amari McDuffie.  Where’s Amari?  Where’s Amari?  There she is right there, right in front.  (Applause.)  So, hey, Amari.  I’m going to talk about you for a second.  (Laughter.)  So Amari was born with a heart and a lung condition.  And sometimes she had to miss a lot of school because of her illness.  And you know, Banneker is a pretty rigorous school, so she was worried about staying on top of her work.  But everybody in this family rallied around her and made sure she was keeping up.  Her history teacher, Mr. Goldfarb -- where’s Mr. Goldfarb?  (Applause.)  Is he here or did he cut assembly?  (Laughter.)  So Mr. Goldfarb came to visit her when Amari was in the hospital for weeks, brought a card from the whole class.  And so Amari, she was talking about the support everybody here gave her, and she said, “I believed in myself because my teachers believed in me.”  And that’s the kind of community that we want in every school -- where you’re looking out for each other and you’re taking care of one another.  And so now Amari plans to be a doctor so she can help kids who had illnesses like hers.  And that’s what’s possible -- (applause) -- that's what's possible when we’re all committed to each other’s success; when we understand that no matter what you look like, where you come from, what faith you are, whether you’re a boy or a girl -- that you should have great opportunities to succeed.  And that requires you to put effort into it.  Michelle and I talk a lot because we travel around the world and sometimes we forget that there are places around the world where people have so little but the kids are so hungry for an education.  And they don’t even have an actual roof over their head in some of their schools.  And so even if you’re really poor in this country, you can succeed if you want to invest in the teachers and the community, and everybody raises standards and believes in each other.  And that’s what we want all of America to believe, in every kid -- because there’s magic in each and every one of you.  And we just have to help you unleash it and nurture it and realize it.  And, by the way, it’s because of young people like you that I leave the presidency never more optimistic than I am right now, because I’ve met so many young people around the country whose energy, and excitement, and how you treat each other, with respect.  That gives me a lot of confidence, a lot of faith for our country.  So I know you guys are going to keep on working hard.  You’re going to keep making our communities proud.  If us adults do our part and we stay focused on making sure every school is as great as this one, and that every young person has those same opportunities, and everybody has a teacher like Mr. Goldfarb looking out for them, I’ve got no doubt that we're going to continue to build a country where everybody has the chance to make of their lives what they will.  And that’s what America is all about. All right.  Proud of you, Bulldogs.  Thank you.  God bless you.  God bless the United States of America.  Fill out those FAFSA forms!  Thank you.  (Applause.) END 11:46 A.M. EDT

17 октября, 13:03

FACT SHEET: President Obama Announces High School Graduation Rate Has Reached New High

Today, President Obama will travel to Benjamin Banneker Academic High School in Washington, D.C. to announce that America’s high school graduation rate has reached a record new high of 83.2 percent. The high school graduation rate has risen steadily over President Obama’s time in office, growing by about four percentage points since the 2010-2011 school year -- the first year all states used a consistent, four-year adjusted measure of high school completion. This increase reflects important progress schools across the country are making to better prepare students for college and careers after graduation. In his speech at Benjamin Banneker Academic High School, President Obama will highlight investments and resources available for students to earn a degree beyond high school and all his Administration has accomplished to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for America’s learners, from cradle through career. He will also reflect on the work that continues, as we strive to ensure that every student has the chance to succeed in a 21st century economy. Promising Gains for All Students The 2014-2015 graduation rates released today show progress for all reported groups of students, including students of color, low-income students, students with disabilities, and English learners. Black, Hispanic, and Native American students continued to narrow the gap between their graduation rates and those of their white peers, even as all groups made progress: Year-by-Year Data: National Center for Education Statistics Nearly every state across the country has seen progress since 2010-2011. Between school years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, the District of Columbia made the greatest amount of progress in the Nation, improving its graduation rates by seven percentage points. In 2010, the District of Columbia received support through Race to the Top – the Obama Administration’s signature education reform initiative. These reforms helped make important strides in implementing college and career-ready standards, improve teacher and principal effectiveness, and turn around some of the District’s lowest-performing schools. The District of Columbia is also a national leader in providing high-quality preschool, and leads the nation in the share of its youngest learners with access to free and publicly available early education. For further details on state-by-state graduation rates please click HERE. Building on Historic Progress to Help Students Succeed In addition to reaching record graduation rates, the country has made real progress to increase educational opportunity and help students succeed since President Obama took office. Key signs of progress include: Investing in Early Education: In 2013, President Obama put forth his bold Preschool for All proposal to establish a federal-state partnership that would provide high-quality preschool for all four-year-olds from low- and moderate-income families. After the President’s call, many states took action and today, 46 states and the District of Columbia invest in preschool programs. From 2009 to 2015, states enrolled 48,000 additional four-year-olds in preschool through their own investments. The Obama Administration has also invested an additional $4 billion in Head Start, the largest federal early childhood initiative, and $1.75 billion in Preschool Development Grants and Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge grants, leading to hundreds of thousands more children having access to high-quality preschool across the country. Reforming and Improving America’s Schools: The Obama Administration’s Race to the Top program spurred systemic reforms, incentivizing states to adopt college and career-ready standards for teaching and learning and to undertake meaningful change across their public education systems. The $4 billion competitive grant program served 22 million students in 18 states and Washington D.C. -- nearly half of all students in the country. Through the School Improvement Grants program, the Administration has also invested over $7 billion to transform America’s lowest performing schools. These efforts helped contribute to a decline in dropout rates, and over the last decade, dropout rates have been cut dramatically for Latino and African American students, while the number of high schools where fewer than six in ten students graduate on time has been cut by more than 40 percent. Connecting America’s Classrooms: Launched in 2013, the President’s ConnectED initiative set a goal of connecting 99 percent of students to high-speed broadband by 2018; issued a call to action on the private sector and other stakeholders to develop quality, low-cost digital devices and content for teachers and students; and increased investments in professional development for teachers and school leaders so they can lead the transition to digital learning. Today, students and teachers across the country are realizing the benefits of personalized, digital learning; thousands of districts have taken steps to make their schools “Future Ready,” 20 million more students have gained access to high-speed broadband in their classrooms, and millions of students in all 50 states are leveraging new resources that support ConnectED, such as Open eBooks. Spurring Innovation in Education: The Obama Administration has invested in new efforts to develop, test, refine, and scale a new set of solutions to close achievement gaps in America’s public schools. By investing more than $1.3 billion in nearly 160 projects, the Investing in Innovation Fund (i3) has reached more than two million students across all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Projects undergo rigorous evaluation and expand the knowledge base to enable educators across the country to use a new set of strategies and solutions that will help students make even greater progress in the years ahead.  Last year, the bipartisan Every Student Succeeds Act codified the new Education Innovation and Research program as a successor to i3. The Obama Administration has also invested almost $350 million in replicating high quality charter schools, serving predominantly low-income students. Redesigning America’s High Schools: President Obama recognizes that we must do more to engage, prepare, and inspire college and career-ready students, and align high school learning to the experiences and opportunities that matter in young people’s lives. That is why in the President’s 2013 State of the Union address, he laid out a new vision for America’s high schools, proposing funding to scale-up innovative high school models and partnerships with colleges and employers so that all students graduate better equipped for the demands of the innovation economy. To build on this work the White House has hosted two annual summits on Next Generation High Schools in 2015 and 2016, announcing $375 million in private and public sector commitments and commitments from states and school districts estimated to impact more than 600,000 students to advance Next Generation High Schools. Developing and Supporting Great Teachers and Leaders: The Obama Administration’s investments during the Great Recession saved and created an estimated 400,000 jobs, mostly directly in education.  The Administration has also invested over $3.5 billion in competitive grant programs since 2009 to prepare, develop, support and retain outstanding educators across America’s urban and rural schools -- through programs such as the School Leadership Program, Supporting Effective Educator Development, Teacher Incentive Fund, Teacher Quality Partnership and Transition to Teaching. Promoting Excellence in STEM and Computer Science for All: America is on track to meet President Obama’s goal of preparing 100,000 excellent STEM teachers by 2021; 100,000 engineers are graduating yearly from American universities for the first time; and states and cities across the country are answering the President’s call to ensure that all of America’s students have the opportunity to learn computer science in their schools.  31 states now count computer science classes toward their high school graduation requirements, and a new computer science Advanced Placement (AP) course has launched in more than 2,000 classrooms. Making Historic Investments in Financial Aid: President Obama has doubled investments in financial aid, increasing the maximum Pell Grant by over $1,000 and establishing the American Opportunity Tax Credit to provide up to $10,000 in tax credits to support higher education over four years. More than two million additional students have received college assistance each year through the Pell Grant over the course of the Obama Administration. A recent report by the President’s Council of Economic Advisers suggests that the Obama Administration’s increase in the average Pell Award between 2008-2009 and 2014-2015 will lead to an additional $20 billion in aggregate earnings, a nearly 2:1 return on the investment. Making College More Affordable: The Department of Education recently announced this year’s Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)— available October 1 for the first time, three months earlier than the traditional January 1 date—so that more students can access the historic investment in financial aid and better information when they need it. About one million students submitted their FAFSA applications within the first ten days since the launch of the application, outpacing recent years. In addition, income-based repayment plans like the President’s “Pay as You Earn” (PAYE) plan cap monthly student loan payments at as little as 10 percent of income, so that more borrowers can successfully manage their student loans. About 5.3 million Direct Loan borrowers have taken advantage of repayment options like the President’s PAYE plan, up from 700,000 in 2011. Promoting College Success: The College Scorecard—which was announced by the President in 2015—provides the clearest, most accessible, and most reliable national data on cost, graduation rates, debt, and post-college earnings. Organizations—like Google, College Board, and the Common Application —are building the College Scorecard tool and data into their products in order to ensure that students and families have the best information available at critical decision-making-periods. The College Scorecard data on college costs, graduation rates, and earnings will be clearly featured in the hundreds of millions of Google searches related to colleges and universities taking place in the U.S. each year. Together with the earlier availability of the FAFSA, the College Scorecard ensures that students and families have the best information available to choose a good-value school. Because students and families can learn about their financial aid eligibility within a few days of completing the FAFSA, they will have better information to compare costs and student outcomes available on the Scorecard when they are searching for and applying to schools. Next year, the FAFSA will direct students to the College Scorecard, so that students will have immediate access to the information they need to make their most consequential investment to date—by weighing their personalized financial aid estimates against a school’s student outcomes, comparing schools, and considering the full scope of their college options. Making Community College Free for Hard-working Students: During his 2015 State of the Union, President Obama unveiled America’s College Promise, a plan that creates and strengthens partnerships to make two years of community college free for responsible students, letting students earn the first half of a college degree and skills needed in the workforce at no cost. The President’s proposal would also support four-year Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority-Serving Institutions in providing students with up to two years of college at zero or significantly reduced tuition. If all states participate, an estimated nine million students could benefit. A full-time community college student could save an average of $3,800 in tuition per year. Since the President announced America’s College Promise, at least 36 free community college programs have launched in states, cities and community colleges throughout the country. Together, these new programs alone have added more than $150 million in new investments in community colleges to serve 180,000 students. The number of free community college programs across the country is expected to grow, with $100 million for America’s Promise Grants, the tuition-free dual enrollment pilot for 10,000 students, and resources like the America’s College Promise Playbook. 

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16 октября, 11:51

[Перевод] Дональд Кнут и «Сюрреальные числа»: Я творил шесть дней, а на седьмой отдыхал (40,41,42/97)

«Эксперты по computer science сказали бы, что я допустил самую огромную ошибку, когда взялся за этот проект.» Это уникальное событие в моей жизни. Оно произошло в ранних 70-ых. Я познакомился с Джоном Конвейем, вероятно с одним из величайших математиков. Я встретил его по пути в университет Калгари в 71-м и мы вместе пообедали. Он набросал на салфетке новую теорию, которая пришла ему в голову, и, на мой взгляд, она была действительно потрясающей. Это чисто математическая теория о новом способе определения чисел. Ее суть в том, что они могут быть не только целыми или дробными, но также бывают бесконечные числа, и квадратный корень из бесконечности, и бесконечность бесконечности, и бесконечность квадратных корней бесконечности и все это имеет смысл. Год спустя я был в отпуске в Норвегии и посреди ночи ко мне пришла мысль «Вау, эта теория так красива, что было бы интересно рассказать историю, написать книгу, в которой герои откроют теорию Конвея. Они найдут её правила на каменной скрижали, расшифруют её и смогут сами доказать все эти вещи о бесконечности и прочем». Смысл в том, чтобы таким способом научить людей проводить исследования, чтобы студенты могли не только изучать то, что сделали другие люди, но и сами открывали что-то новое в математике. И всё это может быть представлено в форме истории, где персонажи выясняют все эти вещи самостоятельно. Поэтому я подумал, что из этого может получиться действительно классная книга, и она может быть использована в качестве дополнения. Я думал о том, что учителя в старших школах могли бы советовать её своим ученикам, чтобы они могли увидеть, как совершаются открытия в математике. Читать дальше →

15 октября, 08:48

Покрытие из программируемого материала защитит роботов и беспилотники при ударах и столкновениях

Судьи и зрители, наблюдавшие за проведением финала соревнования DARPA Robotics Challenge в 2015 году, заметили, что большинство из роботов имело щитки, защищающие от повреждений их конечности, приводы и другие критические узлы при ударах и падениях. Щитки, конечно, являются проверенным универсальным средством, однако их использование делает конструкцию робота более тяжелей и ограничивает подвижность их конечностей. Для решения всех вышеописанных проблем специалисты из Лаборатории информатики и искусственного интеллекта (Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, CSAIL) Массачусетского технологического института предлагают использовать покрытия из специальных материалов, которые не только защитят хрупкие детали и механизмы, но и позволят роботам выполнять более точные движения.

14 октября, 02:19

Remarks by the President in Opening Remarks and Panel Discussion at White House Frontiers Conference

Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 3:21 P.M. EDT THE PRESIDENT:  Thank you, everybody.  Thank you.  (Applause.)  Well, thank you, Alexis, for that introduction.  I love that story -- she bumped into me on the elevator.  What she didn’t mention, by the way, is that she started on her pre-med degree when she was 16, bumping into me on the elevator.  She was already well on her way.  So, to the rest of you -- good luck.  (Laughter.)  Hope you already have tenure -- because Alexis is coming.  (Laughter.) I’m only going to speak briefly today because we have an amazing panel and I want to learn from the people who are in attendance here today.  But I want to start by recognizing Mayor Peduto of Pittsburgh, who has been an extraordinary innovator and city leader.  And give -- yes.  (Applause.)  Congressman Doyle, who fully supports our innovation agenda -- and we need strong allies in Congress -- so give Mike Doyle a big round of applause, please.  (Applause.)    We also have people from across our agencies -- Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx -- (applause) -- NIH Director Francis Collins -- (applause) -- National Science Foundation Director France Cordova.  (Applause.)  And I want to thank two extraordinary leaders who once served in my administration and did extraordinary work -- Presidents Suresh of Carnegie Mellon -- (applause) -- and Chancellor Gallagher of Pitt.  (Applause.)  Part of sort of the Obama alumni mafia here. (Laughter.)  As well as all the faculty and students and staff here at CMU and Pitt for allowing us to turn your campuses into a science fiction movie for the day.  (Laughter.)    Earlier today, I got a chance to see some pretty cool stuff. A space capsule designed by the private sector to carry humans out of our atmosphere.  Small, unmanned quadcopters that can search disaster areas and survey hard-to-reach places on bridges that might need repairs.  I also successfully docked a capsule on the International Space Station.  It was a simulation, but trust me -- I stuck the landing.  (Laughter.)    But here’s the thing about Pittsburgh -- this kind of stuff is really nothing new.  Most folks have probably heard about how this city is testing out a fleet of self-driving cars.  But Pittsburgh has been revitalizing itself through technology for a very long time.  There is a reason that U.S. Steel Tower is now also the corporate home of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center -- because the Steel City is now home to groundbreaking medical research and world-class universities.  It’s the birthplace of some of the most advanced artificial intelligence and robotics systems the world has ever seen.  And you are investing in your young people with after-school STEM programs, and maker faires, and “Girls of Steel” robotics teams.  (Applause.)  That’s how this city came back after an iconic industry fell on tougher times -- doubling down on science, doubling down on tech, doubling down on innovation -- all of which can create amazing new jobs and opportunities. And stories like that are not just happening here in Pittsburgh, or in Silicon Valley.  They’re happening in Chattanooga and in Charleston and in Cincinnati -- cities where we’re seeing science and technology spur new jobs and new industries; new discoveries that are improving our lives and, in many cases, saving lives.  And that's consistent with this nation, who we are -- a nation born from an idea that became the world’s laboratory.  There aren't a lot of countries where one of your Founding Fathers has an idea to fly a kite in a thunderstorm and helps to fundamentally change how we think about electricity.  A place where the women who solved the equations to take us into space, even though they weren’t always acknowledged.  A nation whose engineers brought us the Internet.  Innovation is in our DNA.  Science has always been central to our progress, and it's playing a leading role in overcoming so many of our greatest challenges. That's as true today as it's ever been.  Only with science can we make a shift to cleaner sources of energy and take steps to save the only planet we have.  Only with science do we have the chance to cure cancer, or Parkinson’s, or other diseases that steal our loved ones from us way too soon.  Only through science will we have the capacity to reengineer our cities as populations grow, to be smarter and more productive, to lead humanity farther out into the final frontiers of space -- not just to visit, but to stay -- and ensure that America keeps its competitive advantage as the world’s most innovative economy. And I was doing some pictures before I came out here with some folks, and they said, thank you so much for what you've done for science.  And I confessed, I am a science geek.  I'm a nerd. (Laughter and applause.)  And I don’t make any apologies for it. I don’t make any apologies for it.  It's cool stuff.  And it is that thing that sets us apart; that ability to imagine and hypothesize, and then test and figure stuff out, and tinker and make things and make them better, and then break them down and rework them. And that’s why I get so riled up when I hear people willfully ignore facts -- (laughter) -- or stick their heads in the sand about basic scientific consensus.  It's not just that that position leads to that policy; it's also that it undermines the very thing that has always made America the engine for innovation around the world.  It’s not just that they’re saying climate change is a hoax, or taking a snowball on the Senate floor to prove that the planet is not getting warmer.  It’s that they’re doing everything they can to gut funding for research and development, failing to make the kinds of investments that brought us breakthroughs like GPS and MRIs and put Siri on our smartphones, and stonewalling even military plans that don’t adhere to ideology. That’s not who we are.  We don’t listen to science just when it fits our ideologies, or when it produces the results that we want.  That's the path to ruin.  Sixty years ago, when the Russians beat us into space, we didn’t deny that Sputnik was up there.  (Laughter.)  That wouldn’t have worked.  (Applause.)  No. We acknowledged the facts, and then we built a space program almost overnight, and then beat them to the moon.  And then we kept on going, becoming the first country to take an up-close look at every planet in the solar system.  That's who we are.  That's where facts will get you.  That's where science will get you.  And that’s why, in my first inaugural address, I vowed to return science to its rightful place.  And, by the way, I want to make clear, this idea that facts and reason and science are somehow inimical to faith and feelings and human values and passion -- I reject that.  For us to use our brains doesn’t mean that we lose our heart.  It means that we can harness what's in our heart to actually get things done.  And that's why in the first few months of my administration, we made the single largest investment in basic research in our history -- because innovation is not a luxury that we do away with when we’re tightening our belts.  It's precisely at those moments, when we've got real challenges, when we double down on new solutions that can lead to new jobs and new industries and a stronger economy. So over these last eight years, we’ve worked to recruit the best and brightest tech talent into the administration.  We've partnered with academia and the private sector.  We've empowered citizen scientists to take on some of our biggest challenges.  We’ve reimagined our federal approach to science through incentive prizes and 21st century moonshots for cancer, and brain research, and solar energy.  We’ve turbo-charged the clean energy revolution.  We built the architecture to unleash the potential of precision medicine, dropped enough new broadband infrastructure to circle the globe four times; applied data and evidence to social policy to find out what works -- scale up when it works, stop funding things that don't, thereby fostering a new era of social innovation.  We’ve helped once-dark factories start humming again, putting folks to work manufacturing wind turbine blades longer than the wingspan of a 747.  And we realized that we can’t look to the future if we’re also not going to lift up the generation that’s going to occupy that future.  So we started the White House Science Fair to teach our kids to send a message that the winner of the Super Bowl isn’t the only one that deserves a celebration in the East Room.  (Applause.)  We hooked up more of our classrooms and communities to the high-speed Internet that will help our kids compete.  We’re pushing to bring computer science to every student.  We’re on track to prepare 100,000 STEM teachers in a decade.  And as a running thread throughout this, we are working to help all of our children understand that they, too, have a place in science and tech -- not just boys in hoodies, but girls on Native American reservations, kids whose parents can’t afford personal tutors.  We want Jamal and Maria sitting right next to Jimmy and Johnny -- because we don't want them overlooked for a job of the future. America is about Thomas Edison and the Wright Brothers -- but we’re also the place you can grow up to be a Grace Hopper, or George Washington Carver, or a Katherine Johnson, or an Ida B. Wells.  We’re the nation that just had six of our scientists and researchers win Nobel Prizes -- and every one of them was an immigrant.  (Applause.)  So part of science, part of reason, part of facts is recognizing that to get to where we need to go we need to lift everybody up, because we're going to be a better team if we got the whole team.  We don't want somebody with a brilliant idea not in the room because they're a woman.  We don't want some budding genius unavailable to cure cancer or come up with a new energy source because they were languishing in a sub-standard school as a child. So that’s what I’ve been focused on.  Alexis has done some things.  I’ve done some things, too.  (Laughter.)  But, look, I only get two terms -- which is fine -- (laughter) -- because the presidency is a relay race.  We run our leg, then we hand off the baton.  And that’s why this conference isn’t just about where we’ve been, it’s about where we’re going.  We’re looking to tomorrow.  We're trying to institutionalize the work that we've been doing over these last eight years.  But we also want to make sure that these partnerships continue to thrive well beyond my administration.  The future is yours to create.  It’s all of ours.  And we’ve got a tremendous group here from all across America -- from the sciences, from industry, from academia.  All of you in your own fields are transformative.  You're transforming the way we treat diseases, and building smarter and more efficient, and more inclusive communities.  You’re unlocking the data that make our criminal justice system smarter and fairer.  You’re harnessing the power of artificial intelligence -- big data robotics, automation -– for the good of all of us.  You’re breaking new ground on clean energy and giving us our best hope of staving off the worst consequences of climate change.  And you’re taking us on that final frontier, firing up the boosters for humanity’s journey to Mars.  So, today, I am proud to build on your work.  We've announced federal and private commitments totaling more than $300 million to throw into the pot -- investing in smarter cities; expanding our Precision Medicine Initiative; spurring the development in small satellite technology.  We’re supporting researchers working to better understand our brains -– how we think and learn and remember.   And, in fact, it’s in that area where I’d like to close -- brain research.  Before I came onstage, about half an hour ago, I had the chance to meet an extraordinary young man named Nathan Copeland.  And back in 2004, Nathan was a freshman in college, studying advanced sciences, interested in nanotechnology.  And he was in a car accident that left him paralyzed.  For years, Nathan could not move his arms, couldn’t move his legs -- needed help with day-to-day tasks.  But one day, he was contacted by a research team at Pitt, and they asked if he wanted to be involved in an experimental trial supported by DARPA, the same agency that gave us the Internet, and night-vision goggles, and so much more.  And since he was a scientist himself, Nathan readily agreed.  So they implanted four microelectrode arrays into his brain, each about the size of half a button.  And those implants connect neurons in his brain with a robotic arm, so that today, he can move that arm the same way you and I do -- just by thinking about it.  But that’s just the beginning.  Nathan is also the first person in human history who can feel with his prosthetic fingers. Think about this.  He hasn’t been able to use his arms or legs for over a decade, but now he can once again feel the touch of another person.  So we shook hands.  He had a strong grip, but he had kind of toned it down.  (Laughter.)  And then we gave each other a fist bump.  And researchers will tell you there’s a long way to go -- he still can’t feel with his thumb or experience hot and cold, but he can feel pressure with precision.  That’s what science does.  That’s what American innovation can do.  And imagine the breakthroughs that are around the corner.  Imagine what’s possible for Nathan if we keep on pushing the boundaries.  And that’s what this Frontiers Conference is all about, pushing the bounds of what is possible.  And that’s why I’ve been so committed to science and innovation -- not just so that we can restore someone’s sense of touch, but so we can revitalize communities; revitalize economies; reignite our shared sense of possibility and optimism. Because here in America, with the right investments, with the unbelievable brilliance and ingenuity of young people like Alexis and Nathan, there is nothing we cannot do.  So let’s keep it going.  Let’s get to work.  With that, I think it’s time to start our panel.  Thank you, everybody.  Thank you. * * * * * DR. GAWANDE:  If I were to tie together -- you know, it sounds incredibly disparate -- but the story that is coming out from everything you're saying -- I'm going to take what you said, Riccardo, about the last century, one step farther.  The last century was the century of the molecule.  We were trying to -- the power of reductionism -- boil it down to the most small possible part -- the atom, the gene, the neuron.  Give me the drug, the device, the super-specialist.  And that provided enormous good. But in this century, what they're all describing is now we're trying to figure out how do they all fit together.  How do the neurons fit together to create the kinds of behaviors that you're to solve in mental illness.  How do they fit -- the genes network can fit together in epigenetics to account for the health and disease of the future that we all may face.  And Zoe is describing a super-highway of information and science that is plugging into the patient through a bike path called the doctor's office.  And trying to make a system that can actually bring it all together really is a completely different kind of science from the last century.  It's surrounding these problems.  People come from incredibly different perspectives now.  You're all of them in one.  We normally might bring a psychiatrist and an engineer and a neuroscientist together.  But it really isn’t the age of the hero scientist anymore. And so I want to ask you:  What do we have to reinvent about the way we do science to make all of this possible, genuinely, scientifically, with real innovation? THE PRESIDENT:  Well, first of all, I want to thank the panelists, especially Zoe, because of the story you're telling.  Although, Kaf, it sounds like you were also inspired in part because of very personal experiences.  At the end of the day, they're people who want to enhance their lives.  And so being able to bring it down from 40,000 feet down to what you’re experiencing while you’re waiting on the phone to help somebody you love so deeply I think is a good reminder of why we do this. As you say, Atul, what we’ve been calling this Precision Medicine Initiative is really how we stitch together systems that can maximize the potential of the research that a Kaf or a Riccardo are doing, and end up with Zoe’s husband getting better treatment.  And a couple of things that we’ve tried to do that I think are helping. Number one is to make sure that the data that is being generated by genomic sequencing, as its price comes down, is better integrated and better shared, which is going to require us rethinking research models.  In the past, what’s happened is, is that if a researcher wants to look into cancer, they get some samples from an arrangement, maybe, with a teaching university close by, and their plugging away, somewhat in isolation.  And what we now have is the opportunity to -- as we discover, particularly, that what we used to think of as cancer might turn out to be 20 different types of cancer -- we’re now in a position where we can actually generate a huge database, and as a consequence, not only identify some of the specific features of that cancer, not only identify what kinds of genetic variants might make you more predisposed to that cancer, but we’re also breaking down those silos in such a way where we can accelerate research.  Not everybody has to have one small sample.  Now, potentially, we’ve got a million people who are contributing to a database that somebody like a Kaf or a Riccardo can work on. And what that allows us to do in developing cures is, over time, as Riccardo said, to identify, first of all, do you have a predisposition towards a particular disease, and can we intervene more quickly before you develop it.  Second, can we develop better cures, interventions, as Kaf said.  But third, are we also in a position to get this information to patients sooner to empower them so that they can be in charge of their own health.  Because part of our goal here is to shift from what is really a disease-care system to actual health care system.  So that’s one big chunk of the initiative.  And just to be more specific, part of what we’re doing with the Precision Medicine Initiative is to get a bunch of collaborators to start digitalizing, pooling, and sharing their data.  Within the VA, we’ve got half a million folks who have signed up and are contributing their genetic samples.  We now have more and more institutions that are coming together.  And as a consequence, our hope is, is that if you are a cancer researcher in any particular cancer, you’re going to have a big data set that you can start working off of.  And, by the way, we’re being very intentional about making sure that we’re reaching out to communities that sometimes are forgotten -- whether it’s African American communities, women -- so that we can really pinpoint what works for who. Just one last thing I want to say, though, because it goes to what Zoe said about systems.  Even as we’re doing all this cool stuff to come up with greater cures, what we’re also having to do is try to figure out what are the incentives -- the perverse incentives that are set up in the health care system that prevent it from reaching a patient earlier.  So I’ll just give two quick examples. The first is what you were talking about in terms of your individual patient data.  We’re trying to promote the notion, number one, that this data belongs to you, the patient, as opposed to the institution that is treating you -- because once you understand that it's yours and you have agency in this process, it means that as you're looking for different treatment options, as you're consulting with different doctors, you're able to be a more effective advocate without having to constantly fill our paperwork and so forth.  So that's important.  And one of the things that we've discovered is, is that even the software where your individual patient is stored -- because it's a commercial enterprise oftentimes -- it's not interoperable, it's not sharable in easy form.  And so we've actually been trying to get some of the major providers to start working together so that it makes it easier for somebody like Zoe, if she's moving from system to system to system. The second this is -- and, Atul, you've written about this -- to the extent that we are reimbursing doctors and hospitals and other providers based on outcomes rather than discrete services that are being provided, we can start incentivizing the kind of holistic system thinking in health care -- rather than you come in, you get a test, then you got to go to another place to do this, and then you got to go to another thing to do that, and then maybe the surgeon hasn’t spoken to the primary care physician and you don’t have the outpatient coordination that would make sure that you're not coming back into the hospital. And one of the things that we've been trying to do with the Affordable Care Act, Obamacare, that hasn’t gotten as much attention as just providing people insurance is to make sure that we're pushing, we're nudging the system more and more to do that. So, that was a long answer, but it's a big topic.  The good news is, is that I think we've identified the pathways where we can start making real progress. DR. GAWANDE:  I want to live in your world.  I want to live in the world where -- THE PRESIDENT:  I'm only going to be here for four more months.  (Laughter.)  Three and a half.  DR. GAWANDE:  -- in a world where I get to own -- I have my genomic information, I have my medical records, I have --everything about me belongs to me, and it's easy to access, and I can bring it to the doctors that I need to get it to. The second level -- you know, you announced an initiative today, the All of Us Research Initiative, where you would be able to, A, get that data and then share it with researchers so that they can learn more from you -- trusting that that data is safe. I worked in the Clinton administration, and I got notified that my background records, my clearance records were hacked, right?  If you can hack all of my background records now, suppose you can hack my genetic information, all of my electronic records, my mental health information and more.  And being able to trust -- so we're in this world where having system science only works if it's transparent and information is widely available.  And yet, we're in deep fear about what happens with information and making it widely available. I'd love to hear what you have to think about that.  And I'm going to jump to Riccardo and think in the variety of the world that you've been in, how do we trust that this research is in the right hands? THE PRESIDENT:  I'll be very quick on this.  This is going to be an ongoing problem that we have across disciplines.  It's not just in health care.  As Riccardo said, our lives become digitalized.  It means that how we provide security for that information -- whether it's financial, health, you name it -- is going to be challenging. Now, the good news is that we are making real progress in understanding the architecture that we have to build across sectors, private and public, in order to make this work.  In fact, our outstanding president of Pitt has been working with our cybersecurity committee to really crack some of these problems.  And we've put some guidelines for the private sector and providers to assure best practices on cybersecurity.  But it is going to be something that will be increasingly challenging.  Here's the only thing I would say, though.  The opportunities to hack your information will be just as great or greater in a poorly integrated, broken-down health care system as it will be in a highly integrated, effective health care system. (Applause.)  So I think it’s important for us not to overstate the dangers of -- the very real dangers of cybersecurity and ensuring the privacy of our health records.  We don’t want to so overstate it that that ends up becoming a significant impediment to us making the system work better.  DR. GAWANDE:  Are there technological solutions, Riccardo, to this problem of privacy? MR. SABATINI:  So we started to -- one of the questions we started about a year ago is exactly can we identify someone from his own genome.  So we started to build a class of algorithm to predict and extract information from your genes -- some common traits -- your height, your eye color, your skin color, the structure of your face.  Every single model has its own limitations, sometimes for the lack of data, sometimes because the data is not only in your genes. But what we learned is that using them collectively, we can go a long way to really identify a person from his genome.  So this is something that we have to face, is a digital asset is one of the most complicated ways to be handled.  We want to publish it, we want to share it, but it’s still something -- there is some concern about identity and security. We worked across the board to find different solutions, let’s say, the old system will have to work to find what is the right way.  We are proposing -- and we started to work on a platform called OpenSearch.  It is a way where we decided to share the thousands of genomes in a very secure way with the community a month ago.  We launched it, it’s called OpenSearch -- Search.hli. -- you get inside there, and you can have this Google feeling of shuffling thousands and thousands of genomes, million of records, and hundreds of databases in a very secure way. Now, this is one of the efforts to try to match security and open access and sharing of information.  The one thing I guess we still have to learn is both how every single person feels about tracking or not.  So we always talk about sharing our own information, but do we own our own information?  How many of you have your genomes sequences?  How many of us have sequenced their genome?  Can you raise your hands, for example?  How many of you have your genomes sequenced?  So a very fraction -- typically it’s 2, 3 percent of the audiences when I speak.  So we need to remove a fear, and allow people to engage more in their own health and in their own data.  There are technologies to keep them safe and to keep them secure.  The one thing that is very important is overcoming this barrier of knowing yourself, which I think is the most -- is the hardest hurdle to scale up the databases. Security -- there are the best people working on it across the board, both in the scientific domain and governmental domain. But this should not be a limitation to access your own information and feel comfortable to own your own information and feel comfortable to share it with a governmental infrastructure, and with companies that implement the security right. DR. GAWANDE:  At the center of this I think is a question about optimism and pessimism about whether we can solve these problems.  And I think I would like to ask a question of all of you about our values, the scientific values of a scientific orientation.  And behind that orientation is a fundamental belief -- we have an allegiance to the idea that the way you discover -- the way you explain nature, the way you describe the world, the way you intervene in the world is through factual observation and through testing.  And there’s a certain sense of -- it’s an orientation, it’s a way of being that we’re describing.  It’s an openness, it’s an inquisitiveness, it’s curiosity.  It’s a willingness to acknowledge good arguments and recognize ones that are bad and that haven’t tested out. And that orientation feels like, at times -- on the one hand, it’s been the most powerful, collective enterprise in human history, the scientific community.  And at other times it feels embattled.  And I wonder, why does it seem under fire when we’re -- you mentioned, President Obama, that in certain areas like climate change, or around nutrition, or around other parts of medical care, we have enormously fraught debates.  And it feels at this moment almost like we’re not just debating what it means to be a scientist, but what it means to be a citizen.  What do you take away, Kaf and Zoe, about where we are, and why are we under fire, and how do we get past this? DR. DZIRASA:  I think, in a lot of ways, science, the outcome changes perspective, right.  So when science is useful, we don’t have people arguing about whether polio vaccines are great or not, right.  And so I think there are a lot of areas in medicine where we face this challenge.  I actually think debate is very healthy for science.  I think contentious debate can actually be very helpful for science, in the same way our country was set up in way that healthy, constructive debate can be extremely useful. I think what we want to do, especially as neuroscientists, I think we’re at a place where we need to draw as many people in as possible and have healthy, constructive debates about how we get the outcomes we want.  I’ll give you an example.  I talked to two scientists recently.  One was last weekend -- Steve McCarrol (ph) at Harvard -- and he’d recently come up with a technique where he could sequence the genes of every cell in the brain.  And so when you think about the challenge of something like genetics, you’ve got three billion base pairs in the human genome.  In the brain, we’ve got about a 150 billion cells, half of those which carry electricity, and the electricity is changing every millisecond.  So the problem is enormously scaled.  The Brain Initiative allows us to come up with these tools where now, if you can understand what each individual cell type is, you can now start to have these debates about how to understand what they mean. I’ll give you another example.  I sat with another investigator, Lauren Frank (ph), and he’s now using the Brain Initiative to record many, many channels in the brain, simultaneously, from an animal, where he’s studying how memory works.  This, of course, could one day be useful for something like Alzheimer’s.  And he says now, that he’s able -- within 24 hours, he’s pulling in about 20 terra-bytes of data.  So I’m not that old, I remember when I was in high school, my hard drive had 100 megabytes of data.  So we’re at a place now where we’re going to have to bring in other disciplines to know how to handle that data.  I sat with a high school kid last night, Gabe, and it was pretty clear to me that the people who were going to solve this challenge of the brain are probably in like seventh or eighth grade right now.  And so how do we create an ecosystem where all those different perspectives can come in.  The utility is, when all those different perspectives come in, there has to be contentious debate.  But I think the solutions that will come out of it are what will move people’s perspective on the usefulness of science. DR. GAWANDE:  Zoe, what do you think about the constructive debate you hear, how we get to the more constructive debate, and enough optimism that we want to actually put funding into the kind of work that Kaf is talking about. DR. KEATING:  Well, I think just making it broader.  I was really inspired this morning by a lot of the speakers on the health track, and one of them was Steven Keating -- who’s not related to me at all -- and I was really struck how -- he was a PhD student and he was doing 3D printing.  And he wanted to study his brain tumor, because he had a brain tumor.  But in order to study his tumor, he had to become a medical student in order to get some of the tumor so he could study it.  And that seemed really -- like, wow, that’s limiting.  Think of all these amazing people we have in our country who are doing things, and increasingly people are doing things outside of institutions.  And I feel like that’s where solutions are going to come from.  I think that we should also look at Silicon Valley.  I was thinking about patients and how the whole patient issue I was having is kind of like a user-experience problem that somebody might tackle at a software start-up, and maybe we should approach these things from different perspectives that way. And I think that’s part of this trust -- you were talking about trust in data -- that somehow expanding, bringing in voices, figuring out how people can contribute data, how we can all just be more involved will be a way towards making trust.  The same thing is true with government. THE PRESIDENT:  No, absolutely.  I’ll just pick up on a couple of themes.  Any scientific revolution is, by definition, contesting the status quo.  And we’re going through a period in which our knowledge is expanding very quickly.  It is going to have a wide range of ramifications and you’ve got a whole bunch of legacy systems that are going to be affected.  So if self-driving cars are pervasive, a huge percentage of the American population makes its living, and oftentimes a pretty good living, driving.  And so, understandably, people are going to be concerned about what does this mean.  We’ve heard of the controversies around Uber versus those who have taxi medallions, but it’s actually driverless Uber that is going to be even more challenging. The same is true in the health care field.  One of the things that you discover is this Rube Goldberg contraption that grew up over the last 50 years or 60 years, in terms of our health care system, is there’s all kinds of economics that are embedded in every aspect of it.  So it’s not surprising, then, that when we passed the Affordable Care Act, that there are going to be people who push back not just because they really want to make it work and they’ve got some legitimate, factual critiques of it, but because people’s pocketbooks may be threatened.  And, Zoe, you just used one example, which was the enormous controversy we had when we said that we should phase out certain types of insurance that, on their face, look really cheap, until you have a tumor and it turns out that they don’t cover you.  And that very low-cost insurance, sort of the equivalent of the bare-bones insurance you have to get for driving but when you get in an accident it turns out doesn’t do anything to fix your car -- but obviously much more is at stake here.  We still have debates today where people will say, you know, people aren’t having the choices that they used to have.  Well, the choices, in some cases, that they used to have were choices to get insurance that weren’t going to cover them during a catastrophe. So I think that the way I would like to see us operate -- and we’re not there at the moment, and it will never be perfect -- is, yes, significant debate, contentious debate, but where we are still operating on the same basic platform, basic rules about how do we determine what’s true and what’s not.  And one of the ironies I think of the Internet has been the degree to which it’s bringing us unprecedented knowledge, but everything on the Internet looks like it might be true.  And so in this political season, we’ve seen just -- you just say stuff.  (Laughter.)  And so everything suddenly becomes contested.  That I do not think is good for our democracy, and it’s certainly not good for science or progress or government or fixing systems.  We’ve got to be able to agree on certain baseline facts.  (Applause.) If you want to argue with me about how to deal with climate change, that’s a legitimate argument.  Some people might argue it’s unrealistic to think that we’re going to be able to fix this so we should just start adapting to the oceans being six feet higher.  You might want to suggest to me that it’s got to be a market-based solution, and it’s all going to come through innovation; regulation is not going to help; we need a huge -- I’m happy to have those arguments.  But what you can’t do is argue with me that we’ve had over the last 10, 15 years, each year is the hottest year ever, or that the glaciers are melting and Greenland is melting.  You can’t argue with me about that because I can see it, and we’re recording it. And in the same way around health, I think any good scientist or doctor would not presume to suggest that the sum total of our knowledge is all contained in our current medical schools, and there may be holistic medicines or alternative medicines that are remarkable, but we also should be able to test them.  And you can’t just assert that this works and more conventional therapies don’t work and not be subject to that kind of testing regimen. So that’s where I think we have to move our conversation generally if we’re going to have the kind of debate that Kaf talked about. MR. GAWANDE:  So how do we move our conversation in that way, right?  There was a time when scientists were arguing about climate change, and reasonably so.  THE PRESIDENT:  Right. MR. GAWANDE:  So how do we set up frameworks where we say, this is our time period where we’re going to collect facts, and at the end of the day we will accept the consensus of fact?  How do we do that in our current political enterprise? THE PRESIDENT:  If I had the perfect answer to that, then I’d run for President.  (Laughter.)  Look, this takes us a little bit far afield, but I do think that it’s relevant to the scientific community, it’s relevant to our democracy, citizenship.  We’re going to have to rebuild, within this Wild, Wild West of information flow, some sort of curating function that people agree to.  I use the analogy in politics -- it used to be there were three television stations and Walter Cronkite is on there and not everybody agreed, and there were always outliers who thought that it was all propaganda, and we didn’t really land on the Moon, and Elvis is still alive, and so forth.  (Laughter.)  But, generally, that was in the papers that you bought at the supermarket right as you were checking out.  And generally, people trusted a basic body of information. It wasn’t always as democratic as it should have been.  And Zoe is exactly right that -- for example, on something like climate change, we’ve actually been doing some interesting initiatives where we’re essentially deputizing citizens with hand-held technologies to start recording information that then gets pooled -- they’re becoming scientists without getting the PhD.  And we can do that in a lot of other fields as well. But there has to be, I think, some sort of way in which we can sort through information that passes some basic truthiness tests and those that we have to discard because they just don’t have any basis in anything that’s actually happening in the world.  And that’s hard to do, but I think it’s going to be necessary, it’s going to be possible.  I think the answer is obviously not censorship, but it’s creating places where people can say, this is reliable and I’m still able to argue about -- safely -- about facts and what we should do about it while still -- not just making stuff up. DR. GAWANDE:  Focusing on the idea of places where the scientific orientation can be -- the ethos can be protected is really important.  Science is always probable knowledge.  It's never nailed down.  But we're at CMU, we're at University of Pittsburgh, because they are places that hold those values of scientific orientation.  There are places that live like that online, in patient communities.  There are places that professional societies are making happen.  It's crucial, though, that it also happen in government and it also happen in the private sector.  And I guess my final question would be, for any and all of us, what’s the most important thing we can make sure that we do to keep that scientific orientation, that optimism, and that striving for the big opportunity going?  That we can keep these values as part of the places where we are, whether they’re in the virtual world or in our institutions.  And maybe, I’ll let you have the last word, so I’ll start on that end, if that’s okay, Zoe. DR. KEATING:  Well, I really feel like it’s just this huge opportunity and this way for -- if people feel like they can contribute, that then they will trust things.  They will trust institutions, they will trust government if they feel that they have a voice.  And it’s our job to figure out how can we make this thing the President was talking about -- how can we make the system that allows people to contribute, but it’s somehow vetted so that all that knowledge can be shared, because we need all hands on deck. DR. GAWANDE:  And a chance for people to participate in the science itself. DR. KEATING:  Yes, a chance for people to participate.  And that’s beyond health care, that’s across the board.  And I feel like that’s a huge challenge for our time.  Right now, just how can we do that so that we can really -- because we need everybody’s help in everything that's coming for us. DR. GAWANDE:  Riccardo. DR. SABATINI:  The one thing that -- the fight is a little bit unfair because magic has all the answers -- things that you find around.  There’s always strong answers.  There is the cure of cancer, but it’s closed in a closet somewhere.  Science cannot state those strong answers, because it’s a constantly evolving field, and it wouldn’t be a fair.  But we have a cool story that sometimes we don’t say enough. When we describe how the brain works, when we describe the majesty of what it means watching inside your genes and how the proteins flow, and the molecules, and when I explain these stories and I make them human, and I explain cases -- stories of patients and people that access their health and they really got incredible advancements on that.  When we nail the story right, then we engage the young people, the vast majority of the population.  We tend to fight these bogus messages.  But on one side it means we are failing.  We are failing to tell the amazing advancements that we are doing in the right stories, beating fake stories with great realities.  And this is a challenge that we have to do.  And I’m engaging as much as possible, explaining the excitement that there is in the time in history when we have access to things that we were never even dreaming 15 years ago.  This is the story that we have to tell outside these doors. You are some of the smartest people in this country.  You have to be advocates of how amazing things we’re doing, without giving strong solutions and fake results, but telling that there are the best people chasing this dream and we’re going to crack it.  It is our duty, making people feel confident that this is the right story to follow. DR. DZIRASA:  I’m honored that you chose to sit on this panel, because I think health is the real truth-teller and the real equalizer.  When you think about this country by 2050, we’ll be spending about a trillion dollars a year on Alzheimer’s.  If, Lord willing, we get over 85, half of us will have Alzheimer’s.  One out of every 48 boys in this country are born with autism now.  And so it’s the real truth-teller.  It is the real common enemy that all of us, as Americans, as scientists, as educators have. The reason I’m optimistic is because I fundamentally believe there is a seven-year-old sitting in a classroom somewhere that will take all of these investments and all of this work that we’ve made and transform things for my family.  The challenge for me is that I would love to see an America in which, whether that seven-year-old is sitting in a school in Detroit or Baltimore or Gentry High School in the Mississippi Delta, that they will also have the opportunity for their ideas to bubble up and be nurtured.  Because, at the end of the day, the solution to that common enemy that we all face might be sitting in that classroom right now.  (Applause.) THE PRESIDENT:  Well, I’m going to steal some ideas from what my other panelists have already said. First of all, Zoe’s point about opening up systems so that people understand them and don’t just feel like cogs in that system, but rather, have agency in that system I think is critically important. So what we’ve been trying to do across the board -- and we’re not even close to being there yet -- is to use technology as a way to do exactly what you are talking about.  Whether it’s releasing big data -- and the easiest example, I think, for the general public to think about is all the apps that now give us the weather over our phones, and those are all generated from inside government, but what used to be closed data now we let out there.  Well, it turns out that we’ve got huge data sets on all kinds of stuff.  And the more we’re opening that up and allowing businesses, individuals, to work with that information I think the more they feel empowered.  And that makes a huge difference. The second thing that I want to emphasize is the most important curator to be able to sort through what’s true and false and sustain those scientific values you talk about is the human brain, and making sure that our kids are getting that ability to analyze and do that sorting early.  And so part of the reason why we’ve been emphasizing STEM education is not because we don’t value the humanities -- and I was a political science and English major, and I probably learned more reading novels than textbooks -- but what it does do is, it helps everyone as citizens, even if you don’t become a doctor or a scientist or a physicist, it helps you evaluate information in a way that allows you to make good decisions in your own life but also allows you to participate in the country as a whole.  And so we want everybody -- we’re putting a special emphasis on girls, young people of color, who so often are underrepresented in the STEM fields.  We want to make sure they feel a confidence about so much of the technology and information, revolutions and science that is transforming their lives all around them.  And we want them to be creators of science, not just consumers or if.  So I think that’s very important.  The final thing I’ll say is that government will never run the way Silicon Valley runs because, by definition, democracy is messy.  This is a big, diverse country with a lot of interests and a lot of disparate points of view.  And part of government’s job, by the way, is dealing with problems that nobody else wants to deal with.  So sometimes I talk to CEOs, they come in and they start telling me about leadership, and here’s how we do things.  And I say, well, if all I was doing was making a widget or producing an app, and I didn’t have to worry about whether poor people could afford the widget, or I didn’t have to worry about whether the app had some unintended consequences -- setting aside my Syria and Yemen portfolio -- then I think those suggestions are terrific.  (Laughter and applause.)  That's not, by the way, to say that there aren't huge efficiencies and improvements that have to be made.  But the reason I say this is sometimes we get, I think, in the scientific community, the tech community, the entrepreneurial community, the sense of we just have to blow up the system, or create this parallel society and culture because government is inherently wrecked.  No, it's not inherently wrecked; it's just government has to care for, for example, veterans who come home. That's not on your balance sheet, that's on our collective balance sheet, because we have a sacred duty to take care of those veterans.  And that's hard and it's messy, and we're building up legacy systems that we can't just blow up. We've been pushing very hard in the area of medicine to have the FDA reimagine how it does regulations in the genetic space so that it's different from how they might deal with a mechanical prosthetic.  But I don't want to just blow up the FDA because part of government’s job is to make sure that snake oil and stuff that could hurt you isn't out there on the market being advertised on a daily basis. So there are going to be some inherent balances that have to be taken, and there are equities that are complicated in government.  And I guess the reason I'm saying this is I don't want this audience of people who are accustomed to things happening faster and smoother in their narrow fields to somehow get discouraged and say, I'm just not going to deal with government.  Because, at the end of the day, if you're not willing to do what Kaf said earlier, which is just get in the arena and wrestle with this stuff, and argue with people who may not agree with you, and tolerate sometimes not perfect outcomes but better outcomes, then the space to continue scientific progress isn't going to be there.  And what gives me confidence is that I've met a lot of people as President of the United States, and the American people fundamentally are good, they’re decent, and they’re smart, and they just don't have time to follow everything.  The more we empower them, the more we bring them in and include them, I have no doubt that we're going to be able to make enormous strides.  And the audience here I think is representative of the amazing possibilities that we confront. DR. GAWANDE:  Well, let’s thank the panel.  (Applause.)  And I'd also like to thank the President for having the Frontiers Conference.  I think you set an expectation which can apply to any President in the future of any party that you can be a President for science and health and that we can live up to those values.  So, thank you.  (Applause.)  END 4:35 P.M. EDT

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13 октября, 17:20

Computer Sciences upgraded to buy from at Citigroup

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13 октября, 15:43

FACT SHEET: Harnessing the Possibilities of Science, Technology, and Innovation

President Obama Hosts Frontiers Conference, Focusing on the Potential of Science, Technology, and Innovation to Drive Prosperity and Address Challenges in Personal, Local, National, Global, and Interplanetary Frontiers for the Next 50 Years and Beyond Under President Obama’s leadership, America continues to be the world’s most innovative country, with the greatest potential to develop the industries of the future and harness science and technology to help address important challenges. President Obama has relentlessly focused on building U.S. talent and capacity in science and technology; making the long-term investments that will continue to power American innovation; and setting ambitious goals that inspire and harness the ingenuity and creativity of the American people.   Today, President Obama is hosting a day-long White House Frontiers Conference in Pittsburgh to encourage Americans to imagine our Nation and the world in 50 years and beyond, and to explore America’s potential to broaden participation and advance towards the frontiers that will make the world healthier, more prosperous, more equitable, and more secure. The conference, co-hosted by the White House, the University of Pittsburgh, and Carnegie Mellon University, brings together researchers, business leaders, technologists, philanthropists, local innovators, and students who are the change-makers of tomorrow on these five frontiers. Conference attendees will participate in a national conversation about keeping America and Americans on the cutting edge of innovation in the decades to come, and share work already in progress. In addition, the President will further explore the five themes of the conference in the November issue of WIRED, which will be guest-edited by the President on the theme of “Frontiers.” The Administration is opening the conference with more than $300 million in announcements that exemplify the critical roles that Federal investments, innovative policymaking, and multi-sector collaboration play in seeding prosperity: $70 million in new National Institutes of Health (NIH) investments to help researchers better understand the brain and, ultimately, uncover the mysteries that hold the key to future scientific breakthroughs in areas such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, depression, and traumatic brain injury. $16 million and four new partners within the Precision Medicine Initiative national research study, doubling the number of regional medical health care organizations that will enroll individuals into the large scale health study and push the boundaries of medical care and research innovation. $165 million in public and private funds to support cities in using technology and data to tackle critical quality-of-life challenges, such as traffic congestion. Harnessing the power of data to improve the U.S. criminal justice system, announcing that the Police Data Initiative and the Data-Driven Justice Initiative have each grown to over 100 communities nationwide. Releasing a White House report on preparing for the future of artificial intelligence (AI), outlining the issues that society will have to grapple with to unlock the possibilities of AI. New steps to develop technology—such as deep-space habitats—to help meet the President’s goal of sending a human mission to Mars by the 2030s. $50 million in Federal funds to fuel a revolution in small-satellite technology that could provide capabilities such as ubiquitous high-speed Internet connectivity and continuously updated imagery of the Earth.  A new space-weather Executive Order to coordinate efforts to prepare the Nation for space-weather events. White House Frontiers Conference The White House Frontiers Conference is the first of its kind—a day-long gathering hosted by President Obama to discuss and collaborate on the opportunities and challenges we as a Nation face over the next half-century and beyond. The conference includes the participation of more than 700 innovators from across academia, industry, government, and civil society, who will discuss five frontiers of innovation: Personal frontiers in health care innovation and precision medicine; Local frontiers in building smart, inclusive communities, including through investments in open data and the Internet of things; National frontiers in harnessing the potential of artificial intelligence, including data science, machine learning, automation, and robotics to engage and benefit all Americans; Global frontiers in accelerating the clean energy revolution and developing advanced climate information, tools, services, and collaborations; and Interplanetary frontiers in space exploration, including our journey to Mars. Additional themes cut across the conference’s programming, including: The importance of cross-sector and multi-disciplinary collaboration for solving difficult challenges; Education innovation to develop skills for Americans at all levels; Job creation across these sectors; and Equity, to ensure all Americans have access to these innovations and benefit from advances in these frontiers. Participants will have the opportunity to engage in in-depth conversations, view technology demonstrations, hear lighting talks, share work already in progress, and learn from a diverse array of perspectives. In addition to those attending in person, components of the conference will be livestreamed, and there will be digital opportunities for the public to participate in this critical conversation. Learn more about the conference, including the agenda and speakers, here. Announcements Being Made to Open the Conference Personal Frontiers Science, technology, and innovation funded by the Federal Government have made major contributions to helping Americans live longer, healthier lives. We have vaccines to protect us from devastating diseases like cervical cancer, flu, and meningitis. We have developed an artificial retina and have achieved promising initial results on brain control of robotic prosthetic arms. Just as the seeds for these breakthroughs were planted decades ago, President Obama’s visionary investments in biomedical research, medicine, health, and the life sciences have set the stage for the cures, treatments, and innovations of the future. Today, the Administration is announcing forward momentum in two critical biomedical initiatives: Revolutionizing our understanding of the brain, with $70 million in new investments by NIH in FY 2016. In 2013, President Obama launched the BRAIN Initiative—Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies—to “accelerate the development and application of new technologies that will enable researchers to produce dynamic pictures of the brain that show how individual brain cells and complex neural circuits interact at the speed of thought.” Today’s announcement of over 100 new awards brings the NIH investment in the BRAIN Initiative to just over $150 million in fiscal year 2016 and represents a doubling of the total number of awards made by NIH under the initiative. Moving forward, NIH is also announcing more than two dozen new funding opportunities planned for fiscal year 2017 activities, including proposals to produce a complete census of cells in the mouse brain along with the data infrastructure to make that information readily available to the research community. Since its launch in April 2013, the President’s BRAIN Initiative has catalyzed $1.5 billion in public and private funds, with more than 125 academic papers published tied to the effort and active research programs in five Federal agencies: the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the NIH, the National Science Foundation, Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity, and the Food and Drug Administration.        Building partnerships to enable precision medicine for all. In his 2015 State of the Union address, President Obama announced the launch of the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI), to accelerate a new era of medicine that delivers the right treatment at the right time to the right individual based on the complex and unknown interactions between one’s genes, environment, and lifestyle. As part of this effort—newly named the All of Us Research Program—NIH is building one of the largest, most diverse research studies in history with healthcare organizations, technology partners, community collaborators, and participants. Today, the NIH is announcing four additional partners to double the number of regional medical healthcare organizations that will enroll individuals across the United States into this national study of health. With up to $16 million of additional awards, these new partners will bring research expertise, increased geographic reach (bringing in communities from Pennsylvania, New England, Minnesota, Michigan, Texas, and California), and new methods of engaging hard-to-reach communities to the table. They will help to build a rich, secure database and set of tools that empower thousands of researchers—from citizen scientists to academics—to use this unprecedented repository of electronic health record, medication, survey, biospecimen, genomic, imaging, and wearable data to accelerate breakthroughs that will only be possible with a diverse population of volunteers. Local Frontiers With nearly two-thirds of Americans living in urban settings, many of our complex challenges—from building transportation that fuels equitable growth, to improved community-police relationships—will require cities of all sizes to be laboratories for innovation. The rapid pace of social innovation and technological change—from the rise of data science, machine learning, human-centered approaches, artificial intelligence, the sharing economy, citizen science, social networks, and ubiquitous sensor networks to autonomous vehicles—holds significant promise for addressing core local challenges, not only in urban areas, but also in communities throughout the country. In fact, further advances in connectivity and network innovations hold promise for ensuring small towns, tribal communities, and rural areas benefit from technological advances and also serve as laboratories for innovation.  Today, to harness these opportunities, the Administration is announcing: More than $165 million in public and private funds leveraged by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to deploy smart city technologies in communities across the country, including Pittsburgh. Last September, the White House launched the Smart Cities Initiative to make it easier for cities, Federal agencies, universities, and the private sector to work together to harness new technologies that can help make our cities more inhabitable, cleaner, and more equitable. As part of that effort, today, DOT is building on its successful Smart City Challenge by announcing nearly $65 million through two new grant programs, and leveraging over $100 million in matching funds for advanced transportation technologies. Pittsburgh (PA), San Francisco (CA), Houston (TX), Denver (CO), Los Angeles (CA), Buffalo (NY), and Marysville (OH) are receiving funds targeted at relieving congestion and improving safety of urban transportation networks. For example, Pittsburgh will receive nearly $11 million to execute elements of the vision it developed in its Smart City Challenge application, including deployment of smart traffic signal technology—proven to reduce congestion at street lights by up to 40 percent—along major travel corridors. Denver will also receive approximately $6 million to implement components of the vision developed in its Smart City Challenge application, helping to alleviate the congestion caused by a daily influx of 200,000 commuters each workday through connected vehicles. DOT is also announcing nearly $8 million in new grants for urban and rural communities to experiment with integrating new on-demand mobility services—including smartphone-enabled car sharing, demand-responsive buses, paratransit, and bike-sharing—into existing transit systems. For example, TriMet, which serves Portland, Oregon, will receive funds to integrate shared-use mobility options into its existing trip planning app, allowing users to plan efficient trips even without nearby transit access. Initiatives to enable data-driven policing and criminal justice systems have both grown to over 100 communities. Last year, the Administration launched the Police Data Initiative (PDI) to use data transparency to strengthen police-community relations, by fostering a culture of engagement and accountability. To date, 129 participating law enforcement agencies, serving more than 44 million people, have collectively released over 170 data sets that focus on areas such as traffic and pedestrian stops, use of force, and community engagement. To help establish and disseminate best practices, the Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) will support this initial cohort through its expanded Collaborative Reform Initiative, which bring resources to focus on institutionalizing recommendations from the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing. In addition, earlier this year, to break cycles of incarceration, the Administration launched the Data-Driven Justice Initiative (DDJ) with a bipartisan coalition of city, county, and State governments committed to using data-driven strategies to divert low-level offenders with mental illness out of the criminal justice system and to change approaches to pre-trial incarceration so that low-risk offenders no longer stay in jail simply because they cannot afford a bond. As of today, DDJ has grown to 120 participating jurisdictions covering over 90 million Americans. These jurisdictions are actively implementing data exchanges to identify high utilizers of services and sharing best practices for diversions and coordination with community-based services. Further, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) will collaborate with DDJ to launch up-to three pilot projects in DDJ-affiliated communities. With the goal of reducing unnecessary criminal justice involvement for Veterans, the pilot projects will build and refine a robust model for collaboration between local VA health centers, law-enforcement, behavioral health, and treatment services. The Department of Housing and Urban Development will also provide targeted support to help DDJ communities link data across criminal justice, health, and homelessness systems, so that these systems can better identify and serve those most in need, and help avoid emergency room visits, jails, and shelter stays in the first place. Learn more about these announcements here. National Frontiers In the popular press, the technology sector, the research community, and society as a whole, there is growing interest in artificial intelligence (AI) and the potential of computers capable of intelligent behavior. After years of steady but slow progress on making computers “smarter” at everyday tasks, a series of breakthroughs in recent years in the research community and industry have spurred momentum and investment in the development of this field and brought us to the precipice of transformative change. Though today’s AI is confined to narrow, specific tasks, the rate of recent progress will have broad implications for fields ranging from health care to image- and voice-recognition. AI could deliver transformative solutions in health diagnostics, personalized learning, economic inclusion, bias mitigation, and autonomous transportation. But like any emerging technology, AI also carries risk and presents complex policy challenges along several dimensions, from jobs and the economy to safety and regulatory questions. That is why the Administration is today releasing: A First-Ever White House Report on the Future of Artificial Intelligence. Earlier this year, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy launched a broad consultation process, co-hosting five public workshops, including participation from academia, industry, and non-profits on topics in AI to spur public dialogue on artificial intelligence and machine learning and identify challenges and opportunities related to this emerging technology. With input from those cross-sector conversations, as well as the expertise of Federal agencies, the National Science and Technology Council is releasing a public report, Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence, which surveys the state of AI, its many applications, and the questions AI raises for society and public policy. The report also makes recommendations for further action and sets out a roadmap for how the Federal Government and the country should approach AI in the coming years. A companion strategic plan for research and development in AI. A new National Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Strategic Plan being released today by the National Information Technology Research and Development program lays out a framework for Federally-funded research and development in AI. Global Frontiers Under the determined leadership of President Obama, the United States has been one of the nations leading the world over the past 8 years in taking substantial steps to address the challenge of climate change. In addition to leading efforts on the world stage, such as the historic Paris Climate Agreement, the Administration has pursued climate strategies in science, technology, and innovation that have set the stage for further breakthroughs. The United States, 20 other countries, and the European Union are part of Mission Innovation, a global initiative to accelerate clean energy innovation.  Participating countries are seeking to double their public funding of clean-energy research and development over the next 5 years, to nearly $30 billion per year by 2021. In the weeks ahead, the Administration will publish a new framework for U.S. participation in Mission Innovation, advancing a portfolio of technology options, including new game-changing possibilities, which hold the potential to reduce emissions, while simultaneously building on the growth of the new energy economy. In addition, to help unleash the next wave of clean energy breakthroughs, the Administration launched the Clean Energy Investment Initiative with foundations, institutional investors, and other long-term investors, announcing more than $4 billion in commitments to finance clean energy innovations and climate change solutions. In addition, the Administration launched a number of efforts to advance climate data, information, tools, and services, including the Climate Data Initiative, U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit, Climate Services for Resilient Development, and Partnership for Resilience and Preparedness. These efforts aim to better connect innovators, community leaders, and companies to climate science to support their planning. Over 1,000 climate data sets and hundreds of tools have been made available through these resources. The Administration also developed a Climate Education and Literacy Initiative to ensure that students and citizens understand climate change and are equipped with the knowledge, skills, and training to seek and implement solutions. The pace and magnitude of climate change requires an all-hands-on-deck approach at the frontier of global innovation. At the White House Frontiers Conference, participants will discuss the possibilities that the next stages of this work can hold—advancing clean-energy innovation, providing communities with the climate-impacts information they need, and integrating climate science into education to foster a next-generation workforce who can design a climate-smart future. Interplanetary Frontiers At the beginning of his Administration, President Obama set out a new vision for space exploration, harking back to the spirit of possibility and exploration that defined the space race of the 1960s, while building upon and advancing 21st century technologies and capabilities. In 2010, the Administration restructured the U.S. civil space program to look forward to bold new goals, not backwards to old ones; to collaborate with, rather than compete with, American entrepreneurs; and to broaden participation and take advantage of new technologies being created at NASA and in America’s laboratories. As President Obama noted earlier this week, these policies have fostered a burgeoning commercial space sector that is creating new jobs in places such as California, Colorado, Florida, Texas, and Washington, as the space economy attracts record amounts of venture capital. Working with NASA, American companies have developed new spacecraft that are cost-effectively delivering cargo to the International Space Station and will start ferrying astronauts there by the end of next year. In 2011, the Administration created a new organization within NASA—a Space Technology Mission Directorate—charged with developing new technologies that would enhance capabilities and reduce costs for both the U.S. space industry and NASA’s missions, including critical technologies needed to achieve the President’s goal of a human mission to Mars in the 2030s. These technologies range from better life-support systems to efficient solar-powered electric propulsion systems. Much of this work is being performed in cooperation with companies and universities across the Nation. And now, the Administration has started collaborating with industry to build the space modules or “habitats” in which U.S. astronauts will live and travel to Mars and other deep-space destinations. By doing so, humanity will begin to move beyond the constraints of Earth, out into the depths of deep space—the “proving ground” that will ultimately guide us to Mars and beyond. And in the coming years, the work NASA will do—in collaboration with private and international partners—to develop these deep-space habitats will in turn help reduce the barriers to private companies that hope to build their own space stations in Earth orbit or beyond.  This fall, NASA will also start the process of providing companies with a potential opportunity to add their own modules and other capabilities to the International Space Station. As NASA shifts the focus of its human exploration program to deep space, America’s businesses will take a larger role in supporting space activities in Earth’s orbit. To further build on this momentum, the Administration is announcing: Over $50 million in new Federal investments and steps that will harness the small-satellite revolution. Entrepreneurs are taking advantage of recent advances in electronics and information technology to dramatically reduce the time and cost of designing, building, testing, and launching constellations of satellites.  In the coming weeks, Federal agencies will announce investments and new steps they will take to advance the state of the art in small-satellite technology and increase the adoption of “smallsats” for commercial, scientific, and national security needs. Advancing smallsat technology and adoption could, for example, allow companies to provide ubiquitous high-speed Internet connectivity and offer continuously updated imagery of the Earth. As part of this initiative, NASA will invest $30 million to support public-private partnership opportunities that allow for Earth Science observations to be provided by constellations of commercial small spacecraft. The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency has just entered into a $20 million data purchase agreement with smallsat startup Planet to buy imagery from its constellation of earth-orbiting spacecraft. A new Executive Order to coordinate efforts to prepare the Nation for space-weather events. Building on the National Space Weather Strategy and National Action Plan released last October, today the President will sign an Executive Order that will help minimize the harm that space-weather events can cause across our Nation. The new Executive Order will minimize economic loss and save lives by enhancing national security, identifying successful mitigation technologies, and ordering the creation of nationwide response and recovery plans and procedures. Further, the Executive Order will enhance the scientific and technical capabilities of the United States, including improved prediction of space-weather events and their effects on infrastructure systems and services. By this action, the Federal Government will lead by example and help motivate State and local governments, and other nations, to create communities that are more resilient to the hazards of space weather. A Sustained Focus by President Obama on Science, Technology, and Innovation Since day one of his Administration, President Obama has taken a long-term view, prioritizing the investments, innovative policy actions, and cross-sector collaboration critical to fueling America’s long-term prosperity. In April 2009, he outlined an ambitious agenda to reinvigorate the American scientific and technological enterprise in a speech at the annual meeting of the National Academy of Sciences. In the nearly 8 years since, the full scope of the President’s science, technology, and innovation agenda has been sweeping, and is already setting the stage for new industries and continued innovation in the years ahead. For example: This Administration has launched a network of nine manufacturing institutes, which are helping American manufactures lead the world in innovation. Compared to 2008, wind power has tripled in production and solar power has increased 30-fold. The Administration launched major new science initiatives to advance health care through precision medicine, understanding the brain, accelerating progress in treating and preventing cancer, and combating antibiotic resistance. Over the last 3 years, an additional 20 million U.S. school kids have become connected to high-speed Internet, and the number of schools lacking high-speed connectivity has been cut in half. The Administration has taken steps to support the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace and the safe introduction of self-driving cars onto the Nation’s roads. U.S. companies that got their start supporting U.S. Government space missions have increased their share of the global commercial launch market from zero in 2011 to 36 percent in 2015. 100,000 engineers are graduating yearly from American universities for the first time ever, we are on track to prepare 100,000 STEM teachers by 2021, and the President set a bold vision to give every child an opportunity to learn computer science. In December 2015, Congress responded to the President’s call (dating to 2009) and made the research and experimentation (R&E) tax credit permanent. Federal agencies have made more than 180,000 Federal datasets and collections available to students, entrepreneurs, and the public. Read more examples of President Obama’s leadership in science, technology, and innovation. ###

25 апреля 2014, 07:36

Тенденции в ИТ секторе США

С этой Украиной народ совсем все запустил. Учитывая степень накала можно предположить, что ньюсмейкеры искусственно нагоняют истерию, чтобы отвлечь внимание от более глобальных тенденций, как например развал Еврозоны, провал «японского чуда» и политики Абе, затяжная рецессия в США, очередной провал корпоративных отчетов. Кстати, в последнее время говорят о чем угодно, но только не о последних результатах крупнейших мировых гигантов. Что там с ними?  Из 30 наиболее крупных ИТ компаний в США 11 компаний сокращают годовую выручку по сравнению к 2013 году. Это HPQ, IBM, Intel, Western Digital, Computer Sciences, Seagate Technology, Texas Instruments и другие. Наибольшее годовое сокращение выручки у Seagate Technology – почти 15%. С оценкой 5 летних тенденций, то в наихудшем положении Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Computer Sciences и Texas Instruments, у которых выручка находится на 5 летних минимумах. В таблице данные, как сумма за 4 квартала. Но есть и те, кто вырываются вперед – Microsoft, Google, Ingram Micro, Qualcomm. Apple замедляет в росте и переходит в фазу стагнации с последующим сокрушительным обвалом на фоне роста конкуренции. Intel в стагнации, как 3 года. Данные за 1 квартал предварительные, т.к. еще далеко не все отчитались. Но общие тенденции нащупать можно. Примерно 35-40% крупных компаний сокращают бизнес активность, 25-35% компаний в стагнации и еще столько же растут. Отмечу, что рост отмечает в отрасли, связанной так или иначе с мобильными девайсами – либо производство софта, либо реклама на них, или поставки аппаратной части, как Qualcomm. По прибыли.  Здесь еще хуже. Мало компаний, показывающих приращение эффективности. Около 60% компаний сокращают прибыль, либо стагнируют. Относительно стабильный тренд увеличения прибыли у Google, Oracle, Qualcomm. Хотя темпы прироста наименьшие за 3 года.