Double-stranded DNA break polarity skews repair pathway choice during intrachromosomal and interchromosomal recombination [Immunology and Inflammation]
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) inflicts DNA damage at Ig genes to initiate class switch recombination (CSR) and chromosomal translocations. However, the DNA lesions formed during these processes retain an element of randomness, and thus knowledge of the relationship between specific DNA lesions and AID-mediated processes remains incomplete. To identify necessary...
In wake of companies taking stand in support of gun control, a look with CSR advisors and opinion leaders about the call for companies to take a stance on politically-controversial issues and how best to navigate the dangers of taking or not taking action.
A community relations and corporate giving strategy rooted in grassroots approaches can even prove successful at shattering preconceived notions based on one’s first impressions of a company -- or an industry.
India is preparing to construct a significant overseas military base on an island in Seychelles, an archipelago of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean, off East Africa to counter growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean. Last month, Seychelles and India signed a twenty-year agreement, permitting the Indian military to build an airbase and naval installations on Assumption Island, a small island in the Outer Islands of Seychelles north of Madagascar, said Seychelles News Agency. “This [agreement] reinforces our commitment to not only further deepen India-Seychelles relations, but to also take our partnership to another level,” Indian Foreign Secretary Subrahmanyam Jaishankar said in a statement. “The [mutual] co-operation is exemplified by the operationalization of the Coastal Surveillance Radar System [CSRS] in March 2016, and our commitment to augment the defense assets and capability of Seychelles,” he added. The agreement enhances India’s military capabilities and maritime surveillance of Seychelles’ Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of 1.37 million square km. Assumption Island will serve as a strategic staging area for the Indian military, as the island chain resides between crucial global shipping lanes. This is key as in 2016 alone, “approximately 40 million barrels of oil per day — equivalent to just under half of the world’s total oil supply — traveled through Indian Ocean entry and exit points, including the Straits of Hormuz, Malacca, and Bab el-Mandeb,” said CNN. The EIA classifies the region as a significant chokepoint for maritime transit of oil. More specifically, the EIA calculates roughly 5.8 million barrels per day travels directly by Seychelles, which then ultimately flows to the West. This would indicate India does not just recognize Seychelles as a critical part of its global energy security, but perhaps, India’s push to control the island is a proxy of Washington. All estimates in million barrels per day. Includes crude oil and petroleum liquids. Based on 2016 data. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration India has already provided Seychelles with military aircraft, helicopters, and naval boats. It has installed a coastal surveillance radar system on one of Seychelles’ islands to conduct intelligence gathering activities. Throughout the years, the waters around Seychelles have seen an abundance of Indian warships conducting anti-piracy patrols Senior Indian naval officials have stated that the development of military installations on Seychelles is to offset China’s maritime Silk Road strategy in the Indian Ocean. As CNN notes, India is attempting to better posture itself in the Indian Ocean despite its neighbor and long-standing rival China, who is already situated with military installations in the region. Under Chinese President Xi Jinping, China’s naval reach has grown considerably, expanding far beyond its immediate coastline into areas not previously considered within its sphere of influence. In July last year China established its first overseas military base in Djibouti, near the Bab el-Mandeb Strait, among the world’s busiest shipping lanes and one of three crucial Indian Ocean arteries. The strait, which is only 29 kilometers (18 miles) wide at its narrowest point, connects the Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal, and the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean beyond. The opening of the Djibouti base was followed several months later by the country’s controversial acquisition of the Hambantota port in Sri Lanka, just 22.2 kilometers (13.8 miles) by some estimates from the primary Indian Ocean sea lane that links the Malacca Straits to the Suez Canal. Malcolm Davis, a senior analyst at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute in Sydney, described the Hambantota deal — which saw Sri Lanka grant China a 99-year lease on the port to service some of the billions in debt it owes to Beijing — as part of a “determined strategy by China to extend its influence across the Indian Ocean at the expense of India.” “That port then gives them not only a strategic access point into India’s sphere of influence through which China can deploy its naval forces, but it also gives China an advantageous position to export its goods into India’s economic sphere, so it’s achieved a number of strategic aims in that regard,” said Davis. Indian military officials said Seychelles and Assumption Island are a powerful combination in extending the reach of India’s naval operations, which it intends to rotate aircraft and ships throughout the region. “The development is a clear indicator that India’s geostrategic frontier is expanding in tandem with China’s growing strategic footprint in the Indo-Pacific,” Captain Gurpreet Khurana, of the Indian Navy’s National Maritime Foundation, said. As India fears encirclement by militarist China in the Indian ocean, it only leaves us to believe that these nuclear-armed neighbors could be headed for another military conflict. The last time this occurred it was the war of 1962, which India is making the needed preparations on Seychelles’ chain of islands that will ensure another defeat is not an option.
A recent analysis of 170,000 company ratings from respondents in 15 countries sheds light on which are perceived by consumers as the most socially responsible is a toy and entertainment company beloved by children the world over: Lego.
Since the top ratings agency scores don’t coincide with each other either, it has raised questions on Wall Street about the efficacy of ESG ratings. Again, the SDGs could guide companies toward better alignment in reporting rather than all-out standardization.
Zynga's (ZNGA) fourth-quarter 2017 results are likely to benefit from expanding mobile game portfolio.
Integration and implementation of CSR strategies requires a corporate culture that sees the business within a global system of interdependent players – customers, employees, communities, governments, NGOs, shareholders and suppliers.
Taira Kurihara/Getty Images Companies are starting to care more about corporate social responsibility (CSR). Among the largest 250 companies in the world, 92% produced a CSR report in 2015, informing shareholders and the public about the firm’s activities. That’s up from 64% having such a report in 2005. Today, Fortune Global 500 firms spend around $20 billion a year on CSR activities. Companies are also finding that CSR efforts — such as sustainability initiatives, corporate foundations, employee volunteer programs, and donations to charity — can be important tools for attracting and motivating employees. Research has shown that various forms of prosocial incentives (workers get rewarded not with money, but with the firm engaging in some act to benefit society) indeed increase productivity in simple and complex tasks, increase retention, and even lower employees’ wage demands. It’s no surprise then that more firms might be investing in CSR. But our research shows that firms should not pursue CSR simply for benefits like greater productivity. We found that if employees think their company is using CSR initiatives instrumentally — trying to engage in prosocial activities only to benefit from it — then they’ll react negatively and put in less effort. In other words, while these initiatives will benefit society, they will backfire for companies if people think they’re being used for the wrong reasons. To investigate this, we designed an experiment with an Italian firm. We hired around 3,000 workers on Amazon Mechanical Turk (M-Turk) to create taglines for products that the firm could use on their English website. Workers were asked to come up with three slogans as the baseline. We randomized participants into four main treatments that had differing incentives. We offered incentives to get participants to generate an additional three slogans: We told half the main sample they would get private, monetary bonuses; we told the other half that the firm would donate to charity for the additional work. But while we told half of both groups that the company would give the incentive whether or not they did the extra work, we told the other half the incentive would be given only if they came up with the extra slogans. This condition was supposed to make them see that the incentive was profit-maximizing (instrumental) for the firm — because the size of the incentive was half of the baseline pay, that meant it would be cheaper for the firm to incentivize them to contribute three more slogans than to hire a new worker. Finally, we also had a control group of workers who received only the baseline payment without any other incentives. Additionally, we conducted a vignette study in which we presented a different pool of respondents from M-Turk with one of two scenarios. In both scenarios, a firm committed to annually donating part of its profit to a renowned charity. However, one scenario said that the CEO only decided to commit after market research confirmed that the donation would be profitable for the firm. The other scenario said the CEO decided to make the donation without doing any market research, just because it was the right thing to do. We then asked respondents how attractive it would be to work for the firm and how they viewed the firm in general. Our experiment revealed four main findings. First, monetary incentives and charitable incentives worked differently. While making monetary incentives conditional on performance increased effort (that is, people were more likely to submit three additional slogans when the bonus was tied to outcome than when it was just given), making charitable incentives conditional backfired. Only 49% of workers submitted additional slogans when the donation to a charity was tied to their extra work, compared with 54% of workers who did extra work when the donation was made independent of their effort. In other words, when the company only donated if it gained from employees’ extra work, employees were less motivated to do that work. Second, when we surveyed these workers about their opinions of the Italian firm, we found that those who were offered conditional incentives (both monetary and charitable) rated the firms as less socially responsible than those who were offered non-conditional incentives. Third, we saw that the effect of a conditional charitable donation was particularly strong for workers who seemed less interested in charity in the first place. Our survey of these workers asked about whether they regularly donate or volunteer to charity. We found that workers who said they seldom donate or volunteer were even less likely to submit extra slogans to support charity when that support was conditional on their work. This makes sense if you think about it: They were not as motivated to work harder to support a social cause, and they still got a negative impression of the firm’s motives. We saw that 54% of those workers created more than three slogans when they were told a donation would be automatic, but only 43% did so when the donation actually depended on their effort. Fourth, prosocial incentives in general backfired compared with the control group: We found that more workers (61%) were doing three more slogans when they were simply asked to do it than when they were offered a charity incentive. The proportion of workers who did extra work dropped to about 52% with charitable incentives. So even the workers who saw that the company would donate to charity irrespective of whether they sent in more slogans were less likely to do the extra work than workers who were asked for more slogans with no additional incentive. We believe this is because the simple act of announcing the firm’s charitable donation could be perceived as instrumental or strategic to increase workers’ effort. The results from our vignette study also suggest that employees care about the intentions behind companies’ CSR activities, not just the positive impact those activities have on society. We found that when CSR was made strategically — that is, conditional on a positive outcome from the market research study — respondents rated the firm as less attractive, viewed the firm as less socially responsible, thought the donation was less generous, thought the donation would be less effective in motivating workers, and said they would be less likely to accept a lower wage to work at the company. Taken together, these results suggest that using CSR instrumentally to increase profits might destroy the very benefits it hopes to achieve. But it’s important to note that our setting had three important limitations. First, our workers were recruited on Amazon Mechanical Turk and are a selection of (gig) workers. We couldn’t investigate the effect of intentions behind CSR on a firm’s actual employees. Second, charitable giving is only one form of CSR, and making charitable incentives performance-based is only one type of instrumental CSR. Workers could react differently to other types of activities. Third, in our experiment workers were randomly assigned to the treatments, which means they were not allowed to sort into specific incentive schemes. One might expect that workers who care more about charitable initiatives are more likely to choose companies that invest highly in CSR. This sorting is likely to mitigate the negative effect of prosocial incentives for such companies. However, companies that are not renowned for their CSR activities may have a pool of less-prosocial workers, which could accentuate the negative effect found in our study. Hopefully these limitations will motivate follow-up studies. Overall, our study indicates that firms probably should not use CSR initiatives as merely another tool to benefit their HR strategy. Workers care about the genuine use of prosocial incentives and may react negatively to firms using social initiatives to increase productivity or profits. Just as we care about other people’s intentions as well as their actual behavior, workers care about why firms offer CSR incentives, not just how much good they do. It is a tricky balance to get right. But our research suggests that prosocial incentives whose main goal is to increase the firm’s profit can backfire. Managers need to genuinely care about the social impact of their CSR actions — only then will workers reward it with higher productivity.
There’s a shift in the market where ESG analysts are looking for publicly disclosed information; there’s really a responsibility for the company to make information publicly available, where raters can access the information to fairly evaluate companies.
It was last night the GF said unto me, "Cappy, let's get some dinner." Preoccupied with taxes and mundane busy work, I said, "Fine. Find a place and let's go." And in about 10 minutes she had found a place - "Culinary Drop Out."So off to the preppy parts of Scottsdale we went where upon entering the restaurant we both knew she had made a mistake. For the restaurant was not so much a restaurant but a dog-rescue like non-profit where the last vestiges of hipsters, millennials, and people confused about their sexual identity were hired and provided a nice little preserve to live in (ironically...or perhaps not so ironically... in the most preppy, conformist part of Arizona). It was bad enough I could not look at our server, who although nice and very good at her job, was so pierced, tattooed and poorly dressed, it ruined the dining experience.We ordered quick.Ate fast.And got the hell out of there.However, whilst waiting for our food I couldn't help but notice what was on two TV's that hung above the bar. One TV was showing the X games, the other some "music awards ceremony."One TV had snowboarders working amazing tricks on the half pipe.The other had two aged baby boomer hippies playing guitars.One had 20 somethings flipping snowmobiles off of jumps.The other had some old washed up 60 somethings blathering on about some cause or another.One had youth cheering on loudly as skiers did triple-lindys off a jump.The other had middle-agers donned in tuxes and formal regalia, golf clapping at the latest award awarded to some person or another for some thing.The two could not have been more juxtaposed and they highlighted an important lesson for everybody to learn about awards - they no longer mean anything.After watching Bruno Mars (I can at least visually identify him) win "Best New Album" I finally broke down and looked up which award ceremony was being broadcasted on CBS and it turned out to be the "Grammy's."At one time, when I was in single digits these ceremonies and awards might have meant something. My mom would sit me down to watch Ms. America, which at least in theory celebrates beauty. I recall watching the various "ammy's" because there was no cable, they had pomp and circumstance, and there wasn't much else to do that late in the evening for an 8 year old. But the first hint I received that something was amiss and that these award ceremonies were absolutely pointless was when Jack Nicholson wasn't even nominated for his role as the Joker in Batman.I didn't have much time to think about it soon after that because I would be shipped off to college soon thereafter and my consumption of pop culture would tank for the next 6 years. But further bits of data and evidence would soon appear proving nearly every societal establishment, institution, guild, and pillar was corrupt and their "prestigious awards" completely pointless.While in college Arafat won a Nobel Peace prize in 1994, which only echoed various UN nominations of dictators to human right's commissions and positions. This was confirmed when a man who LITERALLY HAD NO REAL WORLD WORKING EXPERIENCE AND HADN'T DONE ANYTHING YET won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2009 - Barack Obama. There was the fact I had a 3.96 but couldn't technically graduate with "honors" because I didn't spend enough time in extracurricular activities that included diversity, working with the poor, and other such political claptrap. All of which was backdropped by now two decade's worth of "ammy" awards where skill and talent is rarely discussed, but speeches against BushHitlerTrumpIraqEtc., seemed to be all that mattered. Stephen Colbert's hosting of one of these "ammy" awards recently, where all he did was obsess over Trump like a teenage girl, epitomized this.But while the awards of our global institutions have been co-opted for blatant leftist political reasons, awards in nearly every aspect of American life have also become pointless.For example take the self-inflicted sob story of arguably America's dumbest woman - Sarah Pool. Among the story of self-inflicted ruination, Sarah holds up her 3.95 GPA in "English" as an accomplishment or prize, when in reality it doesn't take much to get a high GPA in the liberal arts and grad inflation is rampant. Those hipsters working at the Culinary Dropout? Merely representatives of the first generation of adults who had meaningless participation trophies, not to mention the elimination of GPA's and valedictorians in some of their schools. And in what can only be described as the most perfect example of mental and ego masturbation the "Chicago Bird Collision Monitors Awards" which merely award awards to each other and is endemic among non-profits, academia, and CSR departments.What is happening is very simple. To actually achieve something noteworthy takes effort, rigor, sacrifice, thought, and time. In short, you must pay a price, beyond financial, to do something noteworthy, let alone win a real award. But with a softening of American resolve and a decay in the quality and caliber of Americans, more and more people want the benefits of the award without the actual achievement that would earn them one. This is not only hypocritical, but insane, because I don't know how you can enjoy or take pride in an award when you did nothing to earn it. This is epitomized in the vast number of various civilian awards, titles, and honors issued by the Soviet government to aggrandized themselves and legitimize communism even though there was nothing of genuine accomplishment to celebrate. The "donating blood" award was merely the Soviet's equivalent of a soccer mom's bumper sticker of "My Student is a Great Student and Dumfuck Elementary,"but in all honesty is more of an accomplishment than Barack Obama's Nobel Peace Prize.The question is whether society realizes this or they fail to see past these formerly glorious institutions' past reputations. Does little Johnny actually think he's "a great student" because his mommy (and every other students' mommies) have bumper stickers on their SUV's? Does little Suzie with her 48 participation trophies think she's accomplished at anything? Do all the graduate students in the liberal arts think they're education and not indoctrinated simply because they have an advanced degree in some leftist liberal arts slop? And much as you may like him, you gotta know that Barack himself doesn't actually believe he deserved that Nobel Prize.The good news is that even though I was in the hipster-rescue charity called "The Culinary Dropout," nobody was watching the Grammy awards. They were more focused on the actual display of athletic excellence being portrayed on the X Games and not the washed up hippies playing their guitars and the nearly-dead golf-clapped them on as they no doubt called for more of other people's money to solve problems they really cared about. I charter this more to the fact flipping snowmobiles is just more impressive and eye catching, but there is also salvation in the internet. The internet has truly democratized media where CBS, the MSM, and large traditional institutions no longer have the pull they once did. Not only because "the youth" today no longer watch TV and are instead glued to their cell phones, but the old dinosaur institutions that present awards are so far up their own asses and too busy blowing each other, they've lost touch with the younger generations and lost touch with what it means to be "excellence." Dragging Bono's ass up on stage thinking the 19-34's are going to watch him (yet again) lecture them about how they should feel guilty does not have the pull as to whether Shawn White is going to make that epic flip. Having Madonna's wrinkly corpse up on stage lecture the 19-34 year olds is not as exciting as whether or not their post was liked on Facebook or Suzie Q is going to Snapchat a nudie pic to Bobby Joe. It is the laziness, lack of genuine excellence, political corruption, and the alternatives the internet provides that has ended the value and ultimate meaning of the world's traditional awards. And thank god because they mean absolutely nothing.________________If you like the truth, check out Aaron's other cool sites, books, and consider becoming a patron so he can keep speaking the truth!PodcastAsshole ConsultingYouTube ChannelTwitterBooks by Aaron Patreon Amazon AffiliateHHR4HM7ZPMV3
My history with MGTOW is no secret.Like millions of other men I am one, but once the movement was co-opted by weaker men who were looking for a religion or an excuse to excuse their cowardice and laziness when it came to women (and life), I abandoned the term as it became a pejorative, much like the word "feminism." However, to this day me and millions of other men remain your classical MGTOW - we re-prioritize our own personal lives over women and do not put them or the pursuit of them at the top of our lives.This created a schism between those real men who took what philosophical value they could from MGTOW and moved on in life versus those who are cultish about it and use it as a religion. This "Cult of MGTOW" has received much mockery and ridicule from those outside the cult because it's painfully obvious how they are "abusing MGTOW."They use it as a religion/crutch in life because they (typically, though not always) have nothing else in life.Some are overweight and unattractive, but too lazy to do what is necessary to become physically fit, and thus attractive, and thus provide what women are looking for in a man. This laziness is more powerful than their biological drive to pursue women, but does not eliminate their desire for women. This is why they MIRE in the ideology, rather than just pursue a monastic life of celibacy and asexuality. They may put MGTOW first, but they ironically obsess about the thing they're too lazy to get - women.Some are fresh off of divorce and are in the stage of "Red Pill Rage," a completely understandable, if not avoidable stage in life when you realize you've been lied to your entire life. Most men move on from this, but some do not, which leads to...Genuine misogyny. I don't know if this is a cathartic release for some MGTOW's or an actual hatred of women, but the only place I've witnessed ACTUAL MISOGYNY has not been in "corporate America," or "government" or "schools" or in the social world. It's been in the MGTOW community. This is certainly not the majority of them (cult or not), but modern day MGTOW, just like feminism is where you will find a genuine hatred of people because of their plumbing.Normally this irrational and flawed thinking would banish MGTOW to where it belongs - a dismiss-able cult. It may have meant something at one time, but its modern day acolytes and participants have warped it into something worthless, arguably counter-productive, possibly evil. But just when you think you have a movement pegged, just when you think O'Sullivan's Law is cementing itself in a group, society changes to such an extent, this previously pointless movement now has validity again. And MGTOW, even in its extreme form, is at least more valid today than it was yesterday.What has brought MGTOW partially back to the fore front has been a RECENT and DRASTICALLY INCREASING intensity of the hatred of men. Understand since about the 1960's the hatred of men, in the form of feminism, has always been there. Women can hide behind the false claim it's about "the equal treatment of women," and some feminists may actually believe that, but their actions indicate it's about the superior treatment of women, and thus, by logical default, the inferior treatment of men. This has always been the default standard background noise, sometimes getting louder in the late 60's and 90's, while getting quieter in the 80's and 00's. But in the past 5 years, particularly the past 2, the hatred of men has been turned up to 11 and is higher than any point I've witnessed in my 40+ years of life.Some of this is due to the fake rape epidemic on college campuses where feminists have successfully convinced women that drunk sex, regretted sex, an unwanted advance or a clumsy proposition from men qualifies as rape or assault.There's the INCREDIBLY disturbing trend of women using rape accusations as a weapon of revenge when a man dumps them or refuses their advances.There's also the sexual harassment/assault scandal of Hollywood, where while some legitimate concerns and instances of assault occurred, it has triggered a witch hunt in others, manifesting in the Aziz ballyhoo.All of this mired in the broth of a purposed and indoctrinating anti-male ideology instilled by feminists in academia, but also supported by the media, the HR/CSR profession, and the government.I could go on, but in the end, you're not losing it. You're not mental. You're not "seeing things." There is a conscious (and sadly, unconscious) purposed effort in some segments of society, many of those institutions (like academia, the legal profession, etc.), to hate men. And not only hate men, but to make masculinity illegal. Whether it's because of an actual bigotry against penis, a money making operation for feminists, gender consultants, professors, and lawyers, or just a weapon for a woman scorned, it doesn't matter, a significant percentage of the population hates men.Which sadly, re-validates a movement like MGTOW, even in it's cultist form.I have been lucky enough to know many kind and genuinely good women. And there are many kind and genuinely good women in my life. But that's only because you tend to keep the good ones around. And if you think about it, you've come across many bad people (men and women) in your life that you simply avoided or passed by. But it only takes one to really put a burr in your saddle, or in the case of false rape accusations, ruin your life. And with women being conditioned and brainwashed, especially the younger ones, to constantly look to be a victim, men are forced to walk on eggshells their entire lives. Worse, when the "crime" is being watered down so much from the traumatic, unwanted, and forcible penetration of rape to "he hit on me" or "I was drunk" you now make standard male, genetically programmed behavior illegal, or at least socially ostracizeable. And while to this day I don't believe the majority of women are like this, it sadly presents the paradox of Muslims and Muslim terrorists. Is it 1 in 100 that wants to blow up a building? Is it 1 in 10? Is it 1 in 5? It only takes one jaded girl who swallowed whole the indoctrination they received in school or the media to falsely accuse a man of rape/assault/harassment, the fear of which is now irreversibly hard-wired and installed in men of today.This means, much as I may disagree with the modern day cultists of MGTOW, their cynicism has a point and their jadedness serves a purpose today. In today's environment men cannot simply be men, hitting on girls, getting shot down, occasionally not, getting drunk, and scoring through some miracle of god as they have time-immemorial. The risks are just too high. This doesn't mean you become a hermit, ne'er talking to a girl again, but sadly you must be guarded and be very discerning of the women you hang out with, and certainly approach. Sadly, even using apps like this, in-human and sterile and unromantic as it may be, may be the precautionary legal condom you have to use before the real thing. Worse, be prepared for it to only get worse where masculine behavior might actually made illegal. Remember, it only takes one sperm to get past the goalie, one Muslim to drive a truck in a crowded European marketplatz, and one woman thoroughly steeped in victimhood and feminist ideology to make for a very bad day.Remember, a red pill a day keeps the divorce lawyers away, and though I have my disagreements with MGTOW, you may want to introduce yourself to the philosophy._________________Check out Aaron's other sites! PodcastAsshole ConsultingYouTube ChannelTwitterBooks by Aaron Amazon AffiliateHHR4HM7ZPMV3
DNA double-strand break response factors influence end-joining features of IgH class switch and general translocation junctions [Genetics]
Ig heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) in B lymphocytes switches IgH constant regions to change antibody functions. CSR is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within a donor IgH switch (S) region and a downstream acceptor S region. CSR is completed by fusing donor and acceptor S region...
With last week’s bold announcement by Laurence Fink, founder and chief executive of BlackRock, we thought it’d be a perfect time to show you how to search for the CSR initiatives of public companies within Sentieo.
House and Senate Republicans disagree on key government funding issues, and they’ll still need buy-in from Democrats.
Intentions for Doing Good Matter for Doing Well: The (Negative) Signaling Value of Prosocial Incentives -- by Lea Cassar, Stephan Meier
Prosocial incentives and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives are seen by many firms as an effective way to motivate workers. Recent empirical results seem to support the expectation that prosocial incentive, e.g. in the form of a charitable donations by the firm, can increase effort and motivation - sometimes even better than monetary incentives. We argue that the benefits crucially depend on the perceived intention of the firm. Workers use prosocial incentives as a signal about the firm's type and if used instrumentally in order to profit the firm, they can backfire. We show in an experiment in collaboration with an Italian firm, that monetary and prosocial incentives work very differently. While monetary incentives used instrumentally increase effort, instrumental charitable incentives backfire compared to non-instrumental incentives. This is especially true for non-prosocially-motivated workers who do not care about the prosocial cause but use prosocial incentives only as a signal about the firm. The results contribute to the understanding of the limits of prosocial incentives by focusing on their signaling value to the agent about the principal's type.
Фондовые индексы Азиатско-Тихоокеанского региона закрылись в основном со снижением, так как неопределенность в отношении прогноза по продвижению плана республиканской налоговой реформы повлияла на настроение инвесторов. Региональные экономические данные действительно помогли нескольким рынкам на ранней стадии сессии, но настроение стало осторожным со значительным негативным уклоном по мере продвижения торгов. Австралийский рынок восстановился после плоского старта, но не смог удержать прибыль и в итоге несколько снизился. Акции HT & E упали в цене более чем на -7%, а Retail Food Group - на -4,6%. Бумаги Macquarie Atlas Roads, Flexigroup, Fairfax Media, JB Hi-Fi, Sigma Pharma, Alumina, Sirtex Medical, CSR и Whitehaven Coal также закрылись со снижением в диапазоне на -2-4%. На торгах в Токио, Nikkei 225 закрылся в красной зоне, несмотря на улучшение деловой уверенности в Японии. Опрос Банка Японии Tankan показал, что индекс настроений крупных японских производителей достиг 11-летнего максимума, так как доходы компаний по-прежнему остаются высокими на фоне улучшения ситуации в мировой экономике и продолжения роста ВВП Японии уже на протяжении 7 кварталов подряд. Индекс настроений крупных производителей в четвертом квартале составил 25 против 22 за предыдущий квартал, достигнув максимума с 2006 года. Экономисты ожидали рост показателя до 24. Также стало известно, что индекс настроений крупных непроизводственных компаний в четвертом квартале составил 23, как и ожидалось, оставшись на уровне третьего квартала. NIKKEI 22553.22 -141.23 -0.62% SHANGHAI 3266.15 -26.29 -0.80% HSI 28848.11 -318.27 -1.09% ASX 200 5997.00 -14.30 -0.24% KOSPI 2482.07 +12.59 +0.51% NZ50 8360.86 +37.11 +0.45% Информационно-аналитический отдел TeleTradeИсточник: FxTeam
Remember ladies, these forward thinking, progressive companies care about you and CSR and diversity and women's rights so much.HHR4HM7ZPMV3
Etsy (ETSY) benefits from expanding customer base, new tools and cost reduction initiatives.