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Authored by Jeff Thomas via InternationalMan.com, The American colonies were made up of people who could not accept the downward progression in Europe and said, “I’m leaving.” That took great courage, as they were leaving their few known comforts for unknown difficulties. However, once they had made the move and overcome the difficulties of settlement, they understood that their courage had been rewarded. Such people never look back and say, “Maybe we shouldn’t have left.” There can be little doubt that they taught their children and grandchildren the values of courage, determination, hard work, and self-reliance. And more and more immigrants were added to their numbers, each of whom was also courageous enough to abandon Europe for freedom and opportunity. They raised generations of people with a “pioneer spirit.” Not surprisingly, then, that when the American colonists were squeezed by King George for increases in tax, it wasn’t difficult for them to refuse. They chose to go it alone, rather than allow the British king to steal the fruits of their labours. Although the tax level at that time was a mere 2%, it was the principle that taxation is theft that angered them. Further, they had already proven to themselves that they had all the character qualities necessary to determine their own future. And so, in a sense, the American Revolution was Act II of the quest for freedom and, of the two challenges, it may have been the easier one to face. However, the America of the late eighteenth century is not the America of today - and the outcome will not be the same for Americans in the present era. It’s important to remember that only a very small percentage of people actually left Europe to find freedom. The great majority remained behind, complaining about the ever-increasing loss of freedoms, but doing nothing about it. Although their governments took more and more from them, the great majority simply tolerated it, saying, “What can you do?” They became the eventual victims of that oppression, as has happened throughout history. Those in America today are, in essence, a subjugated people, just as Europeans were prior to the American Revolution. They’re accustomed to the concept of the “nanny state”—one which taxes its people heavily and throws back a portion of what they’ve stolen in the form of “bread and circuses,” as in ancient Rome. Americans today complain continually, either that too much is being taken from them or that the state isn’t providing them with sufficient largesse. Some even complain of both at the same time. And yet, a very large percentage of Americans holds out “hope” that somehow, the process will reverse itself—that a new political candidate will appear—a “Freedom Fairy,” who will somehow stand in front of the runaway train, stop it, and reverse it. Historically, this never happens. What happens is that a small number decide to set sail and escape. Whether it’s the Roman commercial class, who walked away from their shops and travelled north to live amongst the barbarians, rather than accept Rome’s increasing domination, or the German Jews who locked up their shops and homes and boarded ships to the West, just prior to the lockdown of 1939, every burgeoning new “free” society has been created by the few who took courage and made an exit from a dying society. In every case, those who exited did so with fear in their hearts that they would fail. They left their larger possessions behind and travelled light, sewing coins and jewellery into their clothing, not knowing whether they would succeed. However, when they arrived at the new frontier, they met other like-minded people, each of whom had also shown courage and determination. They then created a new society that was, predictably, based upon the principles described above. Today, a similar exodus is occurring. It’s made of those who place their liberty and hope for a promising future above the comforts and freedoms that, one by one, are being taken from them by their governments. Of course, the details are not the same. They no longer travel by ship, but by jet. No one sews valuables into their clothes, as they’d never get through the metal detectors. Instead, they convert their assets to cash and purchase precious metals, to be stored in a country where there is diminished risk of confiscation by governments. As has happened throughout history, the exodus is being undertaken quietly. Those who emigrate do not wish to call attention to themselves, but then, neither do the governments of the countries they’re leaving. It’s never seen on the news, and the official numbers who leave are far below the number that actually departed. But the details of the exit are unimportant. What is important is that, when people meet the challenge to exit to find freedom and self-determination, they then build an extremely strong and free society. And there are many locations in the world where this is presently taking place. But what of those left behind? Surely, the present-day US is at a breaking point and may very well explode into civil disobedience—even revolution. Yes, this is quite so. And again, history shows us what happens in countries where the majority feel that they’re entitled to be looked after; that the rich must “pay a little more” to provide them with largesse. Good examples of this are the Russian Revolution and the French Revolution. Both of these are marked by a predominance of belief that “someone has to pay so that I can benefit.” In both revolutions, the aristocracy were violently removed and the rebels scrambled to grab as much of the spoils as possible. Disorder became prolonged and the new leaders that rose up were, if anything, more oppressive than those they replaced. Today, in visiting the US and talking with Americans, it’s palpable that most Americans now have a gut feeling that this will most certainly not end well. Most hope that there might be a peaceful transition of some sort. Some vainly hope that a “Freedom Fairy” will emerge. But, Americans, more than most people in the world, incorrectly believe that freedom only exists in their country and that, when it dies there, it will die everywhere. This is far from true, but it does mean that those who were born in the former “land of the free” are more fearful and discouraged than those elsewhere. The great majority doubt that it’s possible for them, individually, to choose freedom, rather than to go down with the ship. They, in effect, are exactly the same as the great majority in Europe in the eighteenth century. The American colonies were built upon the courage of a few who chose to leave the dominance and stagnation in Europe. The same is true today. The USA may be a sinking ship, but the concept of “America” is not. It’s a movable concept and it can exist anywhere that people have chosen future freedom over tentative comforts. * * * A “pioneer spirit” isn’t the only thing you need if you want to leave the sinking ship and pursue freedom. You’ll find details on what else you’ll need in Doug Casey’s special report, Getting Out of Dodge. Click here to download your free PDF copy.
KEITH CAN’T ANSWER: Keith Ellison Dodges Four Times When Asked If He Will Repeal Tax Cuts — Calls T…
KEITH CAN’T ANSWER: Keith Ellison Dodges Four Times When Asked If He Will Repeal Tax Cuts — Calls The Cuts ‘Small Money.’ Crumbs, you might say (if, God forbid, you were Nancy Pelosi).
A faint glimmer of hope for Tesla's tumbling stock emerged around noon when Jalopnik reported that Tesla is reported to be making 2,000 Model 3s per week, perhaps enough to ease stock market nerves around the electric carmaker after a week dominated by a barrage of negative newsflow following of a deadly crash involving its semi-autonomous autopilot, a debt downgrade, NTSB outrage, and all culminating with Musk April Fool's joking about a Tesla bankruptcy. Musk is said to have told employees in a company-wide email on Monday that Tesla had just passed the 2,000 per week rate, according to Jalopnik. While that is still short of the company's downward revised 2,500 per week target (from 5,000 originally) it is a notable increase from the 793 Model 3s that the company built in the final week of last year, and similar downbeat estimates from most Wall Street analysts. It produced 2,425 of the cars in the whole fourth quarter. Tesla shares recovered from an 8% drop before the Jalopnik report filtered into markets to trade down 3.5% on the day, although it has since resumed sinking once more and was down 5.5% most recently According to Jalopnik, in the email, "sent at the perfectly normal email time of 3:01 a.m. PDT on a Monday", Musk said it has been “extremely difficult” to pass the 2,000 vehicle per week rate for the Model 3, “but we are finally here" and quoted the CEO as saying: "If things go as planned today, we will comfortably exceed that number over a seven day period!" The message suggests the company rapidly exceeded production of the Model 3 over the past week. “It took five years to reach the 2000/week production rate for S and X combined, but only nine months to achieve that output with Model 3,” he wrote. “This is already double the pace of 2017!” he wrote. “By the end of the year, I believe we will be producing vehicle sat least four times faster than last year.” Bloomberg, which has been tracking production totals for the all-electric sedan, said over the weekend that Tesla had been hitting around 1,200 per week. Goldman's estimates of production were not much better. There is of course Tesla's own guidance, which in the company's Q3 2017 investor letter was the following: Based on what we know now, we currently expect to achieve a production rate of 5,000 Model 3 vehicles per week by late Q1 2018, recognizing that our production growth rate is like a stepped exponential, so there can be large forward jumps from one week to the next. We will provide an update when we announce Q4 production and delivery numbers in the first few days of January. Oops. In other words, it all comes down today's production update: as some perfectly summarized, Tesla - a $45B market cap company - is throwing a Hail Mary today, and IF it works the company will only miss the production target set in Dec of 2017 by 20%, and in Sept 2017 by 60%. The far bigger problem is if the stock does not rebound on the "fake" beat, and instead continues sliding. That would be the the signal for TSLA longs that it's time to get out of Dodge.
From callbacks to other series to actors showing up in unexpected places, fans should keep an eye out for these fun moments on 'The Walking Dead'.
A few days ago we told you about the driver of a Dodge Hellcat who got busted after hitting 160 mph in Indiana. Such excessive speeders sometimes get caught, sometimes get killed. And sometimes ... they get away. In today's take-it-to-the-track news, Colorado troopers spotted a Mustang doing 140 mph at 12:30 a.m. Friday morning on I-70 around Glenwood Springs.
Luckily no one was injured after a truck container's top fell on a sedan on a highway in central China. Check out http://rt.com RT LIVE http://rt.com/on-air Subscribe to RT! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=RussiaToday Like us on Facebook http://www.facebook.com/RTnews Follow us on Telegram https://t.me/rtintl Follow us on VK https://vk.com/rt_international Follow us on Twitter http://twitter.com/RT_com Follow us on Instagram http://instagram.com/rt Follow us on Google+ http://plus.google.com/+RT RT (Russia Today) is a global news network broadcasting from Moscow and Washington studios. RT is the first news channel to break the 1 billion YouTube views benchmark.
Saving for retirement is a top priority for all families. But young people have some excuses for putting off the investment accounts for a few more years.
Authored by "Ehsani" - a Middle East expert, Syrian-American banker and financial analyst who visits the region frequently and writes for the influential geopolitical analysis blog, Syria Comment. * * * The Mideast is doomed. Egypt alone needs to create 700,000 jobs every single year to absorb the new job seekers out its 98 million population. A third of this population already live below the poverty line (482 Egyptian Pounds a month, which is less than $1 a day). The seeds of the vicious circle that the Mideast region finds itself in today were planted at least 5 decades ago. Excessive public spending without matching revenues were the catalyst to a faulty and dangerous incentive system that helped to balloon populations beyond control. A governance system that was ostensibly put in place to help the poor ended up being a built-in factory for poverty generation. Excessive subsidies helped misallocate resources and mask the true cost of living for households. Correlation between family size and income was lost. Successive Mideast leaders are often referred to as evil dictators. I see them more as lousy economists and poor users of simple arithmetic and excel spreadsheets that can help demonstrate the simple, yet devastating power of compounding. Unless you are a Gulf-based monarchy enjoying the revenue stream from oil and gas that can postpone your day of reckoning, the numbers in nearly every single Arab country don't add up. Image source: Middle East Eye via AFP, Egypt. It is important to note that excessive population growth is not fundamental the issue here. Japan and many parts of Europe are suffering from too little population growth. The problem in Arab societies is lack of productivity stemming from weak private sector and overburdened bankrupt public sector. As students of Economics know, "Potential" Economic Growth of a country is derived by adding the growth rate of its labor force to the growth rate of the economy's productivity. High labor force growth therefore ought to be a plus for the "Potential Growth". The Arab World's problem is that it suffers from shockingly low levels of "productivity". This may seem like a fancy word but the concept encapsulates everything that Arab economies and societies suffer from. Why does the Arab world have such low productivity? The answer lies in everything from excessive size of public sector, subsidies and overbearing regulatory system leading to corruption. As public sector liabilities grow, education, healthcare & infrastructure funding suffers. Why is the size of the public sector coupled with excessive subsidies the problem? Because what starts as the noble cause of helping the poor ends up masking the true costs of raising family size. Governments soon go broke. Services suffer. Anger rises. We know the drill now. * * * The average cost of raising a child until age 18 for a middle-income family in the U.S. is approximately $245,340 (or $304,480, adjusted for projected inflation). That is about $15,000 per child per year for a two-parent family with median annual income (college costs excluded). Growing up in Syria, I can still recall the "Family Booklet". The more dependents you had on that booklet, the more was your allocation of subsidized rice, sugar, tea, edible oil, etc. Your home electricity was also subsidized. So was your diesel. Schooling? Free all the way. Not only almost all your food staples and energy use was subsidized, the Syrian State used to give a prize (Nishan) to women who gave birth to 12 children or more. Syria at that time had about 6 million people (and produced 300,000 barrels of oil a day and had plenty of water). Without having to pay full price for bread, sugar, electricity, tea, fuel or education (all the way to college) and with the State becoming by far the largest employer (job guaranteed), the Syrian population doubled every 22 years. Imagine the pressures on the State coffers. There's no need for much imagination about how Syrian State fared as its population doubled every 22 years while its oil reserves and production dropped by 50%. It was still expected to offer all those freebies to a populace that never once asked how the State was to pay for all this. Not only Syrians never asked how their state could meet those obligations while they doubled every 22 years but the State itself never explained. It is debatable that the State was even aware of the power of compounding and what that does in the outer years (50 years ahead). As State finances (revenue minus expenses with little to no borrowing program) suffered, so did the services. Schools, hospitals, municipal services became insufficiently funded. They were examples of Paul who had to be robbed to pay Peter (subsidies & losing public sector). As the state could not increase salaries with inflation, real wages and standards of living suffered. Even Mother Teresa would have had to accept a bribe if she had 5 kids and a salary of $150 a month. Corruption is an inevitable by-product of a broken system. When the State can't meet its built-in obligations, services suffer, corruption is rampant. The public's anger grows and fingers start to point at anyone and everyone that is getting a bigger slice of the cake that is not growing anywhere near number of mouths it needs to feed. In the end, governments that start off by offering more than they can sustainably afford in the long run, end up being criticized and even toppled for seemingly not providing enough to a population that grew beyond that capacity of the system to handle. When Governments spend, they can fund their expenditures in three ways: 1) Collect taxes 2) Borrow (assuming Lenders are available) or 3) Print money (assuming the central bank is not totally independent of the govt). Without sustainable tax base, it's unlikely lenders will be willing to fund governments unless the latter are asked to pay unsustainably high interest rates. Similarly, printing money will soon lead to debasing the currency and rampant inflation. * * * What about Collecting taxes? Inscribed over the front door of the US tax office, (IRS) are the words "Taxes are what we pay for a civilized society." As one once also said: "Countries that don't have a properly observed tax regime usually fall into chaos and corruption." Growing up in Syria, avoiding taxes was akin to breathing. It had to be done. Often times, tax rates were impossibly high (top marginal rate was once over 70%). Not paying taxes is not just the fault of citizens but also the government's which needs to accurately calibrate those rates. Regardless of underlying factors behind poor tax collection, the fact is that the Syrian government was expected to provide services, run losing businesses (public sector) & offer generous subsidies without matching tax collection or borrowing. Something had to give - quality of services. As spending increased with rise of the population, the government investment in schools, hospitals, roads, municipal services, civil servant salaries and human capital suffered and even froze. The public had the right to complain but the public didn't want to know how the government was funding itself. "When the children come, God will hand their fortunes along with them" - this is what we grew up hearing from families whose income did not seem to support the number of children they had. People would laugh it off as a joke. Sadly, this was Syria's ticking time bomb. On my trip to Syria few months ago, a young gentleman at my hotel explained to me how he was finding it hard to resist the pressure from his extended family and friends to stop at 5 kids. His father had 11. His brothers had 8-9. Having only 5 himself was insulting to his manhood. Like most Arab countries, Syria's peak fertility (Avg number of children per woman) was between 1975-1980. The world's highest then was Yemen at 8.7. Syria was 9th in the world at 7.47. It was in the company of Senegal, Malawi, Niger, Kenya, Rwanda, Afghanistan & Gaza. Even by 2005-2010, Syria's population growth rate was still in the top 10 in the world at 3.26%. It also had one of the world's youngest populations with a median age of only 15.4 years (only 4.8% was over the age of 60; these statistics are from UN'S World Population tables). * * * Egypt did embark on strong population control strategy. Over two decades and by early 2000, its population growth rate dropped from 3.5% to 1.7%. Large billboards were used in rural areas. An expanded use of contraception program was also effective. Sadly, success didn't last, and by 2007, complacency set in. Mubarak also started pushing back against international NGO's administrating the programs. Once he was overthrown & Morsi came in, all contraceptions were banned. Before long, growth rate was back up to 2.55% taking country's population near 100 million. While Egypt tried its hand with family planning, Syria never did. But this thread is not about merits or problems of population growth - it's about fiscal pressures and what this dynamic inflicts on state budgets in a world of high subsidies, excessive public spending and limited resources. The Syrian government was either not fully aware of the unfolding dynamic or that it was aware but it found it politically difficult to embark on a serious family planning program. Was the religious minority status of the leadership a factor and how would the religious establishment react? Whatever the motivations or the excuses were, the fact remains that no steps were taken to match the baked-in future population numbers with revenues or resources. The only way was to make cuts in government investment, freeze public salaries and watch the quality of the services decline. Many have blamed current Syrian Leadership for a long list of governance shortfalls. No one (included Assad himself) can claim otherwise. What this long explanation has to highlight is that at least empirically speaking, Bashar Assad inherited a near impossible situation. * * * Ironically, when Hafez Assad took over, he wrestled the Ba’ath party to the right as he fought off the more leftist wing that took power with him first. He immediately embarked on his “corrective movement”. I recall American cars being allowed as imports (yellow dodge taxis). Older members of my family still refer to the period between 1970 and 1976 as Syria’s golden period. Merchants saw their businesses boom as foreign trade was relaxed and the corrective movement quickly became seen as a tilt to the right from an earlier ultra leftist leaning. Regardless of your politics, Hafez Assad was a larger than life figure in modern Syrian politics. Soon after taking over, he powered forward building a top down centralized State (Syria was part of Soviet camp during Cold War) that would come to dominate Syria’s future. Merely 6 years after taking over, sporadic assassinations became widespread. Syrians would later find out their Govt was at war with the Muslim Brotherhood culminating in Hama in 1982. This 6-year battle between Islamists & Damascus left its mark in Syria’s DNA ever since. Having been near a death situation, Syrian Leadership abruptly reversed the trends from 1970-1976 when it opened the economy and relaxed international trade and moved almost the exact opposite direction. The old Eco corrective movement was frozen. Security reined supreme now. Between 1982 and the year 2000 when Bashar took over, Syrian Leadership spent most of its energies making sure the Islamist and Ikhwan (Muslim Brotherhood) would never see the day of light again.Being charged with belonging to Muslim Brotherhood received the death sentence by law. Add in the collapse of the Soviet union (Syria was a big victim of this huge event), falling reserves and oil production, currency devaluation, restrictions on foreign exchange transfers using draconian laws, Syria’s economy took a beating just when its fertility was in the top 10 globally. * * * Fast forward to 2000 when current President Assad takes over. Yes, expectations and hopes were high both domestically and internationally. A very young population now has one of theirs. He studied abroad. He was surely going to reverse direction both politically & economically. From the start, Bashar’s main challenge was always going to be how to meet those high expectations. Political activists and thinkers quickly set up Damascus salons to carve a new political platform where they can start to participate in political life. Economically speaking, there was now talk about allowing foreign banks and even starting a stock market. Economic reforms of this type were always going to produce winners & losers. Those w capital made it big. They now owned banks, insurance companies and hotels. And the losers? Losers were all those one of 7.4 kids born around 1980 to mothers with high fertility rates and fathers who did not have the income to support them. Those in rural areas fared worse. They were ill prepared or educated. The state was increasingly unable to support them. The state never implemented family planning campaign (how would Islamists have reacted to Alawi President trying to reduce the numbers of the majority?). The state also never communicated to the public that course country was on was arithmetically untenable. The clock kept ticking. This is not to say State didn’t make mistakes. Old agrarian policies were by now resulting in over-exploitation of groundwater resources (again this was an inherited legacy). What was new was 2007-2009 drought that was one of worst in recent memory. * * * What about corruption? Corruption thrives in heavily bureaucratic centralized systems where civil servants suffer from frozen salaries and inflation rates that eats away at their real purchasing power. Without supplemental income, employees at all levels of the state apparatus will hardly survive As the State can't afford to raise salaries with inflation, employees at all levels are left to fend off for themselves to make ends meet. The state knows it, the public knows it & what you end up with is institutionalized corruption as inevitable consequence of broken system. For corruption at this level to be addressed, the level of public spending and liabilities have to fall dramatically. The size of government has to be smaller. The public sector has to slim down. Those left can now receive proper wages. Taxes must all get collected as the state gets a handle on finances, What about corruption at highest levels? What about Rami Makhlouf? As we found out recently in Saudi, this problem is not restricted to Syria. This is not to say that Rami and leadership made a mistake in occupying such visible position in Syria's economy. Rami Makhlouf seems to have turned into the lightening rod for every Syrian whose purchasing power or standard of living fell behind. While its impossible not to appreciate the reasons behind this widespread public sentiment at the time, a little bit of math helps here. Many cite the "billions that Rami stole". Suppose that all this is true and that Rami siphoned off $1 billion every single year. Had this money gone to the public, each of 23 million Syrian would have had their income rise $43 a year ($3.65 per month). Hardly solves the issue. No one ought to dismiss the negative effects of high level corruption at the high end. Appearance and optics matter tremendously and Rami’s case is a perfect microcosm of that. But, had Rami not been around, it would make very little difference to the broader issue at hand. * * * What about Western political meddling? The state department had run a democracy promotion program since September 11 (2001) and many activists were supplied with media training & equipment to help them capitalize on the moment when it presented itself. March 2011 was that moment. What about political reforms that were expected after Assad’s arrival in 2000? This was classic case of high expectations clashing with reality on the ground and the system as a whole. What was seen as needed “reforms” to some was viewed as dangerous slippery slope by others. What was described above was the nasty cocktail mix that was waiting in the wings as events unfolded in March 2011. Those who wanted more political participation included the poor, those from the rural areas, the Islamists and the regional/western adversaries of the Syrian leadership. Assad may not have anticipated the Tsunami early but by the summer & end of 2011, he made up his mind. This was going to be a fight till the end where losing was not an option. There would be no panic but he would stop at nothing till he ensures victory. * * * In conclusion, Assad was dealt a tough hand. He inherited a legacy that was born out of years of governance challenges. How would one maintain a largely socialist structure while the population doubled every 22 years and revenues from the country’s natural resources were falling by nearly 50%? When and if Syria’s war is over, a new chapter and contract must start. The private sector must become the engine of growth. Regulations must be streamlined. Taxes must be cut to level low enough to ensure respectable collection rate. And one final idea, or a wish list of sorts: Rather than financial handouts, Syria must ask for 20 year grace period that would allow it to get to export to the rest of the world free of duties. Sanctions ought to also be lifted. Investments in labor intensive industries must be encouraged to help employment. If and when the economy finds its footing, it's critical that women's labor participation rises from the abysmal rates in the region. Studies conclusively show that increased women participation in the labor force is the single biggest factor behind population growth control.
A fifth of New Yorkers are set to pay more under the president’s tax law.
NEW YORK (Reuters) - U.S. fund investors drained the most cash from the stock market since early February's market meltdown, dodging declines while making a tactical bet on fallen technology...
The older you get, the more you should be concerned about potentially developing these health conditions.
Технология BIM-проектирования широко распространилась по всему миру, со временем она получит широкое распространение и в России. Но пока коммерческий сегмент не готов платить за такую технологию
Want to be happy in your next vehicle? Consumer Reports says to avoid these 10 car brands in 2018.
Cricket Australia announces Darren Lehmann to stay as coachThe Spin: Smith is enveloped in a perfect storm And you can email Michael here, or tweet him @michaelbutler18 6.30pm BST Sutherland is very keen to stress that more sanctions may well follow for the players involved, pending the finalisation of the investigation. 6.27pm BST Sutherland is now taking questions, but dodging them. When asked directly if they cheated, he is damning of the incident but doesn’t answer the question directly, even when asked on a number of occasions. “It’s a dark day,” he says. Continue reading...
Пикапы - самые американские и самые, на мой взгляд, интересные автомобили. Я их люблю и хочу о них рассказать. А чтобы меня не обвиняли в "монетизации" сделаю это на примере марки, больше не представленной на нашем рынке. Не думаю, что GM хотя бы поблагодарит меня за эту публикацию.По некоторым данным, несколько самых первых пикапов Chevrolet были произведены еще в 1914 году. Они предназначались не для продажи, а для перевозки всевозможных грузов по территории автомобильного завода. так сказать, для внутреннего пользования! Понято, что ни один такой автомобиль не сохранился. Первые серийные пикапы были построены в городе Флинт, штат Мичиган, 22 ноября 1916-го и отгружены с завода 2 декабря того же года. Эта дата считается официальным выходом Chevrolet на рынок легких грузовиков. Машина, которую вы видите на фото, это современная реплика одного из первых пикапов Chevrolet 490.1918 модельный год ознаменовался выпуском сразу двух грузовых моделей. Обе они представляли собой грузовое шасси с металлическим капотом, под которым был установлен четырехцилиндровый бензиновый двигатель. В то время покупатели обычно сами оснащали автомобили деревянными кабинами, грузовыми платформами или кузовами, в зависимости от своих потребностей. На картинке вверху, пассажирская модификация модели Light Delivery. Я где-то читал, что в те годы за такой автомобиль просили $595. Немало, ведь это были другие, полновесные доллары, не те, что сейчас... Более тяжелая модель, построенная на той же базе, носила индекс T (Truck). Она отличалась усиленным шасси и ее грузоподъемность достигала одной тонны - вдвое больше, чем у Chevrolet 490. На машину устанавливался 37-сильный двигатель. Его мощности хватало, чтобы грузовик развивал скорость до 40 км/ч. В 1918 году чтобы купить такое транспортное средство нужно было выложить более 1000 долларов!В 1930 году на смену грузовым шасси пришли полноценные пикапы заводского производства. Компания Chevrolet приобрела кузовную фирму Martin-Parry и начала сама производить пикапы со стальной кабиной и установленным на заводе кузовом. Сердцем новых пикапов стал рядный шестицилиндровый двигатель. Его конструктивная особенность заключалась в верхнем расположении клапанов. Такие моторы стали характерной чертой практически всех пикапов Chevrolet следующих десятилетий.На фотографии модель Chevrolet Roadster Delivery, который впервые "засветился" в музыкальной кинокомедии "Follow Thru", вышедшей на экраны в 1930-м году. Видимо, в этом фильме что-то было связанно с гольфом, не случайно же сидящие в кузове актрисы держат в руках клюшки!К середине 1930-х полутонные автомобили с заводскими стальными кузовами стали основой рынка пикапов, где фирмы Mack, Studebaker и International конкурировали с Chevrolet, GMC, Ford и Dodge.В середине 1930-х годов, когда экономика США начала восстанавливаться после Великой депрессии компания Chevrolet вывела на рынок новые модели легких грузовиков обтекаемой аэродинамической формы, которая до сих пор считается эталоном дизайна той эпохи. Помимо прочих усовершенствований, модели образца 1937 года обрели усиленный кузов и более мощный 78-сильный двигатель.Этот пикап Chevrolet образа 1937 года с честью выдержал изнурительное путешествие длиной 10 245 миль по Соединенным Штатам, проходившее под наблюдением Американской автомобильной ассоциации (ААА). Кстати, средний расход топлива составил 11,3 л/100 км - неплохо даже по современным меркам!В начале 1947 года Chevrolet представила легкие грузовики серии Advanced Design – первые среди всех автомобилей корпорации General Motors, полностью обновленные после Второй мировой войны. Замысел рекламщиков и производителей состоял в том, чтобы сделать утилитарные машины более яркими, выразительными и привлекательными для потребителей. Дизайнеры компании, действую по команде маркетологов, шире расставили фары, установив их на крылья, а также подчеркнули решетку радиатора пятью горизонтальными планками. Получилось неплохо! На фото - полутонный пикап Chevrolet Advanced Design 1947-го модельного года.Машины, выполненные в этой, удачно найденной, стилистике, продержались на конвейере с 1947 по 1953 год, а затем, в начале 1955 года, был обновлен дизайн передней части (на фото вверху).После выхода на рынок моделей серии Advanced Design предпочтения американских покупателей стало постепенно смещаться в сторону пикапов. Если перед войной соотношение между продажей пассажирских автомобилей и легких грузовиков составляло примерно 4:1, то 1950 году уже 2,5:1. Пикапы стремительно набирали популярность! В середине 1950-х годов, полностью восстановившаяся после войны Америка переживала потребительский бум. Покупатели стали еще более разборчивыми и требовательными к дизайну и техническим характеристикам автомобилей. В связи с этим, в 1955 году Chevrolet представила публике совершенно новую линейку пикапов Task Force, дизайн которых перекликался с престижной легковой моделью Chevrolet Bel Air. А в качестве опции на пикапы стали устанавливать более мощные двигатели V8.В 1955 году была выпущена специальная версия пикапа Cameo Carrier. Это была уже не "рабочая лошадка", а стильный автомобиль, более уместный на подъездной дорожке к роскошному особняку, чем на ферме или заводской площадке. Можно считать, что именно с этого момента большие американские пикапы перестали быть чисто утилитарными транспортными средствами. Модель Cameo Carrier производился относительно недолго, всего лишь до 1958 года. Но ей на смену уже шли новые еще более роскошные пикапы. 1959 год. Красавица Chevrolet El Camino просто очаровала публику эффектным дизайном с характерными для того времени «килями» как у легковых моделей Chevrolet и функциональностью полутонного пикапа. Впрочем, грузить в такую машину сено и солому вредил кто-то стал. "Фермерской" эта машина могла быть только на постановочных рекламных фотографиях а в повседневном использовании ее практичность, как говорится, оставляла желать... Вскоре это поняли и покупатели. Восторги поутихли и производство El Camino по-быстрому свернули, для того... чтобы возродить через три года! Но уже в новом качестве. С мощным двигателем V8 под капотом Chevrolet El Camino 1964 модельного года стала одним из первых маскл-каров компании. Еще за два года, до появления легендарного Camaro! А в 1968 году появилась спортивная версия пикапа. Ее назвали El Camino Super Sport. С тех пор все самые "заряженные" модели Chevrolet стали носить индекс SS.Но я как-то забежал вперед. Помимо El Camino в 60-е годы встречались еще более причудливые пикапы. Например Chevrolet Corvair Rampside 1961-го года.Интереснейшей особенностью этой модели стал второй откидывающийся борт, находящийся сбоку, как дверь у микроавтобуса. Да и внешне пикап Chevrolet Corvair здорово напоминал автобус. А еще он был заднемоторным - шестицилиндровый опоенный двигатель находился под полом. Конструкция получилась слишком уж оригинальной и покупатели ее не оценили. Источники утверждают, что таких машин было выпущено всего-то около 800 штук. Тем не менее, своей страницы в истории пикапов Chevrolet модель Corvair достойна!На этом мы пока остановимся. Продолжение следует!