Here's a look at seven things we learned from the new 'Infinity War' trailer, starting with a surprise meeting between Thor and the Guardians of the Galaxy.
WHY ARE DEMOCRAT-MONOPOLY INSTITUTIONS SUCH CESSPITS OF PURITANICAL COMSTOCKERY? Cosmopolitan on “16 Nonsexual Things That Are 100 Times Hotter Than Sex:” When it comes to sex, the internet has pretty much all the porn any woman could ever ask for. But if you’re like me, you may be looking for something to get your rocks […]
Citizen Financial (CFG) came out with earnings per share of 63 cents surpassing the Zacks Consensus Estimate of 59 cents.
As the Senate tries to revive an Obamacare repeal effort, Seema Verma has been an almost constant presence in Capitol Hill meetings.
House Democrats approved a new slate of caucus rules Tuesday aimed at limiting the time their members can serve in some leadership posts — but not the top-tier spots. The rules package doesn’t apply to House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi of California and Minority Whip Steny Hoyer of Maryland, both of whom are not term limited in their positions. Pelosi and Hoyer have led the caucus for nearly 15 years.Instead, the term limits apply to posts created last November after some disappointed Democrats challenged Pelosi’s leadership and demanded more opportunities for younger members.The rules adopted Tuesday prohibit the caucus leadership representative — a member who has been in Congress five terms or less — from serving more than one term in that post. The initial slate of rules allowed for the caucus leadership representative to serve two terms, but some members, led by Rep. Joe Kennedy (D-Mass.), successfully pushed for an amendment to limit the position to one term.Before the amendment was adopted, Rep. Tony Cárdenas of California, the current member serving in that post, said he and other future representatives should be able to serve two terms, arguing four years gives a member time to grow into the position.But Kennedy said the idea of creating the position in the first place was to provide more opportunities to members who otherwise feel shut out of caucus leadership. Reps. Debbie Dingell of Michigan and Kathleen Rice of New York have both complained about the prospective rules in recent weeks leading up to today’s vote, insisting the five-terms-or-less post should be restricted to one term.Dingell ran against Cárdenas for the job last year and lost. Rice, meanwhile, has repeatedly called for a wholesale leadership change at the top. Dingell and Rice did not speak at Tuesday's caucus meeting, according to sources in the room. Democrats agreed to limit voting for the caucus leadership representative to lawmakers who have served in Congress five terms or less.Democrats also have a freshman representative, another post added to the leadership roster last year. That position is currently held by Rep. Colleen Hanabusa of Hawaii. The caucus also adopted a rule Tuesday limiting the time members can serve as leaders of House Democrats’ messaging arm. Members are now limited to two consecutive terms as co-chairs of the Democratic Policy and Communications Committee. The DPCC was divided into three electable co-chair positions as part of the leadership changes adopted last year. Reps. Cheri Bustos of Illinois, David Cicilline of Rhode Island and Hakeem Jeffries of New York are the current leaders of the group. The Democratic Caucus has long argued over whether to adopt with term limits; unlike Republicans, House Democrats use a seniority system for some of their most coveted spots, like committee leadership posts.In recent years, some members, particularly those elected since 2010 who have never served in the majority, have called for ranking members and other leadership positions to be subject to term limits, too. But outspoken opposition from certain wings of the conference, most notably the Congressional Black Caucus, has prevented that idea from ever gaining real traction.The package adopted Tuesday is the culmination of months of work by the the Committee on Organization, Study and Review, led by Reps. Karen Bass of California and Brian Higgins of New York. Bass and Higgins were tasked with making the longstanding caucus rules more user-friendly and clarifying the roles and term limits for newer leadership positions.The caucus also agreed to rename OSR the Committee on Caucus Procedures.
1. CASSIDY says he agrees w/ McConnell that the Medicaid CPI-U caps won’t actually take effect: “I mean, it’s eight years. That’s a long ways.” Link here. That’s now old news, but it’s still worth repeating. 2. David Brooks on Bourdieu (NYT): People at the top, he observed, tend to adopt a reserved and understated […] The post Tuesday assorted links appeared first on Marginal REVOLUTION.
With Senate Republicans unable to find compromise on legislation to repeal and replace Obamacare, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich declared Monday night that GOP lawmakers, whose party controls the White House and both houses of Congress, need to "perform."“We’ve had six months of patience. It’s time to perform,” Gingrich told Fox News’s “Hannity” Monday night. “Frankly, about healthcare, [if] you can’t pass the gigantic bill, tell me what you can pass, but get something done that starts to move us away from Obamacare.”The former speaker vented his frustration just hours after Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) announced that his party would not move forward on a procedural vote on its repeal-and-replace legislation and would instead bring to the floor and vote on a so-called “clean repeal” bill that undoes the signature healthcare legislation of former President Barack Obama but does not replace it. Republicans in both the House and Senate passed a version of that legislation in 2015 that was vetoed by Obama.News that Republicans had abandoned efforts to repeal and replace Obamacare simultaneously sent the value of the U.S. dollar tumbling Monday night into Tuesday morning. The dollar index, which measures the U.S. currency against a basket of foreign currencies, dropped to its lowest level since September 2016, CNN reported Tuesday. The dollar also weakened against the Euro, the British Pound and Japanese Yen. After more than seven years of campaigning on repealing Obamacare, Republicans have run headlong into the political realities of rewriting the laws governing the nation’s healthcare system and have struggled to find consensus within their own caucus. The division within the GOP has largely broken down between arch-conservative members, for whom proposed repeal-and-replace measures do not go far enough in undoing Obamacare, and more moderate members, concerned about deep cuts to Medicaid and other programs embedded in the proposals.In the House, Republican lawmakers were able to strike a compromise, but just barely, passing a repeal-and-replace bill by just a handful of votes. That legislation’s passage prompted Trump to host a celebration in the White House’s Rose Garden with GOP members of Congress, even as Senate leaders declared that they would write their own legislation instead of taking up the House version.But crafting a bill that could pass in the Senate has proven too tall an order, at least for the time being, for the chamber’s Republican leaders. With a much narrower majority than that of their GOP colleagues in the House, Senate Republicans could afford to lose just two votes and still pass repeal-and-replace legislation, a tight window that seemingly slammed shut Monday when Sens. Mike Lee (R-Utah) and Jerry Moran (R-Kan.) joined Sens. Susan Collins (R-Maine) and Rand Paul (R-Ky.) in opposing the bill.Virginia Gov. Terry McAuliffe, a Democrat and the current chairman of the National Governors’ Association, was optimistic that the impasse in the Senate could lead to a bipartisan approach to reforming the nation’s healthcare system. But he cautioned that “nobody should be spiking the ball in the end zone today” in celebration but should instead be focused on next steps.“I knew for the last couple days after all the governors met this weekend in Rhode Island that this was a non-starter. This wasn't going to go forward… this is a great opportunity, now they need to come together in a bipartisan way,” McAuliffe said. “Today is a great day. The politics is done. They cannot get this through. Let's go back and do what she should have done day one.”Gingrich suggested that Republicans must take a lesson from the challenges they’ve faced in working to repeal and replace Obamacare as they seek to make good not just on their long-made campaign promises but the ambitious agenda laid out by Trump. “First of all, you’ve had six months to look at what happened, what worked, what didn’t. It’s like a football team at halftime,” Gingrich said. “It’s like a military operation in the middle of – you’ve got to take steps, you have to learn lessons. I think that they’ve got to figure out how to do things faster, more simply.”
Tesla and SpaceX CEO says AI represents a ‘fundamental risk to human civilisation’ and that waiting for something bad to happen is not an optionTesla and Space X chief executive Elon Musk has pushed again for the proactive regulation of artificial intelligence because “by the time we are reactive in AI regulation, it’s too late”.Speaking at the US National Governors Association summer meeting in Providence Rhode Island, Musk said: “Normally the way regulations are set up is when a bunch of bad things happen, there’s a public outcry, and after many years a regulatory agency is set up to regulate that industry. Continue reading...
Senate Republicans have no timetable for a vote with John McCain recovering from surgery. But they might not be able to pass a bill even if he was in Washington.
The announcement follows Sen. John McCain's announcement that a recovery from surgery will keep him away from Washington next week.
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on Friday said U.S. President Donald Trump told him that he did not expect to subject Canadian steel and aluminium to face tariffs on national security grounds. Although Trudeau said last month he had pressed Trump to exclude Canada, his remarks on Friday were the first to reveal the president's response. "I've heard from President Trump as well that he does not think that Canada should be subject to national security concerns around the trade in steel and aluminium," Trudeau told reporters at the U.S. National Governors Association meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.
Vice President Mike Pence met with Prime Minister of Canada Justin Trudeau today after both leaders addressed the National Governors Association in Providence, Rhode Island. On behalf of President Trump, the Vice President recognized the importance of the beneficial US trade and investment relationship with Canada, while expressing the need to work together to address lingering trade disagreements. The two leaders also expressed their shared commitment to update and modernize NAFTA through constructive renegotiation. The Vice President and Prime Minister discussed the two countries' extensive cooperation on national security and defense issues, including concern over the escalating situation in North Korea, and Vice President Pence recognized the Prime Minister for increasing national defense spending.
Rhode Island Convention Center Providence, Rhode Island VICE PRESIDENT PENCE: Prime Minister Trudeau, it’s an honor to extend the greetings of the President of the United States and the people of the United States to welcome you here to Rhode Island, grateful for the opportunity to share the podium with you, and we look forward to continuing to build our relationship both economically and diplomatically and strategically and grateful for the strong relationship that you've already forged with our President and with our administration. PRIME MINISTER TRUDEAU: Thank you, Mr. Vice President. It’s a pleasure to sit down with you for our first bilat. We got a chance just to talk a fair bit when we were in Washington in February, but this opportunity to sit down and talk about the great relationship we've built in Canada and the United States and this administration specifically and all the work we're going to be doing together to create prosperity and good opportunities for our citizens and, indeed, for people around the world. (Speaks French.) END
Nevada Gov. Brian Sandoval on Friday expressed deep reservations about Senate Republicans’ latest Obamacare repeal bill, but he wouldn’t go as far as to say he opposes the revised legislation.“My preliminary understanding is that, with regard to the Medicaid population, it is not any different or much different than the previous bill, which would cause me great concern,” Sandoval told POLITICO during the National Governors Association meeting in Rhode Island. The moderate Republican said he will meet privately with Vice President Mike Pence, who will deliver a speech to governors later today. Earning Sandoval's support for the legislation is seen as crucial for securing a vote from Sen. Dean Heller, the most vulnerable GOP incumbent facing reelection next year.The revised Better Care Reconciliation Act provides additional subsidies for people of lower income and makes tweaks to the GOP's Medicaid overhaul. But major cuts to Medicaid, the largest sticking point for several moderate Republicans, remain in the bill. Sandoval, who opposed the initial Senate bill, said the legislation's rollback of generous Medicaid expansion funding remains his biggest concern.“I want to protect the 210,000 lives in Nevada that are living happier and healthier lives,” said Sandoval, adding he still needs to review the legislation with his staff. “That’s been my primary concern all along.”Heller and several moderate Republicans from Medicaid expansion states — including Ohio’s Rob Portman, West Virginia’s Shelley Moore Capito and Alaska’s Lisa Murkowski — have not yet taken a position on the updated legislation.Two Republican senators, Susan Collins of Maine and Rand Paul of Kentucky, have said they will oppose a procedural measure to start debate on the bill. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell cannot afford to lose another Republican vote. Ohio Gov. John Kasich, one of the most outspoken Republican critics of the GOP repeal effort, blasted the updated bill on Friday morning and urged congressional leaders to strike a bipartisan compromise."The Senate plan is still unacceptable," he said. "Its cuts to Medicaid are too deep and at the same time it fails to give states the ability to innovate in order to cope with those reductions."
The President today announced his intent to nominate these eleven individuals to the following Federal judgeships. If confirmed, Annemarie Carney Axon of Alabama will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama. Annemarie Axon is a member of the Birmingham law firm of Wallace, Jordan, Ratliff, & Brandt, LLC, where she litigates trust, estate, and business cases in both trial and appellate courts. Before joining the firm, Mrs. Axon served as Assistant Vice President of AmSouth Bank and as an associate at the law firm of Edwards and Angell, LLP in Providence, Rhode Island. Immediately upon graduation from law school, Mrs. Axon served as a law clerk to Judge Inge P. Johnson of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama. Mrs. Axon received her B.A. from the University of Alabama and J.D. from the University of Alabama School of Law. If confirmed, Michael Lawrence Brown of Georgia will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. Mike Brown is an equity partner and co-chair of the White Collar and Government Investigations practice group in the Atlanta office of Alston & Bird LLP. Prior to joining Alston & Bird, Mr. Brown served for six years as an Assistant United States Attorney in the Northern District of Georgia and in the Southern District of Florida, where he tried more than twenty-five cases and argued criminal appeals. Before entering government service, Mr. Brown spent four years as a litigation associate in the Atlanta office of King & Spalding LLP. Mr. Brown clerked for Judge J.L. Edmondson of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit in Atlanta. He received his B.A. from Georgetown University, and his J.D., magna cum laude, from the University of Georgia School of Law, where he was inducted into the Order of the Coif, and served on the editorial board and the managerial board of the Georgia Law Review. If confirmed, Liles C. Burke of Alabama will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama. Judge Liles Burke serves as an Associate Judge on the Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals. Prior to his elevation to the Court of Appeals, Judge Burke served as a Marshall County District Judge, as Acting Circuit Judge, and as a City of Arab Municipal Judge. Prior to ascending to the bench, Judge Burke practiced at the law firm of Burke & Beuoy, P.C., where he represented businesses and individuals in general practice, including domestic, criminal, civil litigation, juvenile, and probate matters. He has also served as a Municipal Prosecutor and Municipal Attorney, and currently serves in the Alabama Army National Guard Judge Advocate General’s (JAG) Corps. Judge Burke received his B.A. from the University of Alabama and J.D. from the University of Alabama School of Law. If confirmed, William L. (“Chip”) Campbell, Jr., of Tennessee, will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee. Chip Campbell is currently a member in the Nashville office of Frost Brown Todd, LLC, where he handles a wide range of civil litigation matters. Mr. Campbell previously worked as an associate and later a partner in the Nashville firm of Riley Warnock & Jacobson, PLC, and as an associate in the Birmingham, Alabama office of Maynard, Cooper & Gale, P.C. Mr. Campbell received his B.S. from the United States Naval Academy and served seven years in the United States Marine Corps, principally as a Naval Flight Officer. He received his J.D. from the University of Alabama School of Law, where he served as editor-in-chief of the Alabama Law Review. If confirmed, Thomas Alvin Farr of North Carolina, will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina. Tom Farr is currently a shareholder in the Raleigh office of Ogletree, Deakins, Nash, Smoak & Stewart, P.C., where his practice focuses on employment matters and constitutional law. Prior to entering private practice, Mr. Farr was an attorney with the National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation and counsel to the U.S. Senate and Labor Human Resources Committee. Mr. Farr also served as a law clerk to Judge Frank W. Bullock, Jr., of the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina. He received his B.L.S., summa cum laude, from Hillsdale College, where he was co-salutatorian. He received his J.D. from Emory University and an L.L.M. in labor law from Georgetown University. If confirmed, Charles Barnes Goodwin of Oklahoma will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma. Judge Charles Goodwin currently serves as a United States Magistrate Judge in the Western District of Oklahoma. In that capacity, he has presided over approximately 500 initial proceedings in felony cases, issued approximately 350 opinions in civil cases, and disposed of over 1000 misdemeanor cases. Earlier in his career, Magistrate Judge Goodwin was a partner and civil litigator at Crowe & Dunlevy, P.C., and he served as a law clerk to Judge Lee R. West of the United States District Court for the Western District of Oklahoma and to then-Magistrate Judge Claire V. Eagan in the Northern District of Oklahoma. He received his B.A. from the University of Oklahoma and his J.D. from the University of Oklahoma College of Law, where he served on the Oklahoma Law Review. If confirmed, Mark S. Norris, Sr., of Tennessee, will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee. Mark Norris currently serves as special counsel in the Memphis office of Adams and Reese LLP and as the Senate Majority Leader of the Tennessee General Assembly. His law practice includes a wide variety of civil litigation and business matters. Prior to joining Adams and Reese, Mr. Norris was a Senior Member of Armstrong Allen, PLLC. Mr. Norris was first elected to represent District 32 in the Tennessee Senate in 2000 and has served as Majority Leader since 2007. He previously served on the Shelby County Board of Commissioners. He received his B.A. from Colorado College, and his J.D. from the University of Denver Sturm College of Law. If confirmed, Thomas Lee Robinson Parker, will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Western District of Tennessee. Tommy Parker is currently a shareholder in the Memphis office of Baker, Donelson, Bearman, Caldwell & Berkowitz, P.C., where he represents clients in civil litigation and criminal matters. Prior to joining Baker Donelson, Mr. Parker served for nine years as an Assistant United States Attorney in the Western District of Tennessee. Prior to his Federal service, Mr. Parker was an associate with Waring Cox Lawyers in Memphis. Mr. Parker previously served as the president of the Memphis Bar Association and is a fellow in the American College of Trial Lawyers. He received his B.S. from the University of South Carolina, and his J.D. from the Vanderbilt University School of Law. If confirmed, William (“Billy”) McCrary Ray, II, of Georgia will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. Judge Billy Ray currently serves as the Presiding Judge on the Georgia Court of Appeals. Prior to his appointment to the Court of Appeals, Judge Ray served for ten years as a Superior Court Judge on the Gwinnett Judicial Circuit. Before ascending to the bench, Judge Ray served for six years in the Georgia State Senate and was a partner in the Gwinnett County law firm of Andersen, Davidson & Tate, P.C., Judge Ray received his B.B.A from the University of Georgia Terry College of Business, magna cum laude, his M.B.A., from the University of Georgia Terry College of Business, and his J.D., cum laude, from the University of Georgia School of Law. If confirmed, Eli J. Richardson of Tennessee, will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee. Eli Richardson is currently a member in the Nashville office of Bass, Berry & Sims, PLC, where he represents clients in a range of criminal and civil matters and conducts internal corporate investigations. Mr. Richardson also serves as an adjunct professor at the Vanderbilt University Law School, and previously taught trial advocacy at Belmont University College of Law. Prior to joining Bass, Berry & Sims, Mr. Richardson served for twelve years in the Department of Justice, including four years as a Special Agent in the Federal Bureau of Investigation; seven years as an Assistant United States Attorney in the District of New Jersey and the Middle District of Tennessee; and one year on detail as Resident Legal Advisor to Serbia. Prior to his Federal service, Mr. Richardson practiced law both at law firms and in a solo practice. He received his B.S.E., cum laude, from Duke University, and his J.D. from Vanderbilt University Law School, where he served as a member of the Vanderbilt Law Review. If confirmed, Tilman Eugene (“Tripp”) Self, III, of Georgia will serve as a District Judge on the United States District Court for the Middle District of Georgia. Judge Tripp Self currently serves on the Georgia Court of Appeals. Before his appointment to the Court of Appeals, Judge Self served for ten years as a Superior Court Judge on the Macon Judicial Circuit. Before ascending to the bench, Judge Self was an attorney with the Macon, Georgia, law firm of Sell & Melton, LLP Before attending law school, Judge Self served as a Field Artillery Officer in the United States Army. Judge Self received his B.S. from The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, and his J.D. from the University of Georgia School of Law.
(Июль 2017) По суммам многих миллионов долларов, что фигурируют вокруг этой аферы, компьютерное жульничество с заранее известными «случайными» номерами выигрышей в лотерейных тиражах уже вошло в историю как одно из крупнейших в США преступлений вокруг лотереи. Однако история данная еще не закончилась, а существенные и прежде неизвестные детали продолжают всплывать по сию пору. Главный фигурант … Читать далее Третья часть лотерейного балета →
On May 11, 2017, President Donald J. Trump signed an Executive Order establishing the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity. Vice President Mike Pence chairs the Commission, and Kansas Secretary of State Kris Kobach serves as the vice chair. Any member of the public wishing to submit written comments for the Commission’s consideration may do so via email at ElectionIntegrityStaff@ovp.eop.gov. Please note that the Commission may post such written comments publicly on our website, including names and contact information that are submitted. Please check back regularly for further updates regarding the Commission and its future meetings and agendas. Statements & Releases May 2017 President Announces Formation of Bipartisan Presidential Commission on Election Integrity (5/11/2017) June 2017 Readout of the Vice President’s Call with the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity (6/28/2017) July 2017 Statement from Kris Kobach, Kansas Secretary of State and Vice Chair of the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity (7/05/2017) Remarks by President Trump and Vice President Pence at the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity Meeting (7/19/2017) Remarks by Vice President Pence and Elected Officials at the First Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity (7/19/2017) Commission Members Vice President Mike Pence, Chair Kris Kobach, Secretary of State of Kansas, Vice-Chair Connie Lawson, Secretary of State of Indiana Bill Gardner, Secretary of State of New Hampshire Matthew Dunlap, Secretary of State of Maine Ken Blackwell, Former Secretary of State of Ohio Christy McCormick, Commissioner, Election Assistance Commission David Dunn, Former Arkansas State Representative Mark Rhodes, Clerk of Wood County, West Virginia Hans von Spakovsky, Senior Legal Fellow and Manager of Election Law Reform Initiative, Edwin Meese Center for Legal & Judicial Studies, The Heritage Foundation J. Christian Adams, President and General Counsel, Public Interest Legal Foundation Alan King, Probate Judge, Jefferson County, Alabama Meetings July 19, 2017 - First Meeting of the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity The first meeting of the Presidential Advisory Commission on Election Integrity will be held on Wednesday, July 19, 2017 from 11:00 a.m. until no later than 5:00 p.m., Eastern Daylight Time. The meeting will be held at the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, Room 350, located at 1650 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20502. It will be open to the public through livestreaming on https://www.whitehouse.gov/live. This meeting will consist of a ceremonial swearing in of Commission members, introductions and statements from members, a discussion of the Commission's charge and objectives, possible comments or presentations from invited experts, and a discussion of next steps and related matters. Commission Documents Commission Charter Federal Register Notice – Meeting Announcement Meeting Agenda Revised Meeting Agenda Meeting Materials Public Documents Any member of the public wishing to submit written comments for the Commission’s consideration may do so via email at ElectionIntegrityStaff@ovp.eop.gov. Please note that the Commission may post such written comments publicly on our website, including names and contact information that are submitted. Please check back soon for further updates regarding the Commission and its future meetings and agendas. Mission Pursuant to Executive Order 13799, the Commission shall, consistent with applicable law, study the registration and voting processes used in Federal elections. The Commission shall be solely advisory and shall submit a report to the President that identifies the following: (a) those laws, rules, policies, activities, strategies, and practices that enhance the American people's confidence in the integrity of the voting processes used in Federal elections; (b) those laws, rules, policies, activities, strategies, and practices that undermine the American people's confidence in the integrity of the voting processes used in Federal elections; and (c) those vulnerabilities in voting systems and practices used for Federal elections that could lead to improper voter registrations and improper voting, including fraudulent voter registrations and fraudulent voting.
When was the Golden Age of Conservative Intellectuals? It is easy to say when the Golden Age began; April 1947 at the first meeting of the Mont Pelerin society. Among those in attendance were: Maurice Allais, Paris Aaron Director, Chicago Walter Eucken, Freiburg Milton Friedman, Chicago F. A. Harper, Irvington-on-Hudson, New York F. A. Hayek, […] The post The Golden Age of Conservative Intellectuals appeared first on Marginal REVOLUTION.
Оригинал взят у oper_1974 в Буры против Британцев. ( 40 фото ) Эта война была первой войной 20 века и интересна с самых разных точек зрения. Например, на ней обеими конфликтующими сторонами были массово использованы бездымный порох, скорострельные пушки, шрапнель, пулемёты и магазинные винтовки, что навсегда изменило тактику пехоты, заставив её спрятаться в траншеи и окопы, атаковать в разреженных цепях вместо привычного строя и, сняв яркие мундиры, обрядиться в хаки... Эта война также "обогатила" человечество такими понятиями, как снайпер, коммандос, диверсионная война, тактика выжженной земли и концлагерь. Это была не только первая "попытка принести Свободу и Демократию" в страны, богатые полезными ископаемыми. Но также, наверное, и первой войной, где боевые действия, помимо поля боя, были перенесены и в информационное пространство. Ведь к началу 20 века человечество уже вовсю пользовалось телеграфом, фотографией и кинематографом, а газета стала привычным атрибутом каждого дома. Противостояние англичан и буров началось ещё почти за сто лет до описываемых событий, когда Великобритания положила глаз на принадлежащую Голландии Капскую колонию. Сначала аннексировав эти земли, они потом ещё их же и купили, правда, так хитро, что в реальности не уплатили ни копейки. Однако это дало право одному из тяжеловесов информационной войны, Артуру Конан Дойлу, написать следующие строки в своей книге об англо-бурской войне: "В нашем обширном собрании стран, пожалуй, нет другой страны, права Британии на которую были бы так же неоспоримы, как на эту. Мы владеем ею на двух основаниях - по праву завоевания и по праву покупки". Вскоре англичане создали бурам невыносимые условия существования, запретив обучение и делопроизводство на голландском языке и объявив английский язык государственным. Плюс к этому Англия в 1833 году официально запретила рабство, которое составляло основу экономики буров. Правда, "добрые" англичане назначили выкуп за каждого невольника. Но, во-первых, сам выкуп был вдвое меньше принятой цены, а во-вторых, получить его можно было только в Лондоне, и то не деньгами, а государственными облигациями, в которых слабо образованные буры просто не разбирались. В общем, буры поняли, что жизни им тут не будет, собрали вещички и рванули на север, основав там две новые колонии: Трансвааль и Оранжевую республику. Тут стоит сказать пару слов о самих бурах. Англо-бурская война сделала их в глазах всего мира героями и жертвами. Но буры жили за счёт труда рабов на своих фермах. А землю под эти фермы они добывали, очищая её от местного чернокожего населения с помощью винтовок. Вот как описывает буров Марк Твен, посетивший примерно в это время юг Африки: "Буры очень набожны, глубоко невежественны, тупы, упрямы, нетерпимы, нечистоплотны, гостеприимны, честны во взаимоотношениях с белыми, жестоки по отношению к своим чёрным слугам... им совершенно всё равно, что творится в мире". Такая патриархальная жизнь могла бы продолжаться ещё очень долго, но тут в 1867 году на границе Оранжевой республики и Капской колонии нашли крупнейшее в мире месторождение алмазов. В страну хлынул поток проходимцев и авантюристов, одним из которых был Сесил Джон Родс, будущий основатель компании "Де Бирс", а также двух новых английских колоний, скромно названных в честь него Южной и Северной Родезией. Англия вновь попыталась аннексировать бурские территории, что привело к 1 англо-бурской войне, которую англичане, по сути, проиграли. Но беды буров на этом не закончились, в 1886 году в Трансваале нашли золото. В страну опять хлынул поток проходимцев, преимущественно англичан, мечтавших мгновенно обогатиться. Буры, по-прежнему продолжавшие сидеть на своих фермах, в принципе, не возражали, однако обложили приезжих ойтландеров (иностранцев) высоким налогом. Вскоре количество "понаехавших" почти сравнялось с количество местных. Причём иностранцы всё громче стали требовать для себя гражданских прав. С этой целью даже была создана правозащитная НПО "Комитет Реформ", финансируемая Сесилом Родсом и другими горнорудными королями. Требуя для себя гражданских прав в Трансваале, ойтландеры, однако, не желали отказываться и от британского подданства. Однако вряд ли стоит обвинять в развязывании войны одних только евреев-банкиров. Истерия вокруг буров легла на благодатную почву. Англичане искренне верили, что они рождены править миром и любое препятствие в реализации этого плана воспринимали как оскорбление. Существовал даже специальный термин, "джингоизм", означающий крайнюю стадию имперского шовинизма британцев. Вот что говорил небезызвестный нам Чемберлен: "Во-первых, я верую в Британскую Империю, во-вторых, я верю в британскую расу. Я верю, что британцы - величайшая из имперских рас, какие когда-нибудь знавал мир". Когда в Стратфорде-на-Эйвоне, родном городе Шекспира, пьяная толпа патриотов перебила стёкла в домах квакеров, выступавших против войны, писательница христианских романов и пояснений к Священному Писанию Мария Коррели обратилась к погромщикам с речью, в которой поздравила их с тем, как хорошо они отстояли честь Родины, и сказала: "Если бы Шекспир восстал из гроба, он бы присоединился к вам". Противостояние между бурами и англичанами в британских газетах было представлено как противостояние между англо-саксонской и голландской расами и замешивалось вокруг чести и достоинства нации. Объявлялось, что если Англия ещё раз уступит бурам, это приведёт к развалу всей Британской империи, ибо люди в Австралии и Канаде перестанут её уважать. Была вытащена старая байка про претензии России на Индию и "найдены" следы русского влияния на буров. Особый интерес вызывает информационная война. Хотя сами буры в ней особо не отличились, но к тому времени Британия сумела обзавестись немалым количеством недоброжелателей по всему миру. В первую очередь это были Россия, Франция, Германия и, конечно, Голландия. Их совместной заслугой было то, что будущую войну объявили "войной между белыми", что, по сути, было не так уж мало, ибо на войну против "дикарей" не распространялись правила, принятые на прошедшей за полгода до этих событий Гаагской конференции, созванной, кстати, по инициативе России. В российской прессе, на протяжении всей войны о бурах писали с неизменным восторгом и даже старательно подчёркивали их сходство с русскими, примером чему служила высокая религиозность буров, их склонность к сельскому хозяйству, а также привычка носить окладистые бороды. Умение ездить верхом и метко стрелять позволяло сравнивать буров с казаками. Поручик Едрихин, откомандированный на время войны в Южную Африку в качестве корреспондента газеты «Новое Время» (и, видимо, бывший сотрудником российской разведки), писавший под псевдонимом Вандам, уже во время англо-бурской войны предостерегал соотечественников: "Плохо иметь англосакса врагом, но не дай Бог иметь его другом... Главным противником англосаксов на пути к мировому господству является русский народ". Такая мощная информационная поддержка привела к тому, что в армию буров хлынул поток добровольцев со всего света. Большинство составляли голландцы (около 650 человек), французы (400), немцы (550), американцы (300), итальянцы (200), шведы (150), ирландцы (200) и русские (около 225). После применения "тактики выжженной земли" и концлагерей моральный авторитет Британии упал ниже плинтуса. Говорят, что англо-бурская война покончила с чопорной викторианской эпохой. Наконец, 31 мая 1902 года буры, опасаясь за жизни своих жён и детей, были вынуждены капитулировать. Республика Трансвааль и Оранжевая республика были аннексированы Британией. Однако благодаря своему мужеству, упорному сопротивлению и симпатиям мировой общественности буры смогли выторговать амнистию всем участникам войны, получить право на самоуправление и использование голландского языка в школах и судах. Англичанам даже пришлось выплатить компенсации за разрушенные фермы и дома. Также буры получили право и впредь эксплуатировать и уничтожать чернокожее население Африки, что стало фундаментом будущей политики апартеида.