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24 октября, 09:09

Продавцы на дронах: пять трендов которые изменят рынок коммерции

Почему исчезнут автодилеры, продавцы товаров для дома и аптеки

20 октября, 17:12

Kodak представил профессиональный фотосмартфон

20 октября компания Eastman Kodak представила новый смартфон, рассчитанный, в первую очередь, на фотографов. Об этом сообщается на страничке компании в twitter.  Фотосмартфон носит название одноименного фотоаппарата Kodak 1941 года «Kodak Ektra» и работает на операционной системе Android. Новый гаджет оснащен 21-мегапиксельной камерой и 5-дюймовым дисплеем с разрешением 1920×1080 пикселей.   Introducing the #KodakEktra phone. Kodak’s professional-quality, photography-first smartphone. https://t.co/JBTW1VNzFd pic.twitter.com/aKMluEfCvq — Kodak (@Kodak) 20 октября 2016 г. В компании отмечают, что хотя основной упор в смартфоне сделан именно на фотографию, они не стремятся конкурировать с подобными iPhone 7 или Google Pixel за качество изображения, пишет The Verge. Kodak постарался сделать более удобным и легким сам процесс фотосъемки.  Смартфон поступит в продажу пока лишь в Европе. Первой страной, в которой он станет доступен для покупок будет Великобритания, как сообщает TechCrunch. Цена устройства составит 550 долларов (примерно 35 тысяч рублей по текущему курсу).

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20 октября, 16:58

Kodak представил новый фотосмартфон

Компания Eastman Kodak представила новый смартфон на ОС Android, ориентированный в первую очередь на фотографов, сообщается в Twitter компании.

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20 октября, 16:58

Kodak представил новый фотосмартфон

Компания Eastman Kodak представила новый смартфон на ОС Android, ориентированный в первую очередь на фотографов, сообщается в Twitter компании.

10 августа, 01:15

BRIEF-Eastman Kodak files for mixed shelf offering of up to $1.2 bln - SEC Filing

* Files for mixed shelf offering of up to $1.2 billion - SEC filing Source text for Eikon: Further company coverage:

01 августа, 16:30

Can 3D Systems (DDD) Spring an Earnings Surprise in Q2?

3D Systems Corporation (DDD) is slated to report second-quarter 2016 results before the opening bell on Aug 3.

15 июля, 16:00

Kodak’s Downfall Wasn’t About Technology

A generation ago, a “Kodak moment” meant something that was worth saving and savoring. Today, the term increasingly serves as a corporate bogeyman that warns executives of the need to stand up and respond when disruptive developments encroach on their market. Unfortunately, as time marches on the subtleties of what actually happened to Eastman Kodak are being forgotten, leading executives to draw the wrong conclusions from its struggles. Given that Kodak’s core business was selling film, it is not hard to see why the last few decades proved challenging. Cameras went digital and then disappeared into cellphones. People went from printing pictures to sharing them online. Sure, people print nostalgic books and holiday cards, but that volume pales in comparison to Kodak’s heyday. The company filed for bankruptcy protection in 2012, exited legacy businesses and sold off its patents before re-emerging as a sharply smaller company in 2013. Once one of the most powerful companies in the world, today the company has a market capitalization of less than $1 billion. Why did this happen? An easy explanation is myopia. Kodak was so blinded by its success that it completely missed the rise of digital technologies. But that doesn’t square with reality. After all, the first prototype of a digital camera was created in 1975 by Steve Sasson, an engineer working for … Kodak. The camera was as big as a toaster, took 20 seconds to take an image, had low quality, and required complicated connections to a television to view, but it clearly had massive disruptive potential. Insight Center How Digital Business Models Are Changing Sponsored by Accenture No strategy is static. Spotting something and doing something about it are very different things. So, another explanation is that Kodak invented the technology but didn’t invest in it. Sasson himself told The New York Times that management’s response to his digital camera was “that’s cute – but don’t tell anyone about it.” A good line, but not completely accurate. In fact, Kodak invested billions to develop a range of digital cameras. Doing something and doing the right thing are also different things. The next explanation is that Kodak mismanaged its investment in digital cameras, overshooting the market by trying to match performance of traditional film rather than embrace the simplicity of digital. That criticism perhaps held in early iterations of Kodak’s digital cameras (the $20,000 DCS-100, for example), but Kodak ultimately embraced simplicity, carving out a strong market position with technologies that made it easy to move pictures from cameras to computers. All of that is moot, the next argument goes, because the real disruption occurred when cameras merged with phones, and people shifted from printing pictures to posting them on social media and mobile phone apps. And Kodak totally missed that. But it didn’t, entirely. Before Mark Zuckerberg wrote a line of Facebook’s code, Kodak made a prescient purchase, acquiring a photo sharing site called Ofoto in 2001. It was so close. Imagine if Kodak had truly embraced its historical tagline of “share memories, share life.” Perhaps it could have rebranded Ofoto as Kodak Moments (instead of EasyShare Gallery), making it the pioneer of a new category called life networking where people could share pictures, personal updates, and links to news and information. Maybe in 2010 it would have lured a young engineer from Google named Kevin Systrom to create a mobile version of the site. In real life, unfortunately, Kodak used Ofoto to try to get more people to print digital images. It sold the site to Shutterfly as part of its bankruptcy plan for less than $25 million in April 2012. That same month Facebook plunked down $1 billion to acquire Instagram, the 13-employee company Systrom had co-founded 18 months earlier. There were other ways in which Kodak could have emerged from the digital disruption of its core business. Consider Fuji Photo Film. As Rita Gunther McGrath describes in her compelling book The End of Competitive Advantage, in the 1980s Fuji was a distant second in the film business to Kodak. While Kodak stagnated and ultimately stumbled, Fuji aggressively explored new opportunities, creating products adjacent to its film business, such as magnetic tape optics and videotape, and branching into copiers and office automation, notably through a joint venture with Xerox. Today the company has annual revenues above $20 billion, competes in healthcare and electronics operations and derives significant revenues from document solutions. The right lessons from Kodak are subtle. Companies often see the disruptive forces affecting their industry. They frequently divert sufficient resources to participate in emerging markets. Their failure is usually an inability to truly embrace the new business models the disruptive change opens up. Kodak created a digital camera, invested in the technology, and even understood that photos would be shared online. Where they failed was in realizing that online photo sharing was the new business, not just a way to expand the printing business. So, if your company is beginning to talk about a digital transformation, make sure you ask three questions: What business are we in today? Don’t answer the question with technologies, offerings, or categories. Instead, define the problem you are solving for customers, or, in our parlance “the job you are doing for them.” For Kodak, that’s the difference between framing itself as a chemical film company vs. an imaging company vs. a moment-sharing company. What new opportunities does the disruption open up? Our colleague Clark Gilbert described more than a decade ago a great irony of disruption. Perceived as a threat, disruption is actually a great growth opportunity. Disruption always grows markets, but it also always transforms business models. Gilbert’s research showed how executives who perceive threats are rigid in response; those who see opportunities are expansive. What capabilities do we need to realize these opportunities? Another great irony is that incumbents are best positioned to seize disruptive opportunities. After all, they have many capabilities that entrants are racing to replicate, such as access to markets, technologies, and healthy balance sheets. Of course, these capabilities impose constraints as well, and are almost always insufficient to compete in new markets in new ways. Approach new growth with appropriate humility. Kodak remains a sad story of potential lost. The American icon had the talent, the money, and even the foresight to make the transition. Instead it ended up the victim of the aftershocks of a disruptive change. Learn the right lessons, and you can avoid its fate.

07 июля, 18:58

Women in Business Q&A: Nithya Ruff, Director Open Source Strategy, SanDisk

Nithya A. Ruff is the Director of SanDisk's Open Source Strategy Office. SanDisk is a global leader in flash storage solutions from edge devices to cloud and enterprise data centers. She has been working in the open source world since 1999 when Linux and Open Source were in their infancy. She has since introduced new support models for open source, been a key member of two open source projects and led the product management and marketing function for the industry's best embedded open source distribution. She currently is working on bringing best in class open source ideas and to grow community and commercial engagement for SanDisk. She has worked at companies like Wind River (Intel Subsidiary). Synopsys, Avaya, SGI, Eastman Kodak and at start-ups like Movius, Cranite and Tripwire. Nithya has an MBA from the University of Rochester, NY and an MS in Computer Science from North Dakota State University. She lives in the San Francisco Bay Area with her husband and two daughters. She is an avid traveler, designer of beautiful jewelry and a student of life and business. She enjoys speaking both on technology issues as well as on women in technology and business. How has your life experience made you the leader you are today? I grew up in India where I had amazing role models, such as my father, and a very supportive family. Education was important and it was expected that I would pursue medicine, engineering, or a related field. I mention this because, the expectations parents have, usually influence what their kids pursue as a career. My father's advice to study computer science has made me the person I am today and coming to the US for my graduate degree opened up a whole new world of possibilities for which I'm very grateful. How has your previous employment experience aided your tenure at SanDisk? I started out at Kodak during the heyday of photography and imaging. That experience helped me understand the role SanDisk plays in the imaging and storage industries. My work at various Silicon Valley companies, both large and small, gave me a broad perspective on technology and trends. It also allowed me to understand how open source was transforming technology creation and collaboration across the industry. I am a highly collaborative person and aim to always be open-minded about new ideas. This allowed me to innately understand open source, its ability to solve big inter-connected problems, and improve the way we develop products. My experience and open source exposure has made me an expert on open innovation and prepared me for my role at SanDisk. Our role is to work with the outside world on collaboration with SanDisk and to encourage innovation internally. My other role is as a board member of the SanDisk Women's Innovation Network. This is an employee resource group that works on empowering women at SanDisk and advocating for them. This is something I care deeply about and this role has allowed me to give back, mentor, and bring programs that enhance our corporate culture. What have the highlights and challenges been during your tenure at SanDisk? While SanDisk is a Fortune 500 company with offices all around the world, it feels surprisingly small and intimate. I have been very fortunate to have the opportunity to shape my role and align it to my strengths and interests. As I mentioned, I lead our open source strategy, as well as the Women's Innovation Network, and I'm very passionate about both. The challenge in everything I do is to align the work to SanDisk's business objectives and goals. In some of the areas I work in, that may not be so direct or clear, and I challenge myself to make those linkages. I consider myself a change agent and am drawn to these types of roles. Often when you are a change agent, not everyone will get it and support your work. The challenge is to persist in making those changes and having deep belief in what you are doing. I find myself drawing on that when I run into walls. What advice can you offer to women who want a career in your industry? It is helpful to have a technical background or a deep interest in how technology works. Whether you are in marketing or on the finance side, you will need to understand it and know what it means to your function. I believe in having a background in technology and some experience in programming. Technology is the backbone of most businesses. The second is to be a strong communicator. It's important to learn how to communicate and sell your ideas. This allows you to be seen as an expert and a go-to-person. Networking in your industry is also very important and helps you gain visibility with others. It is a fast moving industry and you need to be up to speed on the latest in your field to be relevant. Lastly, we work in a people driven business - develop emotional intelligence, get to know yourself better, have the ability to self-regulate, and try not to take things personally. What is the most important lesson you've learned in your career to date? The most import aspect of a long career is to understand who you are and to take care of yourself. It is easy to be completely focused on your work and ignore your needs. By knowing yourself, you can develop confidence in your choices and your point of view. It sounds like common sense but so many of us forget that if your engine is not strong, you cannot sustain a busy career and life. Create a support system, find time for family, friends and mentors, develop a hobby or other interests and be a lifelong learner. How do you maintain a work/life balance? Balance implies that you balance both work and life without one overtaking the other. With smart phones and the constant connectivity, we have the ability to work from anywhere, and are often expected to be available. It has become more of a work-life integration issue, as the boundaries between work and life are not always clearly defined. The trick becomes seeing life as a whole and how you can set and achieve goals in all areas of it. This is something that I am always striving to do, and will continue to focus on moving forward. I look at each day and see what absolutely needs to be done that day. The stress comes when we try to do too much or too many things at the same time. What do you think is the biggest issue for women in the workspace? Historically, one of the biggest challenges in the technology world has been the availability of talent, and specifically women. That's one of the reasons why I got involved in SanDisk's Women Innovation Network. It has established a great mentorship system internally and has improved our corporate culture. It is important to recognize that every company will be more successful with a diverse workforce; it brings different ideas, experiences, and customer understanding. How has mentorship made a difference in your professional and personal life? Mentors and sponsors are very important when you need advice and help throughout your career. My father was a huge mentor and advisor for many years. My husband is someone I turn to constantly. There are people I admire at work for the way they approach problems. The open source community has been one of the most collaborative and supportive communities I have ever been a part of. I can always look to peers in the community to answer a question or bounce ideas off of. I strongly believe in building a network of experts, supporters, and advisors in various parts of your life. It does not need to be a formal mentor-mentee relationship, but simply someone you can call when you have a question. Always return the favor, give back, be a resource to someone else. What goes around comes around. Which other female leaders do you admire and why? There is not one specific female leader that I admire. There are many. One of them is Padmasree Warrior, former CTO at Cisco and now CEO at Nextev USA. She is a visionary when it comes to technology, but is also an amazing communicator and a people person. I also admire Indra Nooyi, CEO of Pepsi and Rear Admiral Grace Hopper. All these women defy boundaries and don't leave their unique strengths as a woman behind either. Padmasree talks about the need to digitally detox to "refresh" yourself. It is great to hear a whole-person perspective from these leaders. There are also many amazing women in open source both on the technical side and on the business side. These women support each other and I never hesitate to ask them for help or inspiration. What do you want SanDisk to accomplish in the next year? SanDisk has been a great place to work and I have been able to be the change agent on multiple fronts. SanDisk's enlightened leadership has allowed me to align my passion, competency and goals. We have made huge strides in how we work with the open source community and I want to continue to drive this as an engine of innovation for us. On the inclusion and diversity front, we want to broaden awareness and education throughout the company of the strength from diversity. We want to expand our mentorship program and make SanDisk a great place for both women and men to work. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

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24 июня, 17:13

Xerox Names Jeff Jacobson CEO of New Entity Post Split

Xerox Corporation (XRX) recently declared that Jeff Jacobson will be the chief executive officer of Xerox Corporation, following the completion of the company's split into two publicly traded companies.

16 июня, 17:03

3D Systems Management Shakeup: McMullen to be New CFO

3D Systems (DDD) has appointed veteran executive John McMullen as its CFO, replacing David Styka.

08 июня, 22:46

12 Worries Every Entrepreneur Has (Or They Are Lying)

Worry. Does it hold you back or does it motivate you as you build your business, make plans for your future, and follow your dreams? That's the million dollar question. Depending on your perspective, as you approach a problem, worry could paralyze you or it could be your sixth sense, like an advanced warning system, keeping you sharp. Whatever the case, we all worry, but instead of having worry stop you dead in your tracks, learn to manage your worry and turn worry into its distant cousin, intuition (a.k.a. gut instinct), and use it to your advantage. The following are 12 worries all entrepreneurs have: 1. Will I ever make another sale? The sale that I just made, will it be my last one and why isn't my phone ringing? Is my internet connection down and why is every email I get spam? Did I go out of business and someone just forgot to tell me? These are just a few insecurities that go through my head, even after 30 years of being in business. And it's normal if you have them too. The point here is to manage your worry, either let it wash over you and manage it or let worry keep you sharp instead of paralyzing you with fear. Yes, you will make another sale, and no, you are not going out of business. Instead of worrying, take action and look at the big picture, settle into the steps needed to reach your goals. Don't focus on the loss column, keep yourself facing forward, stay positive and keep your head in a good place. Baby steps forward, focus on the tasks at hand and you will make another sale, and another, and another. "If the problem has a solution, worrying is pointless, in the end the problem will be solved. If the problem has no solution, there is no reason to worry, because it can't be solved. " -- Zen saying 2. Can I make a living at this? Give your ideas time to grow. In the beginning everything seems so delicate, vulnerable and fragile. It may take some time to grow roots. But stay with it, believe in your ideas, and you absolutely can make a living at it. Your ideas will become reality. Over time, the roots of your ideas will grow deeper and stronger as you develop your ideas into products and services. Tell everybody and anybody that will listen what you are up to. Become a student and learn everything there is to know about your idea. Welcome passion into your life and become an expert at your passion. The world will eventually beat a path to your door to learn from you. That being said, be patient and do not rush it. Always keep in mind in order to get what you want you have to help others get what they want. In order to become successful, never lose focus on helping others solve their problems. 3. How will I ever find the time to do everything on my plate? It will seem like 24 hours is not enough time during the day to get everything done. Do your best to prioritize, manage, and delegate, all the while keep moving. Failure to move, take action and develop systems will keep you on the hamster's wheel. Get beyond the wheel by sticking with only those ideas that contribute to your main goals. Learn to say no when something crosses your desk that is not in your plans. By nature, you are an ambitious person, uniquely qualified and capable of many amazing feats. Remember, you will never be short of ideas, just short of time to accomplish every one of them, so learn to manage your time effectively. 4. How long will I have to keep up this pace? Not forever! My good friend Strickland Bonner (co-host on The Nice Guys on Business Podcast) always reminds me of the mechanics behind a flywheel. The flywheel is a large wheel-like object, requiring a disproportionate amount of energy to get started, but once moving keeps a steady pace of continuous energy going. In the beginning, as you start building your business and you crank into action, lots of effort is required just to get the flywheel started. Because it's only you and your idea, it can seem lonely, daunting, intimidating and tiring. Once you experience the taste of a sale, or a positive word from someone, your actions will be fueled by your success, helping you crank that flywheel, building momentum. Think back to all of the things you did for the first time - tying your shoes as a child, balancing your checkbook as a college student, getting your social media legs as an adult, they were all a challenge to you, but you practiced until you got to be an expert at each of these tasks. Now, they are all a given. Things will get easier over time, (or so it will seem because you will no longer need to put so much energy into many of the tasks that are second nature to you. Your flywheel will zip along, powering your business. 5. Why do I feel like a fraud? This is a feeling that many entrepreneurs have at some point during their journey. Most often it happens during the first few years of building your business. You will be going in a thousand directions, not 100% sure of up from down. You will be called upon as the "expert" in your industry and you will be overcome with a feeling of insecurity. You will have thoughts like this, "Why are they asking me this question or want my point of view? I barely know what the hell it is I am doing, so what makes me an authority." Whenever this feeling hits me, I take a deep breath and think about all that I have done to get me to where I am in my journey. I remind myself of all of the triumphs, wins, successes and glory-filled moments. You are worthy of being titled an expert because you have worked hard to get to the point that someone calls upon you for your input. Think like an expert and you will become one. "Why do I feel like a fraud? I barely know what the hell it is I am doing, so what makes me an authority." 6. How can I stay current and up to date with my products and services? Time marches on and you need to stay current. Embrace change and allow it to become one of your best friends. The best way to do this is to listen to your customers. Hear what they say, listen to what they are asking for and do everything you can to provide it. A guaranteed way to fail to to stick with your old ideas and to ignore the march of time. In a recent interview I did with Jeffrey Hayzlett, former Chief Marketing Officer and V.P. of Eastman Kodak talks about Kodak's inability to change with the times, eventually leading to Kodak's failure. They thought they were in the film business, when in actuality they were in the business of preserving memories. Years before their collapse they were presented with opportunities in the digital camera arena but refused to get too deep into it because they thought they were in the business of making film. Be ready, willing and able to change with the times and to make adjustments to your business. 7. How do I know where to invest in my business? Should you put money into advertising, marketing, technology, systems, education or somewhere else? Like any business, you will have to stick to a budget. At every stage of building your business, you will need to prioritize where money should be invested. Have open and honest conversations with others in your industry that you respect and look up to. Keep your business as lean as possible, especially in the beginning stages. There is nothing wrong with building your business out of your basement or spare bedroom. You should be busting at the seams before you take on the responsibility of paying rent or hiring staff. Keep in mind your best investment is you. Educate yourself and put money into getting around other successful people (conferences, mastermind groups, etc). Avoid "idea of the month" mentality. Develop a solid plan and stick to it. Most businesses fail because they run out of capital or they don't manage the money that is coming in properly. If you are working for someone else while you are building your own business, hold onto your job as long as possible, because lean times will make it very challenging to pay the bills unless you have plenty of reserves in the bank. "Will I ever make another sale? Did I go out of business and someone just forgot to tell me?" 8. Why is everyone in my industry killing it while I am failing? Not the case. Don't believe everything you see on Facebook. People frequently post their wins and very rarely post their losses. My wife, Danielle, often reminds me to stop comparing my beginning to someone else's middle. We all grow at different rates and grow to different levels. If you need a reminder about how far you have come, just look at all you have accomplished over the last few weeks, months or years. Document your progress as you go and you will be amazed at how far you have actually come. Also, leave the pity party now, the pointy hat doesn't look good on you AND you are much better than that. 9. Who can I trust to help me? Building relationships will be a key component on your way to success. You will not be able to succeed without the help of others, so invest wisely in these relationships. Surround yourself with positive people who believe in your message and truly want your success. Find partners that you like and that you feel comfortable with. A great way to build relationships in business is to find others that you can help as well. As I continue to build my speaking and podcasting businesses, I am always on the lookout for businesses that also need something that I offer, so we can work in trade or barter. Many of those relationships have evolved over the years and the owner of those businesses have become my most trusted sources for information, knowledge and business. Give out what you are hoping to get back in return. If you start by being a trustworthy entrepreneur, you will find others in a very similar space. 10. Should I rely upon others or do it myself? Most entrepreneurs fall into the trap of thinking that the best way to get something done is to do it themselves. And while that may be true for some things, it will not be true for everything. We all start by doing our own books, marketing, invoicing, selling, social media posting, blogging, and so much more. At some point you will need to let go of the control of many of these responsibilities, otherwise you will be limiting the growth of your business. Some tasks should be automated, others will require bringing team members into the mix (on-site or virtually). Whatever the case, keep an eye on others that specialize in what you specifically would consider a support task. The key thing to remember is your goal is to work on the business and not always in the business. "Most entrepreneurs fall into the trap of thinking that the best way to get something done is to do it themselves. Not true!" 11. What systems should I have in place? Systems are a way of life, there are systems everywhere you go, helping you do everything from raising a baby, planting crops, developing your network and to help you grow your business. Regardless of it's complexity or simplicity, you will need a system in place to manage your customers, marketing, accounting, prospecting and that's not even taking into account systems in place to manage inventory and help you further explore the products and services you develop and provide. Start with your biggest tasks, look for ways to make more efficient your processes. Time is your most precious resource and any systems you put in place should help you become more productive and more efficient, saving you time and money. 12. Are my customers happy? The best way to determine the happiness of your customers is to ask them. Don't be afraid of the answers they give you and always hear what they have to say. Your customers will tell you everything they love about you but work hard to find out what it is that you and your company need to improve upon. Growth will come when you fix the things that are wrong with your business. Don't get defensive or play the blame game when you have issues. Shoulder the responsibility, fix the problem, report back to your customer and check their temperature again. They will appreciate you more when you are imperfect, human and open to their suggestions. Never argue with a customer, even when you win, you lose. Running a business can be very challenging. Add into the equation a beefy dose of worry, plus a dash of self-doubt, and pretty soon paralysis sets in. By keeping yourself focused on your goals and narrowing your goals into smaller, bite-size pieces, the bigger picture will often times be much more clear. I have found that clarity and specific action steps will help ease my worries and let me focus on the tasks at hand, allowing me to grow my business, with a few less worries. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

04 мая, 21:02

Can You Imagine a World Without Budweiser? We Can

Samuel S. Holloway, University of Portland; Mark R. Meckler, University of Portland, and Rhett Andrew Brymer, Miami University Budweiser, the so-called King of Beers, may be on its last kegs. It may seem odd to picture the demise of the flagship brand of the world's largest beer company. But Anheuser-Busch -- the U.S.-based unit of AB InBev -- is following in the footsteps that led to the irrelevance of a host of other once-dominant companies -- Eastman Kodak, Woolworth's Department Stores, Bethlehem Steel and Blockbuster Video, to name a few. While AB InBev shareholders are cheering each move to boost short-term profitability by snapping up other companies -- including the US$110 billion takeover of rival SABMiller -- CEO Carlos Brito may be unwittingly digging Anheuser-Busch's grave by ignoring long-term trends. How could the rational pursuit of profits and growth through acquisition mean the beginning of the end for Anheuser-Busch? This, we would argue, is a case of disruption theory in action. And the disruptors are the growing ranks of craft brewers that are collectively changing the industry and beer consumption habits as consumers increasingly shun Anheuser-Busch and its products -- the disrupted -- for beers made locally and with a wider variety of higher-quality ingredients. It's something we've witnessed firsthand, in our own research and through an online community called Crafting A Strategy that two of us set up to share knowledge in the beer industry. New market disruption Harvard Business School Professor Clay Christensen coined the phrase "disruptive innovation" in 1995 to describe how a new product or service initially takes root at the bottom of a market and then relentlessly moves upmarket, eventually displacing established competitors. Eight years later he and Michael Raynor described three criteria needed for a new market disruption to occur. Let's consider each criterion in turn in the case of the beer industry. Prohibition became the law of the land in 1919. Flickr/Thomas Cizauskas 1. Large populations of consumers who have not had the means to make the product themselves and have gone without it altogether. For most of the 20th century, high-quality craft beer was in short supply. The bigger brewers mass-produced what one anonymous Midwest "braumeister" described as "flavored water," while home brewing was illegal in the U.S. until relatively recently. In the words of Bill Coors, Adolph Coors chairman and CEO, in 1987: You could make Coors from swamp water and it would be exactly the same. The repeal of Prohibition in 1933 didn't include home brewing, which meant few people knew how to brew and new brewery start-ups were rare. The number of brewers dwindled from several thousand prior to Prohibition to about 100 in the late '70's. That marked a turning point, as a new federal law finally made home brewing legal again. But other laws remained in force in the '80's and '90's that didn't allow early craft brewers to sell directly to consumers, forcing them to first sell to a wholesaler that would then distribute the beer to a retail grocer or bar. This system meant the only way to make a reasonable profit was to go big and leverage economies of scale to ensure your product was featured by distributors. Revelers celebrate with a pint after prohibition is repealed. Bar drinking via www.shutterstock.com 2. Customers who use the product need to go to an inconvenient, centralized location. There were only 89 breweries in America in the late 1970s, and their distribution model meant that consumers had very few choices. In particular, they had inconvenient or no access to craft beer. They generally drank Bud, Pabst, Schlitz, Miller, Coors, etc. By 1981, these brewers controlled 76 percent of the U.S. market. In other words, you had a large population without easy access to well-crafted beer and a system that centralized production and tightly controlled distribution. This created an opportunity for disruption, in the view of Christensen. The question was, would something change that allowed a larger population to make beer and sell the product more directly to consumers? 3. A technology/business model is developed so that a large population can begin owning and using, in a more convenient context, something that historically was available only in a centralized, inconvenient location. In the beer story, that game-changing innovation was the brewpub business model. This became possible after laws began to change in the 1980s to allow over-the-counter sales of beer produced in-house. Yakima Brewing and Malting Inc. opened in Washington state in 1982 and was closely followed by California's Mendocino Brewing in 1983. The advent of microbreweries coincided with other industry trends that made it easier to make a profit from small production. There was also growing ideological opposition to the incumbent sector. Collectively, these changes drove the craft beer revolution in the U.S. Noted beer historian Dr. Martin Stack summed up the innovation this way: Microbreweries represented a new strategy in the brewing industry: rather than competing on the basis of price or advertising, they attempted to compete on the basis of inherent product characteristics. The result? The number of new breweries has grown exponentially, recently surpassing the 1873 U.S. record of 4,131 breweries that now occupy every state. Why disruption works Disruption works because the initial business models or technologies of the eventual disruptors don't perform as well as existing ones, so little attention is paid by the incumbents. N. Taylor Thompson succinctly summarized new market disruption as: a cheaper, more accessible, and worse-performing (business model) that turns non-consumers into customers. From a financial perspective, chasing a smaller group of nonconsumers (like craft beer drinkers) who want only beer that costs a lot to make seems like a relatively foolish use of assets. Instead, executives at AB InBev, which is also known for beers including Corona, Stella Artois and Michelob, understood that making light lagers at a 30 percent to 33 percent operating margin allowed them to earn the most money out of each dollar spent. They ignored craft for so long because craft breweries typically operate on an unattractive 2-5 percent margin. While being ignored, craft beer producers learned and improved without needing to focus attention on direct competition from the large incumbents, pushing operating margins higher and getting the attention of wholesalers who were keen to the changing buying habits among beer drinkers. As a result, their operating margins soared, even as their scale remained relatively small. Boston Beer Company's operating margins, for example, have crept up to 16.3 percent. Brewers Association The number of craft breweries has soared in recent years. Brendan McDermid/Reuters The numbers say it all: while overall beer sales fell 0.2 percent in 2015, sales of craft surged 12.8 percent. Bigger craft brewers are building factories all over the U.S., and pipelines of expertise are flowing toward craft as Anheuser-Busch executives migrate over. But AB InBev's response continues to follow the "disrupted" playbook and typical strategy for mature companies: mergers and acquisitions to defend their existing space and to increase average margins through economies of scale. Most recently, the company agreed to buy fellow behemoth SABMiller, maker of dozens of beers including Leinenkugel's, Miller Lite and Peroni and another brewer chasing the same high-margin beers American consumers increasingly shun. Even attempts by SABMiller's American division, MillerCoors, to create "crafty" beers are increasingly dismissed by consumers. Here's the irony: this merger equates to chasing a 30-33 percent margin on a $2 product (about $0.62) instead of investing in craft processes to make a 16-20 percent margin on a $5 product (about $0.90) that more and more people seem to want. To make things worse for AB InBev, this craft beer movement seems to be not only spreading all over the U.S. but also the world. AB InBev CEO Brito pours a Stella Artois beer after the annual shareholders meeting in Brussels in April. Francois Lenoir/Reuters Chasing profits to death? Wessell and Christensen suggest that by the time incumbent firms realize a new market disruption is occurring, it is usually too late. Even a recent craft beer company buying spree by Carlos Brito and AB InBev likely cannot stem the tide. Case in point: its courtship of highly acclaimed Cigar City Brewing fell apart after the Tampa Bay brewer rejected AB InBev's bid and opted instead in March to become a part of private equity backed brewer Oskar Blues for $60 million. Cigar City likely left tens (perhaps hundreds) of millions of dollars on the table when it walked away from AB InBev. Late last year, for example, wine giant Constellation Brands paid $1 billion for the slightly larger craft brewer Ballast Point from California. At the time, Cigar City founder Joey Redner said: I was almost at the altar with someone else, but it never felt 100 percent right... It was a potentially life-changing opportunity and ultimately, I thought that I wasn't going to be happy. No amount of money was going to make me happy. And his customers, the ones helping drive the trends reshaping the beer industry, must be very pleased, because AB InBev's strategies are creating a backlash. The fear is that by buying up craft breweries they'll end up destroying what they represent. Was Cigar City's move foolish or wise? Redner opted for less money, a better corporate fit and greater control in brewing the product Cigar City's customers expect. Regardless of whether that strategy is successful, we believe this move signals a tectonic shift in the global beer industry. Specifically, craft beer has diminished big beer's longstanding competitive advantages built on scale, distribution and laws that minimized competition from small-scale brewers. Large breweries have now, it seems, entered a strategic decline, merging and acquiring each other and chasing profits at the expense of future customers. Chasing higher profitability through lower-quality products and acquisitions might please shareholders, but it also fits nicely into disruption theory's playbook where new technologies, laws, consumer awareness and business models actively work against the long-held advantages of incumbents. In 20 years, will cracking open a Budweiser on a summer day still be commonplace? Or will it be a relic of times past? If AB InBev stays on its current strategic course, the latter, while tough to imagine now, is the more plausible scenario. Samuel S. Holloway, Associate Professor of Strategy and Entrepreneurship, University of Portland; Mark R. Meckler, Associate Professor of Management, University of Portland, and Rhett Andrew Brymer, Assistant Professor of Management, Miami University This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

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16 марта, 13:31

Квартальная выручка Kodak уменьшилась на 12%

Американский производитель фотоаппаратуры и принтеров Eastman Kodak заявил о том, что прибыль в четвертом квартале составила $24 млн по сравнению с убытком в $42 млн годом ранее. При этом за весь минувший год убыток компании уменьшился с $118 млн годом ранее до $75 млн. Заметим, что выручка в четвертом квартале снизилась на 12% до $467 млн. По оценкам Kodak, прибыль до уплаты процентов, налогов и амортизации составит в 2016 году $130-150 млн, а продажи $1,5-1,7 млрд по сравнению с $122 млн и $1,8 млрд соответственно в 2015 году.

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16 марта, 10:13

Квартальная выручка Kodak уменьшилась на 12%

Американский производитель фотоаппаратуры и принтеров Eastman Kodak заявил о том, что прибыль в четвертом квартале составила $24 млн по сравнению с убытком в $42 млн годом ранее. При этом за весь минувший год убыток компании уменьшился с $118 млн годом ранее до $75 млн. Заметим, что выручка в четвертом квартале снизилась на 12% до $467 млн. По оценкам Kodak, прибыль до уплаты процентов, налогов и амортизации составит в 2016 году $130-150 млн, а продажи $1,5-1,7 млрд по сравнению с $122 млн и $1,8 млрд соответственно в 2015 году.

26 февраля, 19:52

Progressive Pundits' Panic: Sanders Actually Means It!

For the past several weeks, big guns from Hillary Clinton's policy-wonk hit squad have been firing away at Bernie Sanders' proposals for faster, fairer growth. Promoting themselves as defenders of "responsible arithmetic," four former chief economic advisers to Clinton and Obama published an open letter slamming University of Massachusetts professor Gerald Friedman (himself a Clinton supporter), whose detailed analysis concluded that Sander's numbers were quite credible. Ordinarily, this would not be much of a news story. But the prospect of their Presidential nomination going to Sanders has so unnerved the Democratic Establishment that its media minions have up kept the attack. A flock of "liberal" pundits piled on -- including Paul Krugman at the New York Times and just about everyone who writes for the Washington Post. The Clinton/Obama economists denounced Sanders' proposals for single payer health care, universal education and a $15 minimum wage as so "unrealistic... insupportable...and fantastical" that they "undermine the credibility of the progressive economic agenda." But what is the progressive economic agenda if it is not to provide everyone with high quality affordable health care at a cost of 30 to 50 percent less of GDP? Or to make public higher education as accessible to everyone as is public primary and secondary education? Or to pay the people who clean the floors, flip the hamburgers and work the checkout counters enough to cover the rent and feed their kids? Sanders' projection that his economic package could accelerate growth is a prime target for Hillary's sharpshooters. "Voodoo... embarrassing...fairy dust," sputtered Krugman. Yet, as Matthew Klein of the Financial Times pointed out, Sanders is simply saying that by the end of his Administration (2024) the trend of US growth could return to where it was before the 2008-9 crash. Sanders may not be able to pull it off, but as Klein concludes, it is certainly plausible. And if that is not a realistic economic goal for Democrats, what claim does the Party have for the votes of the tens of millions of young people stuck in a jobs market of eroding wages and disappearing opportunity? Sanders' numbers may be a stretch. But he is trying to stretch the Democratic Party's political imagination that has been too long constricted by leaders anxious to accommodate themselves to the Wall Street noose tightening around the neck of working Americans. His program is not being attacked because of fear that he is endangering the "progressive economic agenda." Rather it is being attacked out of fear that he actually believes in it, thus exposing the cynicism behind the Democratic elites' showy concern for the poor and middle class that hides the shallowness of their commitment. How else can you account for their intellectual defenders' venom against Sanders? And the childish mockery? Austen Goolsbee, Obama's economist and one of the gang of four, giggles to the press that Sander's ideas are like "magic flying puppies with winning Lotto tickets tied to their collars." How's that for gown-up responsible arithmetic? Krugman assures us that, of course, he is "for" a large expansion in the social safety net. "But the problem with such a move" he writes, " is that it would probably [sic] create many losers as well as winners - a substantial number of Americans, mainly in the upper middle class, who would end up paying more in additional taxes than they would gain in enhanced benefits." In other words, Krugman, as it was once said of liberal Republicans, is "for" social justice, just so long as it doesn't actually cost someone money. The Democratic Party has occupied the White House for 16 of the last 24 years. Over that time its policies have not only not halted the concentration of income and wealth at the top, they have made it worse. Bill Clinton campaigned in 1992 on a theme that Americans were working harder for less. But once in office, he promoted, and his economists rationalized, trade deals that empowered US corporations to export millions of jobs and suppress wages. The Clintons stood aside indifferently as Big Business launched its war against labor, refusing to fight for legislation - even when the Democrats had a majority in Congress - to stop the erosion of collective bargaining. They deregulated Wall Street, unleashing the speculative binge that crashed the economy in 2008-09. Their "tough love" welfare reform made life even tougher for the very poor. And they happily adopted the Reaganite railings against Big Government to facilitate the privatization and subsequent demoralization of the civilian public sector. When Liberals occasionally pushed back, Clinton protested that he really felt their pain, but lacked the "crisis" that would have allowed him to overcome conservatives' resistance to progressive change. Barack Obama had the crisis - the worst since 1929. Like Clinton, he had campaigned as the people's champion against the financial elites, who by the time he assumed office were thoroughly discredited and desperate for Big Government to save them. Obama had all the high cards. Yet, advised by the same fierce defenders of "responsible arithmetic" who had advised Clinton, he caved in to Wall Street, the Republicans base, while getting little or nothing for the rank-and-file Democrats on Main Street. Yes, things probably would have been even worse had the Republicans won those elections. But, for the enablers and rationalizers of this sorry record to be attacking Bernie Sanders as endangering "the progressive economic agenda" takes the chutzpah of the well-fed professional classes to a new level. So here we are again: Hillary Clinton is next up in the line of Democrats who campaign "populist" in the primary, slide in just to the left of the Republicans in the general election, and once elected, bring in Wall Street to run the country. As always, there are plenty of ambitious economists with prestigious PhD's eager to use the tools of their trade to justify this charade. Why not? The rewards are substantial: among the economists parading their passion for the progressive agenda we find Clinton's chief adviser Laura Tyson - Board member of Morgan-Stanley, AT&T, Eastman-Kodak, and more. Goolsbee - who held the same job under Obama - is now partner in a prominent firm of advisers to multinational corporations. Meanwhile, the working people whose votes provided these "liberals" with their ladder of upward mobility are expected to get along as best they can. So the 20-Somethings are waiting on tables, walking dogs and driving for Uber as they watch themselves turn to debt-ridden 30- and 40- Somethings with no future. Faced with the sticker-shock of skyrocketing insurance company deductibles under Obamacare, the message they take away from the Democrats is: "Be grateful for what you have. Shut up and lower your expectations." Sanders' campaign is about raising expectations to the point where people won't put up with this debasement of democracy any more. Such a concept is, of course, well over the head of cynical bean counters whose arithmetic -- sadly, of course, even at times tearfully -- always sums to the same political conclusion: there is really not much you can do about who gets the beans. They are therefore likely to remain clueless as to why an uncharismatic rumbled Vermont socialist from Brooklyn could be causing their Hillary such fits on the way to her coronation. As the character in one of Oscar Wilde's plays famously put it, a cynic is one "who knows the price of everything and the value of nothing." -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

23 января, 10:49

Скажи мне кто твой друг, и я скажу кто ты.

Скажете окружение не значит ничего? Самообман! Скажете, что всё зависит от человека, а не от обстоятельств? Полнейший бред! Всё решают окружение и обстоятельства! Журнал Forbes недавно составил список самых богатых людей в истории человечества. Из 75 человек, целых 14 — американцы, родившиеся примерно в одно и тоже время с максимальной разницей в 9 лет. Вот они, номера в слева это порядковый номер в списке, по богатству:1. Джон Рокфеллер, 18392. Эндрю Карнеги, 183528. Фредерик Вейерхойзер, 183433. Джей Гулд, 183634. Маршалл Филд, 183435. Джордж Бейкер, 184036. Гетти Грин, 183444. Джеймс Фейр, 183154. Генри Роджерс, 184057. Дж. П. Морган, 183758. Оливер Пейн, 183962. Джордж Пуллман, 183164. Питер Уайднер, 183465. Филин Армор, 1832 в 1860-70х годах в США начался небывалый подъём экономики, которого никогда раньше не было. Эти людям было по 20-30 лет в это время и они занимались теми сферами, которые испытывали максимальный рост, такие как например, нефть и сталь. В 1975 году в мире начался небывалый технический прорыв, центром и лидером которого стал Сан-Франциско, штат Калифорния, место которое часто называют «Кремниевой долиной».А теперь давайте посмотрим на даты рождения одних из самых богатых людей в цифровой индустрии. Билл Гейтс — самый богатый человек современности, 28 октября 1955Полл Аллен — сооснователь Microsoft, второй в ней по богатству, 21 января 1953Стив Балмер — третий в Microsoft, 24 марта 1956Стив Джобс — основатель Apple — самой дорогой компании в мире сейчас. Он родился 24 февраля 1955, а вырос в Маунтин-вью — самом сердце «кремниевой долины»Эрик Шмидт — один из пионеров компьютерной революции, сейчас главный исполнительный директор Google, 27 апреля 1955Билл Джой — человек придумавший интернетные коды, 8 ноября 1954и ещё 3 человека серьёзно повлиявших на компьютерную индустриюСкотт Макнилли, 13 ноября 1954Винолд Хосла, 28 января 1955Энди Бехтольшейм, 30 сентября 1955 в 1975 году всем им было примерно по 20 лет. И они были хорошо друг с другом знакомы. Богатство и успех зависят от Вас? нет конечно, кто Вам сказал такую чушь? Ваш богатство и успех зависят от того, где, с кем и когда Вы находились, когда пошла волна. P.S. Рокфеллер, Карнеги и Морган хорошо знали друг друга и иногда общались.Генри Форд (Ford), Томас Эдисон (General Electric), Джон Берроуз (один из крупнейших американских натуралистов), Харви Файрстоун (Firestone, была приобретена японской корпорацией Bridgestone в 1988), Джордж Истмен (Eastman Kodak) были друзьями.Первые четверо на фото слева направо. Айзек Азимов (Я — робот) и Роберт Хайнлайн (Звёздый десант) были очень хорошими друзьями и путешествовали вместе. Клайв Льюис Спейплз (Хроники Нарнии) и Р.Р. Толкиен (Властелин колец) много лет общались на еженедельной встрече клуба литераторов.

10 января, 08:00

Почему «Одноэтажной России» не будет

Последние несколько лет у нас активно приживается новый американский вариант решения квартирного вопроса. «Одноэтажную Россию» примеряли к стране еще в 2006 году на энергетическом форуме «ТЭК в XXI веке» – слишком уж заманчиво выглядел конвейер бюджетных домиков для среднего класса за пределами крупных городов. «Единая Россия» даже декларировала конкретные цифры: даешь 40% нового малоэтажного жилья […]

18 декабря 2015, 19:53

В Галерее Классической Фотографии открылась уникальная выставка ретрообъективов

Оригинал взят у classicgallery в В Галерее Классической Фотографии открылась уникальная выставка ретрообъективовЗрители увидят эволюцию фотооптики за 130 лет.В Галерее Классической Фотографии представлена крупнейшая в России частная коллекция фотообъективов. Экспозиция насчитывает около 230 экспонатов, большинство из которых – редкие и уникальные экземпляры. Самые старые линзы, которые помнят выражение лиц королевских особ и первых поселенцев Америки, относятся к XIX веку. На выставке представлены объективы для любительской и профессиональной съемки, выпущенные в Европе и США в период с 1840 по 1973 годы. Среди главных экспонатов – один из первых фотообъективов CHEVALIER FAB Paris, разработанный французским физиком и оптиком Шевалье Шарлем Луи.Особое место в экспозиции занимают объективы марки Rapid Rectilinear. Первое устройство было запатентовано британским производителем телескопов Джоном Даллмайером в 1866 году. Однако издержки при его производстве оказались настолько высоки, что объективов этой модели было выпущено буквально несколько штук. Среди экспонатов выставки – объектив Apochromat Collinear, который использовал известный русский фотограф Сергей Прокудин-Горский, реализовавший в начале XX века грандиозный фотопроект – первую цветную съемку Российской Империи. Объектив изготовлен немецкой фирмой Voigtlander&Sohn в 1910 году. Мастер советской фотографии Борис Игнатович (1899-1976) широко экспериментировал с разными типами оптики, применяя объективы для съемок в различных жанрах и условиях. В студии среди прочих он пользовался легендарным портретным объективом Nicola Perscheid, получившим своё название в честь знаменитого портретиста XX века. А для работы в полевых условиях использовал фотоаппарат Leica, оснащенный объективом Еlmar. С помощью Еlmar были выполнены такие известные работы Игнатовича, как «На поле боя» (1941) и «Полевая кухня. Фронтовые будни» (1944).Основу коллекции составляют подлинные шедевры художественной оптики, среди которых объективы Schneider-Kreuznach, Dallmeyer, Zeiss, Wollensak, Berthiot и другие. В экспозиции представлены разработки около 30 ведущих производителей фототехники второй половины XIX – середины XX века, в том числе, такие гранды, как завод Карла Цейса и американская компания Eastman Kodak Company. Несмотря на почтенный возраст, все линзы до сих пор находятся в исправном состоянии: их можно хоть сейчас установить на камеру и сделать качественные снимки.В постоянно действующей экспозиции представлена не имеющая аналогов в России публичная коллекция художественной оптики:CHEVALIER FAB Paris, 1840-1845Один из самых ранних объективов. Применялся для портретной и ландшафтной фотографии в камерах того же производителя.ALEXIS MILLET, 1856-1885Ранний универсальный объектив. Алексис Миллет становится членом Французского общества Фотографии в 1856 году, покидает общество почти через 30 лет – в 1885 году. Объектив в латунной оправе, с фокусировочной кремальерой. Комплектовался вставными диафрагмами.Patent Rapid Rectilinear 12х10, 1887Универсальный объектив с выровненным полем изображения.Euryscop IVa № 7, 1901Изготовитель: Voigtlander&Sohn, г. Брауншвайг. Предназначен для съемок погрудных и поясных портретов. Так как имеет достаточно плоское поле также может использоваться для съемки групп, ландшафтных съемок и работ общего назначения.Apochromat Collinear, 1910Объектив для репродукционных работ. Обеспечивает абсолютно ровное поле изображения. Хроматизм скорректирован достаточно для цветных работ.Planar 1a, №13, производство Carl Zeiss, Ена, 1900-1910Универсальный объектив для моментальных снимков. Рекламировался, как способный передать мельчайшие детали снимаемого предмета с микроскопической резкостью. Использовался для репродукции.Симметричный анастигмат. Линзблоки смонтированы в затворе Компаунд. Ирисовая диафрагма.Nicola Perscheid Objektiv, 1930-40Знаменитый портретный объектив с мягким рисунком, т.н. софт-фокусный. Эта версия построена по схеме, подобной схеме Динара. Есть версии с тем же названием, построенные по схеме симметричного апланата. Принципы описаны в знаменитом патенте D.R.P. 372059.Imagon, Rodenstock, 1968Мягкорисующий портретный объектив. Степень смягчения регулируется диафрагмированием. Характер бликов регулируется вставными диафрагмами.Линзблок смонтирован в затвор Компаунд. Оснащен ирисовой диафрагмой. В комплекте – сменные фигурные диафрагмы.

08 октября 2015, 11:22

Очень интересные снимки. Часть 55

Один из первых цветных снимков человека, автопортрет фотографа Gabriel Veyre, 1898 год:Снято по той же технологии, которой пользовался Прокудин-Горский, т.е. через три фильтра.К сожалению, более качественного варианта этого ценнейшего снимка в Сети не обнаружено, потому что французские фотоархивы такие же жлобские, как и российские ((Кстати, самым первым цветным снимком человека считается портрет матери Фредерика Юджина Айвза, датированный 1891 годом.Игрушки детей Хьюстона, 1920-е:1937 г. Киев. Милиционер регулирует движение судов на Днепре:Больше таких регулировщиков никогда не видел, ни в одном городе!1937 г. Отгрузка троллейбуса English Electric для Москвы в одном из портов Великобритании:Около 1939 г. Marlene Dietrich. Фотографы Jack Shallit & Barker Davis; Important Eastman Kodak Tri-Color Camera:

05 октября 2015, 21:44

Известные фотографии, подвергшиеся фотошопу (ретушированию)

Первый пример (жуткое фотосравнение по катом) — очередное доказательство того, что т.н. "Аль Каеда" является фейком, выдумкой американских спецслужб, а её мифический лидер Бен Ладен — своего рода "поручик Киже", персонаж с придуманной биографией.А был ли мальчик?1. Слева — распространившееся по интернету 2 мая 2011 года изображение того, что пакистанское телевидение описало как «окровавленное лицо Усамы бен Ладена» после того, как представители Соединенных Штатов сказали, что он был убит. Справа же архивная фотография лидера «Аль-Каиды», из которой была состряпана фальшивка. Очень заметно, что борода и нижняя часть фотографии была, скорее всего, скопирована и вставлена в фотографию мертвого тела, которое не принадлежит бен Ладену. Бен Ладен был убит во время операции американских войск в пригороде Абботтабада, 50 км (30 милях) к северо-западу от столицы Пакистана Исламабада, как было объявлено 2 мая 2011 года.2. Суданские сочувствующие бен Ладену держат местную газету, в которой размещены так называемые фотографии убитого лидера «Аль-Каиды» Усамы бен Ладен, в то время как они собрались для молитвы 3 мая 2011 года в Хартуме. Молитвы будут проведены в память о бен Ладене, который был застрелен во время спецоперации войск США в доме рядом с пакистанской столицей Исламабадом, что знаменовало финал более чем десятилетнего преследования идейного вдохновителя и организатора терактов 11 сентября.3. Сентябрь 2000 года: Чтобы проиллюстрировать соблюдение прав меньшинств, университет Висконсина в Мэдисоне отредактировал фотографию на обложке рекламной брошюры, вставив изображение афро-американского студента в толпу белых футбольных фанатов. Оригинальная фотография была сделана в 1993 году. Фотография чернокожего студента Диалло Шабазза была сделана в 1994 году. Университет заявил, что эта мера была вызвана тем, что они цело лето пытались найти подходящее фото, но не смогли.4. 1950 год: Считается, что эта поддельная фотография способствовала поражению на выборах сенатора Милларда Тайдингса в 1950 году. Фотография самого Тайдингса (справа), беседующего с Эрлом Браудером (слева), лидером американской коммунистической партии, должна была свидетельствовать о симпатиях Тайдингса к коммунистам.5. Вскоре после теракта 11 сентября эта фотография распространилась по интернету. Было заявлено, что фотография сделана камерой, которую обнаружили среди развалин на месте теракта. Фото было признано лучшим фотошопом на конкурсе, посвященном теракту.6. Апрель 2007: Газета «Нью-Йорк таймс» опубликовала эту подвергшуюся цифровой обработке фотографию. Редактором газеты было сказано, что фото подверглось обработке, потому что было сделано не профессиональным фотографом из окна поезда, вследствие чего были заметны вспышки, а часть фото оказалась засвеченной. Пикантность ситуации в том, что политика газеты запрещает любые манипуляции с фотографиями. Подобные фотографии просто не имеют права быть опубликованными.7. Около 1930 года. Сталин методично убирал с фотографий неугодных ему людей, как видно по этим двум фотографиям.8. Июнь 1994 года: Эта подвергшаяся обработке фотография Джея Симпсона появилась на обложке журнала «Тайм» вскоре после ареста Симпсона за убийство. Оригинальная фотография, сделанная в полицейском участке, была на обложке журнала «Нююсвик». Журнал «Тайм» был впоследствии обвинен в манипулировании фотографией, чтобы Симпсон на ней казался зловещим и угрожающим.9. Январь 2003 года: Эта обложка журнала GQ разместила фотографию «похудевшей» актрисы Кейт Уинслет. Уинслет говорит, что редактирование фото было «чрезмерным». «Я не выгляжу так, и, что более важно, я не хочу так выглядеть. Они заставили меня «похудеть» примерно на треть», сказала Уинслет.10. Февраль 1982 года: На обложке журнала National Geographic, посвященном легенде о Египте, Великие пирамиды в Гизе, были «сжаты», чтобы соответствовать вертикальному формату журнала. Том Кеннеди, который стал главным фотографом National Geographic, заявил, что «Мы больше не используем эту технологию для коррекции элементов на фото. Мы поняли, что это была ошибка, и мы бы не повторили эту ошибку сегодня «.11. Июль 2007 года: На этой обложке журнала Redbook показана сильно отретушированная и похудевшая певица и актриса Фейт Хилл. Журнал Redbook был обвинен в редактировании фотографии. В ответ на это главный редактор Redbook Стейси Моррисон сказал, «Редактирование фото, которое мы сделали для обложки Redbook в июле полностью соответствует отраслевым стандартам».12. 1942 год: Чтобы выглядеть более героически, Бенито Муссолини приказал убрать с оригинальной фотографии тренера, держащего лошадь за поводья.13. Ноябрь 2007 года: исследование Дарио Сакки, Франка Агноли и Элизабет Лофтус, опубликованной в журнале «Прикладная когнитивная психология», показывает, что воспоминания людей о событиях могут быть изменены путем просмотра отредактированных фотографий. Например, просматривая отредактированные фотографии событий 1989 на площади Тяньаньмэнь, участники протеста вспоминали те события как более масштабные и более жестокие (на отредактированном фото добавлено изображение толпы).14. Декабрь 1997 года: Эта подвергшаяся обработке фотографии Кенни и Бобби МакКой появилась на обложке журнала «Ньюсвик» вскоре после Бобби родила семеряшек. Эта фотография была сделана из оригинальной, которая появилась, без изменений, на обложке журнала «Тайм». «Ньюсвик» отредактировала фотографию, чтобы сделать зубы Бобби боле ровными, и журнал был обвинен в попытке сделать ее «более привлекательной».15. Март 2005 года: Эта фотография, на которой голова Марты Стюарт «приделана» к телу модели, появилась на обложке журнала «Ньюсвик», рассказывающего, что Стюарт выходит из тюрьмы «тоньше, богаче и готовой к победе», как гласит заголовок. «Ньюсвик» раскрывается источник фотографии с обложки на третьей странице следующим текстом: «Обложка: Фотоиллюстрация МайклаЭлинса. Фотографию головы сделал Марк Брайан-Браун».16. Апрель 2004 года: Эта фотография, которая была широко распространена в Интернете, запечатлела, как солдат морской пехоты США позирует для фото с двумя иракских детьми, которые держат табличку с надписью «Лейтенант Бодрок убил моего папу и изнасиловал мою сестру». Бодрок утверждает, что фотография была отредактирована, а в оригинале надпись гласила: «Добро пожаловать, морская пехота». Расследование было безуспешным. Остается неясным, является ли фотография подлинной.17. Сентябрь 1976 года: Так называемая «банда четырех» была убрана с этого фото мемориальной церемонии Мао Цзэдуна на площади Тяньаньмэнь.18. Март 2004 года: Эта политическая антиреклама Джорджа Буша, в то время как он баллотировался на пост президента, была отредактирована путем «снятия» Буша с трибуны и вставки вместо него нескольких солдат. После выяснения, что фото были подделаны, было объявлено, что фотография будет приведена в порядок и опять разослана по СМИ.19. 1936 год: на этой фотографии Мао Цзэдун (первый справа) велел убрать со снимка По Ку (первый слева) после того, как то попал в немилость.20. Около 1860 года: Этои почти знаковый портрет президента США Авраама Линкольна представляет собой сочетание головы Линкольна и тела политика южан Джона Калхуна. Отметим, что первые фотографии были созданы в 1826 году, и компания Eastman Dry Plate Company (впоследствии ставшая известной как Eastman Kodak) была создана в 1881 году.21. Январь 2008: Тайваньская газета Liberty Times опубликовала эту фотографию встречи с Папой Римским представителей Franz Collection. На исходной фотографии присутствовала Ван Шо-лан, издатель конкурирующей газеты United Daily News, которая при редактировании была удалена. Репортер Liberty Times сказала, что она удалила Ван, поскольку «ее присутствие не является существенным» и в целях «сжатия фотографии для «лучшего отображения»».22. Апрель 2003 года: Этот снимок британского солдата в Басре, призывающего иракских мирных жителей искать укрытия, появился на первых страницах Los Angeles Times вскоре после вторжения США в Ирак. Брайан Вальски, штатный фотограф «Лос-Анджелес таймс» и 30-летний ветеран новостного бизнеса, бизнес тренер, был уволен после обнаружения того, что фотография была отредактирована и создана из двух снимков для «улучшения композиции».23. Февраль 2004 года: Эта фотография сенатора Джона Керри и Джейн Фонды на одной трибуне во время антивоенного митинга появилась в 2004 во время праймериз, когда сенатор Керри выставил свою кандидатуру на президентский пост от Демократической партии. Фотография сенатора Керри была сделана фотографом Кеном Лайтом в то время, как Керри готовился выступить с речью на демонстрации «Register for Peace Rally» в Минеола, Нью-Йорк, в июне 1971 года. Фотография Джейн Фонды была сделана Оуэном Франкеном в то время как Фонда выступала на политическом митинге в Майами-Бич, штат Флорида, в августе 1972 года.24. Мая 1970 года: Это фото, лауреат Пулитцеровской премии, сделанное фотографом Джоном Фило, запечатлело рыдающую Мэри Энн Веккио, в то время, как она стоит на коленях над телом студента Джеффри Миллера в Кентском государственном университета, где национальные гвардейцы стреляли в толпу демонстрантов, убив четырех и ранив девять человек. На оригинальной фотографии непосредственно за Веккио находится забор, который был удален в опубликованной версии.25. Июль 2008 года. Фотография на обложках New York Times, Los Angeles Times, BBC News, Chicago Tribune и других газет и журналов запечатлела стрельбу в Иране. Фотография была предоставлена Иранскими медиа. После опубликования оказалось, что второе справа орудие – клон из нескольких частей изображения, который вставили, чтобы перекрыть фотографию другого орудия, которое не выстрелило.26. Ноябрь 2005 года. Эта фотография иллюстратора Клемента Харда появилась в новом издании книги «Goodnight Moon», классической детской книги авторства Маргарет Уайс Браун, иллюстратором которой выступил Хард. Издательство HarperCollins изменило оригинальную фотографию, «убрав» из руки Харда сигарету, якобы, чтобы не пропагандировать курение среди подрастающего поколения. До того фотография с сигаретой появлялась в предыдущих изданиях книги на протяжении по меньшей мере двадцати лет.27. 1937: На этой отредактированной фотографии, Йозеф Геббельс (второй справа) убран с оригинала по приказу Адольфа Гитлера. Остается неясным, почему именно Геббельс попал в немилость к Гитлеру.28. Две отредактированных фотографии.29. Май 2007: В рекламе кинотеатров IMAX 3D последнего фильма цикла о Гарри Поттере, бюст актрисы Эмма Уотсон значительно увеличен. В обычных кинотеатрах фотография осталась без изменений. Компания Warner Brothers распространила заявление, где сказано: «Это не официальный плакат. К сожалению, этот плакат был случайно размещен на сайте IMAX. Ошибка была оперативно исправлена и изображения сняты».30. Январь 2008: На этой обложке журнала поп-звезда Бритни Спирс «подарила» свою голову телу неизвестной модели. Впрчоем, предупреждение на месте, и оно гласит: «Это изображение является отредактированным. На фотографии не Бритни, к сожалению, это не ее тело…»31. Апрель 2005 года: На этом подделанном фотоснимке британские политики Эд Маттс, кандидат от консерваторов по Дорсет-Саус, и Энн Уайдкомб, кандидат от консерваторов по Мейдстон и Уэлд, держат плакаты, на которых надпись «Контролируемая иммиграции — нет хаосу и бесчеловечности «. Эта фотография появилась в рамках избирательной кампании Маттса. На оригинальной фотографии политики ратуют за то, чтобы в Британии разрешили остаться семье беженцев из семи человек. Уайдкомб сказала, что «может подписаться под любым из этих слоганов».32. Сентябрь 2006: фотография ведущей CBS News Кэти Курик была изменена: ведущую «остройнили», сделав более тонкими талию и лицо. Эта фотография появилась в журнале CBS «Watch!» Представитель CBS, Джил Шварц, говорит, что отредактированная фотография – следствие того, что ответственный за оформление фотографий работник несколько перестарался. «Я говорил с моим фотоотделом», добавил Шварц. «Мы все обсудили, я думаю, такое впредь не повторится».33. Октябрь 2005 года: Это отредактированное фото госсекретаря Кондолизы Райс появилось рядом с новостями о комментариях Райс в отношении американских войск в Ираке. После получения жалобы от читателей, эта фотография была удалена с сайта USA Today, и появился комментарий редактора и оригинальное фото. «Фотографии, опубликованные онлайн, обычно редактируются: изменяется размер, яркость и резкость для оптимизации их внешнего вида. В этом случае, после коррекции яркости фото, редактор перестарался и придал ее глазам неестественный внешний вид. Это привело к искажению оригинала не в соответствии с нашими редакционными стандартами».34. 1968 год: Когда летом 1968 года Фидель Кастро (справа) одобряет советскую интервенцию в Чехословакию, Карлос Франки (в центре) рвет отношения с режимом и отправляется в изгнание в Италию. Его изображение было удалено с фотографий.35. Сентябрь 1971: Канцлер Западной Германии Вилли Брандт (крайний слева), встретился с Леонидом Брежневым (крайний справа), первым секретарем Коммунистической партии. По сообщения СМИ, атмосфера была доброжелательная и сердечная. Немецкая пресса публикует фотографию, на которой на столе стоят бутылки шампанского.36. Около 1865: На этой фотографии знаменитого фотографа Мэтью Брэди, генерал Шерман заснят в кругу своих соратников. Генеральный секретарь Фрэнсис П. Блэр (справа) был добавлен к исходной фотографии.37. В американских веб-журналах появилась фотография агентства «Reuters «, на которой запечатлены клубы дыма над разрушенными зданиями в Бейруте после атаки на ливанскую столицу военно-воздушных сил. Блоггеры обвинили агентство «Reuters » в редактировании фотографии, а именно в умышленном увеличении повреждений и задымленности. На фотографии два очень густых столба черного дыма вздымаются над зданиями в Бейруте после атаки ВВС по ливанской столице. После этого фотография была удалена с сайта агентства «Reuters «, а также появилось сообщение с признанием, что изображение было отредактировано, и извинения от редакторов.38. Января 2003 года: на оригинале обложки альбома «Abbey Road» группы Beatles Пол Маккартни, третий по порядку, был изображен держащим в руке сигарету. Издательства Соединенных Штатов изменили фотографию, в результате чего появилось изображение, на котором сигарета в руке Маккартни отсутствовала. На это изменение не давал разрешения ни Маккартни, ни представитель компании Apple Records, которая владеет правами на фотографию. «Мы никогда не давали соглашение на что-либо подобное», сказал представитель компании Apple Records. «Кажется, корректируя эту обложку альбома, издатели несколько увлеклись. Они не должны были делать того, что они сделали, но там не так много изменений, так что мы можем это исправить».Источник

05 января 2015, 20:48

Реклама Kodak

Реклама KodakРекламные публикации компании Kodak, иллюстрирующие повышение потребительской культуры и рождение профессиональной рекламной индустрии.                                          Част 2