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27 мая, 01:40

Weekend Reading: RIch Landrieu: Address on Confederate Monuments

**Mitch Landrieu**: _Transcript of Address on Confederate Monuments_: "Thank you for coming... >...The soul of our beloved City is deeply rooted in a history that has evolved over thousands of years; rooted in a diverse people who have been here together every step of the way–for both good and for ill. >It is a history that holds in its heart the stories of Native Americans: the Choctaw, Houma Nation, the Chitimacha. Of Hernando de Soto, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, the Acadians, the Islenos, the enslaved people from Senegambia, Free People of Color, the Haitians, the Germans, both the empires of Francexii and Spain. The Italians, the Irish, the Cubans, the south and central Americans, the Vietnamese and so many more. >You see: New Orleans is truly a city of many nations, a melting pot, a bubbling cauldron of many cultures. >There is no other place quite like it in the world that so eloquently exemplifies the uniquely American motto: e pluribus unum — out of many we are one. >But there are also other truths about our city that we must confront. New Orleans was America’s largest slave market: a port where hundreds of thousands of souls were...

27 мая, 01:21

45 After Dark: Trump’s a Solo Artist Edition

Donald Trump is wrapping up his foreign trip and one theme has emerged: The U.S. president likes things to be about him. Group settings, with the “family pictures,” hobnobbing, and large dinners have not been his thing, POLITICO’s Tara Palmeri and David Herszenhorn report. “Over the course of the nine-day trip … Trump has seemed happiest when the focus is on him – like the red carpet rollout for his arrival in Riyadh, followed by a sword-dancing display in his honor,” POLITICO’s Tara Palmeri and David Herszenhorn report. “In Europe, where he’s attended group meetings with other world leaders — first in Brussels at the European Union and NATO and now at the G7 summit in Sicily — Trump has appeared less at ease.”Not that it’s all negative. Trump has avoided major faux pas — a few tense meetings and gif-able moments notwithstanding. Today, Trump’s National Economic Council Director Gary Cohn had to clarify that Trump “doesn’t have a problem” with Germany after German press reported that Trump had said Germany was “bad, very bad.”Cohn clarified that Trump was largely concerned with the Germans’ trade policy. PROGRAMMING NOTE: Enjoy your holiday. We’ll see you back on Tuesday. Elsewhere in Trump’s orbit: NEVER TWEET?: The Wall Street Journal reports President Trump is considering an array of changes — including a staff shake up — as he returns from his foreign trip including. Potential changes include having lawyers read his tweets before he sends them. SHE’S BACKKK: In her most extensive critique of President Trump since the November election, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton ripped the former president during a commencement address at her alma mater, Wellselley College, and invoked President Richard Nixon and Watergate. BOEHN OF HIS EXISTENCE: Former House Speaker John Boehner said earlier this week that President Trump has been a “complete disaster” and that he’s still learning on the job. His comments came at a conference in Houston. PARIS PLEAS: World leaders talking to President Trump have urged him to keep the United States in the Paris climate agreement. The White House still hasn’t indicated whether it will stay in the accord. (The New York Time)THAT COMEY’S LATER: The FBI says it won’t provide Congress with former FBI Director James Comey’s memos — until it has cleared it with special counsel Robert Mueller. TILL ‘EM IT’S MY FAULT: Secretary of State Rex Tillerson says the U.S. takes full responsibility for leaks of information about the suicide bombing in Manchester. EMPIRE STATE OF MIND: President Trump and first lady Melania Trump put out a congressional picnic invitation — that features a painting of Central Park. And there you have it. You’re caught up on the Trump administration. Happy Friday.

26 мая, 19:48

THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE: May 29, 1453. RealClearHistory links to a 1999 Economist article that re…

THE FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE: May 29, 1453. RealClearHistory links to a 1999 Economist article that reviews the historical event then relates it to more contemporary issues involving Europe and Turkey. For example: The fall of Constantinople brought to a head many trends already under way. One was the slide of the Byzantine empire’s power, as […]

26 мая, 13:38

Research Review | 26 May 2017 | Smart Beta

Smart beta: 2017 global survey findings from asset owners FTSE Russell May 22, 2017 How much higher can smart beta adoption climb? Now in its fourth year, FTSE Russell’s latest annual survey of global institutional asset owners indicates that smart beta adoption is at an all time high and that investors continue to find new […]

26 мая, 02:20

Pelosi Vows To Get A Bunch Of Teenagers Fired If Democrats Win Congress

Top congressional Democrats, including Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, House Minority Whip Steny Hoyer and Bernie Sanders, held a press conference earlier today to officially introduce their "Fight For $15" minimum wage legislation, dubbed the Raise the Wage Act.  Among other things, the bill primarily serves to more than double the federal minimum wage from it's current level of $7.25 to $15 by 2024.  The Raise the Wage Act would raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour by 2024 and would be indexed to the median wage growth thereafter. These increases would restore the minimum wage to 1968 levels, when the value was at its peak. The bill would also gradually increase the tipped minimum wage, which has been fixed at $2.13 per hour since 1991, bringing it to parity with the regular minimum wage. Moreover, it would also phase out the youth minimum wage, that allows employers to pay workers under 20 years old a lower wage for the first 90 calendar days of work. This legislation would give more than 41 million low-wage workers a raise, increasing the wages of almost 30 percent of the wage-earning workforce in the United States.   The Raise the Wage Act is front loaded to provide the biggest impact to workers. Upon enactment, the federal minimum wage would be increased from $7.25 to $9.25.  The following increases are: $10.10 (2018); $11 (2019); $12 (2020); $13 (2012); $13.50 (2013); $14.20 (2023); $15.00 (2024). Meanwhile, foreshadowing the Democrats' key campaign promise in 2018, undoubtedly designed to win back working class voters of the Midwest who abandoned them 'yugely' in 2016, Nancy Pelosi vowed her party would pass a $15 per hour minimum wage within the first 100 hours if they manage to recapture Congress during the next election cycle. "We're willing to fight for $15, and I'll tell you one thing for sure, we win the election and in the first 100 hours we will pass a $15 per hour minimum wage."   "We'd rather have it now.  We'd rather win on the issue than worry about the election."   Of course, seemingly no amount of empirical evidence will ever convince progressives that raising minimum wages to artificially elevated levels is a bad idea.  Somehow the basic idea that raising the cost of a good ultimately results in lower consumption of that good just doesn't compute.  So while it will undoubtedly fall on deaf ears, we would once again point Ms. Pelosi to a recent study from the American Action Forum (AAF) which estimated that 2.6 million jobs will be lost around the country over the next several years as states phase-in minimum wage hikes that have already been passed (see "State Minimum Wage Hikes Already Passed Into Law Expected To Cost 2.6 Million Jobs, New Study Finds").  Shockingly, and only after running a lot of really complicated math using complex equations that most of us stupid people just wouldn't understand, AAF ultimately concluded the whole elasticity of demand thing actually works (a.k.a. 'the higher shit is priced the less people will buy of it'). Moreover, as Dunkin' Donuts' CEO recently pointed out, a significant number of Americans working for minimum wage are teenagers and not the "older, blue-collar workers" that Bernie and Nancy say they want to help.  Which, of course, means that to the extent they get to keep their jobs a fair portion of the minimum wage increases will simply flow to teenagers who may already be a part of affluent families.   But goodluck with the crusade, Nancy and Bernie!  If you get hungry along the way, we highly recommend you try out a sandwich from this new "Big Mac ATM" which comes with McDonald's special sauce and all the fixin's but requires exactly 0 of your minimum wage workers to prepare.

26 мая, 01:55

Meet the Real Jared Kushner

He’s a lot tougher than he looks.

25 мая, 23:45

Стадион «Уэмбли» в честь юбилея на время окрасился в цвета ЦСКА

В честь 10-летия открытия после реконструкции лондонского стадиона «Уэмбли» руководство арены провело необычную акцию.

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25 мая, 19:45

Гранд-финал Кубка России по киберспорту 2017

С 26 по 28 мая в Yota Arena (Москва, Дмитровское шоссе, 27к1) состоится гранд-финал Кубка России по киберспорту 2017 (Dota 2, League of Legends, FIFA 17 и Hearthstone). Среди участников профессиональные киберспортивные коллективы — Virtus.pro, Team Empire, Elements Pro Gaming, спортсмены из профессиональных футбольных клубов «Локомотив», «Уфа», «Оренбург» и команды ROX.

25 мая, 19:34

Laos: On the Borders of the Empire

We investigate China's rising influence in Laos and the potentially disastrous consequences for the local population.

25 мая, 19:24

Laos: On the Borders of the Empire - People and Power

Laos: On the Borders of the Empire - People and Power Mandarin is the language of choice among its residents and on its street signs and advertising hoardings; clocks are set to Beijing time in homes, stores and even municipal buildings; and the Yuan is by far and away the most common currency. Any overseas visitors dropping in to Ton Pheung could be excused for thinking themselves in China - albeit a slightly raunchy theme-park version with an unusual preponderance of massage parlours and nightclubs along its streets. But Ton Pheung is actually in the far northwest of communist Laos - on the border with China, but still in name, if increasingly not in reality, a sovereign district of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Yet few here see it that way. Over the past decade, Chinese investors have moved in, building shopping malls and casinos and glitzy hotel complexes and importing a way of life that is a long way from the traditional norms in Laos - an impoverished landlocked nation where 80 percent of the population still scrape a living from small-scale farming. And the enclave is far from being an isolated case. One by one, communities across northern Laos are gradually taking on the appearance of de facto Chinese dependencies. Tourism, transport, property, energy, high-intensity agriculture … with the blessing of the Laos government, China has set out to develop, some say exploit, the potential of its hard-pressed neighbour. Given the country's desperate need for foreign investment, the Laotian authorities clearly believe that the economic advantages of the relationship outweigh any drawbacks of surrendering sovereignty. But critics say the consequences for the indigenous population of this unbridled, spill-over capitalism are truly dire - ranging from gambling, prostitution and illicit trade in the newly urbanised border communities to widespread land expropriation, deforestation and pollution in the rural hinterland. Furthermore, the profits and benefits of all this activity flow back to the Chinese rather than to the locals. So is it possible that this former French colony, South Asia's poorest state, has given away too much? And will it ever be able to reconcile the needs of its people with the demands of its voracious benefactor? Filmmakers Gwenlaouen Le Gouil, Brice Lambert and Cedric Esteve went to Laos to find out. - Subscribe to our channel: http://aje.io/AJSubscribe - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/AJEnglish - Find us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/aljazeera - Check our website: http://www.aljazeera.com/

25 мая, 17:35

Why was French spoken in Russia?

Leo Tolstoy's novel War and Peace remains one of the most difficult books for pupils on the school syllabus in modern Russia, and not just because of its impressive four-volumes. "When I opened the first pages and saw that about half of the text was in French, I thought: Well, I'd better read a brief summary instead," says 23-year-old Muscovite Alexei about his school experience of reading Tolstoy. Indeed, the dialogues between members of the St. Petersburg nobility in the salon of high-society hostess Anna Pavlovna Scherer that War and Peace opens with are half composed of French phrases, and this is not the author's invention but a reflection of the mores of the early 19th century (the first volume of War and Peace describes the events of 1805). As Tolstoy observes one of his characters: "He spoke in that refined French in which our grandfathers not only spoke but thought." In the 18th century French "conquered" Russia, becoming the unofficial language of the aristocracy. Why? Facing the West It all started with the reforms of Peter the Great, who ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725. Peter, the third of the Romanov tsars, drastically changed the direction in which the country was moving - his dream was to turn Russia into a European power. To achieve this, he not only engaged in wars but also destroyed the patriarchal ways of old Russia: He forced nobles to cut their beards, wear European dress, and travel to the West to study. As a result, noblemen at high-society gatherings in the 18th century started conversing in foreign languages.  Of all the Western languages it was French that dominated during that period, not just in Russia but in Europe as a whole. "French was the first language which introduced the notion of a single set of norms," is how psycholinguist and translator Dmitry Petrov explains the success of the French language. France's First Minister Cardinal de Richelieu should be thanked for this, Petrov says. In 1635 Richelieu founded the French Academy which dealt with the creation and regulation of a set of language norms. In the end, French gradually squeezed out Latin as a language of international communication. The French wave Nihilistic intelligentsia dine on beluga, drink medovukha and read samizdat The French Revolution (1789-1799) gave an additional impetus to the French language's spread among the Russian nobility. Many aristocrats fled the country after it was engulfed in rebellion and found refuge, inter alia, in Russia. The number of émigrés in that period reached 15,000. The government of the Russian Empire treated any revolution with suspicion and welcomed monarchists in their country. Some of them achieved high positions serving the Russian throne - such as Armand-Emmanuel Richelieu, a descendant of the famous cardinal, who became governor of Odessa (now Ukrainian territory). Others, not so successful, became governors in rich families and taught dancing and fencing to the children of noblemen. Gallomania and Gallophobia Long before Tolstoy, journalists and writers had noted the Russian nobility's wholesale infatuation with everything French - and there were heated debates about the craze. Some people thought that loans from the French enriched Russian culture and added refinement to the language, while others believed they led nowhere. "We will drive our own language into total decline," commented People's Education Minister Alexander Shishkov, who campaigned for the purity of Russian.  In his comedy "Woe from Wit" (1825), the writer Alexander Griboyedov referred ironically to Russians who worshipped everything French while being unable to string two words together in the language, summing up the phenomenon in the phrase: "A mixture of French and Nizhny Novgorod" (Nizhny Novgorod is a provincial town 401 km east of Moscow). And yet all the nobility conversed in French - it was a courtly language associated with chivalry and exalted feelings. A study of the correspondence of the most famous Russian poet, Alexander Pushkin, who is regarded as the founder of the modern Russian language, revealed that about 90 percent of his letters to women were in French. Decline of Francophony  During the Napoleonic Wars, in which Russia and France fought on opposite sides, the popularity of French began to wane. Patriotic sentiments compelled the nobles to speak more in their native tongue - and sometimes it was a matter of survival. Poet and hero of the War of 1812 Denis Davydov recalled that the peasants (who knew no French and were frequently illiterate) at times "mistook [aristocratic officers] for the enemy because of their foreign accent in Russian" and could attack them with an ax or take a shot at them with a firearm. The period of infatuation with France came to an end and many Gallicisms that had entered the Russian language in the 18th century fell into oblivion, but dozens of words nevertheless remained. Russians do not think twice of the foreign origin of words like "afisha," "pressa," "sharm," and "kavaler" [meaning "advertising poster," "press," "charm," and "male admirer," respectively]. "Some remained if they were needed by the language, but others disappeared if they were surplus to requirements," said the writer Pyotr Vail in a comment on the history of loan words. "The same thing is happening and will continue to happen with other words grafted onto the language." Read more: Why do some Russians look Asian?>>>

25 мая, 15:52

Без заголовка

**Live from the Orange-Haired Baboon Cage:** Ah. I see. Charles Murray, W. H. Brady Scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, is once again trying to rehabilitate his Racial Science. Burn one cross and spend your life arguing that people with dark skin are genetically inferior, and people call you a racist. Is that fair? **Eric Turkheimer, Kathryn Paige Harden, and Richard E. Nisbett**: _Charles Murray is once again peddling junk science about race and IQ - Vox_: "Podcaster and author Sam Harris is the latest to fall for it... >...Readers who wish to know about the current state of intelligence theory and research may be especially interested in the academic article “Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments,” in the Feb.-March 2012 issue of American Psychologist, by Nisbett, R. E., Aronson, J., Blair, C., Dickens, W., Flynn, J., Halpern, D. F., and Turkheimer, E... And: **Scott Lemieux**: _Charles Murray is a Hateful Crackpot Whose Views Should Not Be Legitimized - Lawyers, Guns & Money : Lawyers, Guns & Money_: "Presenting Murray’s views as subject to reasonable debate... is extremely pernicious. To present him as a serious intellectual and victim of political correctness, as Harris apparently did, is simply beyond the pale..."...

25 мая, 13:52

Trump Ignores Middle East Past, Misunderstands Explosive Present, Endangers Future

There are problems when you either can’t or won’t read. You are completely dependent on others, weaseling advisors and media sycophants, for information and analysis. You become enamored with staged pageantry. You make ignorant statements and foolish decisions. That is a quick summary of Donald Trump’s first overseas trip as United States President. In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Tel Aviv, Israel, and Rome, Italy, foreign leaders are scratching their heads and asking two questions. “How did such an fool get to be President of the United States?” and “How can we use this idiot for our own advantage?” In Saudi Arabia, Trump posed for pictures, received a medal, and danced with medieval swordsmen. Then he agreed to sell United States military fighters to a government already committing genocide on one of its neighbors and financing militant, rightwing, Islamic orthodoxy around the world. By some estimates, Saudi Arabia has given $100 billion dollars to radical Islamic groups, the same groups Trump wants to stop. Trump may not remember but Osama Bin Laden and 15 of the World Trade Center terrorists were Saudi citizens. In his speech, Trump announced that these same Saudis would be the United States’ Sunni Muslim ally against Shia Iran. To hell with Saudi human rights abuses, its treatment of women, and its denial of citizenship rights to the children of guest workers born in the country. About one-third of the population of Saudi Arabia is officially considered guest workers. Freedom House, an American organization, ranks Trump’s friend Saudi Arabia among the 11 least free countries in the world today. Perhaps Donald Trump forgot that in the past he accused Saudi Arabia of masterminding 9/11, killing gays, and enslaving women. It is the same country that Trump wanted to ban from exporting oil to the United States. In an interview with CNBC, Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross, who was part of the Trump Saudi entourage, was ecstatic over the group’s welcome in the Saudi Kingdom. He commented that he did not witness a single protester or placard. Apparently Ross was unaware that public demonstrations are illegal in Saudi Arabia. The Sunni-Shia division originated almost 1400 years ago. It started with a dispute over leadership of the Islamic religion after the death of Muhammad in 632. But the real conflict is a struggle for supremacy in the Islamic world, first between the Ottoman Turkish Empire and Persia, and now between Saudi Arabia and Iran. Contemporary battlefields include Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen, where the Saudis air force is bombing civilians, and Pakistan. The Taliban in Afghanistan are Sunni. So are Al Qaeda and ISIS. Hezbollah is Shia. Now Trump, with all his lack of knowledge, is drawing the United States deeper into this quagmire. Nothing positive will come of it. After leaving Saudi Arabia, Trump and his “posse” traveled to Israel where he threw himself and the United States into the middle of another intractable conflict. On landing in Israel, Trump announced he was seeking an historic peace deal between Israel and Palestinians living in Israeli occupied territories, but offered no plan for a solution. Trump then offended Arab groups by visiting occupied East Jerusalem and praying at a Jewish holy site wearing a yarmulke. Trump isn’t Jewish, so the act was just symbolic and infuriating. Trump told Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu that he wants his to work with Saudi Arabia to promote regional peace but never hinted at whether this would involve the end of the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories and the formation of an independent Palestinian state. The problem, of course, is in the details. The Saudis are committed to an Arab Peace Initiative adopted by the 22 members Arab League in 2002. In exchange for peace between Arab states and Israel, Israel must withdrawal from occupied Palestinian territory back to borders established prior to the 1967 war. It must also agree to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip with East Jerusalem as its capital and to a “just” solution to the Palestinian refugee issue. Israel immediately dismissed this proposal and since 2002 has added new settlements in occupied Palestinian territories. Netanyahu has shown little inclination toward concessions and many members of his governing coalition call for a complete Israeli annexation of the entire West Bank. An additional problem is Palestinian division. A weak and discredited Palestinian Authority administers parts of the occupied West Bank, but Hamas, which the United States and Israel consider a terrorist organization, governs the Gaza Strip. While the mainstream press in the United States that Trump continually denounces was respectful of Trump’s diplomatic escapade, the Israeli press was much less generous. A headline in the Jerusalem Post declared “All Pomp And No Substance In Trump's Historic Israel Visit.” The article focused on how, in “all his public appearances, he managed to avoid using the term ‘two-state solution’,” and despite Trump’s “insistence that Israel and the Palestinians can reach his coveted ‘deal’,” he “clearly doesn’t have a plan of how to get there.” One opinion essay in Haaretz described the Trump visit as an “absurd series of empty gestures.” Another argued that Trump has “zero credibility among Palestinians, thanks to his aversion to the words ‘Palestinian state’ and ‘Israeli occupation’.” In Rome, Pope Francis welcomed the touring Trump entourage despite previous well-expressed disagreements. An initial photograph showed a smiling Trump but a stone-faced Pop. They then met in the pope’s private study for about half an hour with only an interpreter present. Trump called the meeting “great” and “fantastic.” A Vatican statement described the meeting as “cordial.” It expressed the Pope’s hope the Roman Catholic Church could collaborate with the Trump administration on “health care, education and assistance to immigrants,” which is as unlikely as Trump producing peace in the Middle East. The world can hardly wait to learn what “great” and “fantastic” ideas Trump shares with world leaders this week in Belgium at a dinner of representatives from NATO nations and in Sicily at the more selective summit meeting of the Group of 7 powers that include Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Stay tuned! Note: In a remark that may have been a faux pas, bad geography, or just plain dumb, Donald Trump told a meeting with of Israeli government officials that his entourage " just got back from . . . the Middle East. We just got back from Saudi Arabia.” Many in the audience visibly grimace, especially because Arab nationalists denounced the founding of Israel in the Middle East as European occupation of Arab lands. If you don’t believe it, you can watch Trump on video, which I am sure many in the Middle East are doing. Follow Alan Singer on Twitter: https://twitter.com/ReecesPieces8 -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

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25 мая, 03:17

NYT: власти Нью-Йорка планируют установить новые защитные барьеры на Таймс-сквер

Кроме того, как сообщил представитель нью-йоркской полиции Стивен Дэвис, рассматривается вопрос об усилении мер безопасности вокруг небоскреба Empire State Building

24 мая, 21:24

Trust Assimilation in the United States, by Bryan Caplan

I recently spent a month reading through the vast empirical literature on trust.  A simple survey question - usually along the lines of "Can most people be trusted?" - seems to predict many good social outcomes.  What most interests me, however, is trust assimilation.  Fans of empirical trust research often claim that immigrants retain trust generation after generation.  The go-to example: Swedes are highly trusting, and so are Swedish-Americans.  If this is generally true, immigration from low-trust countries will durably reduce average trust in high-trust countries that receive them.  One of the most-cited papers on this topic, Uslaner's "Where You Stand Depends Upon Where Your Grandparents Sat" (Public Opinion Quarterly, 2008) dissatisfies me in four ways:  (1) despite the title, most of the reported effects of ancestry on trust were quite small; (2) the author's main specification uses dummy variables for national/regional origin, rather than a direct measure of trust in country/region of origin; (3) eight out of the nine countries/regions of origin were in Europe; (4) Uslaner includes multiple control variables that plausibly proxy trust, including whether you're "satisfied with your friendships" and agree that "officials are not interested in the average person," and that it's "not fair to bring a child into the world."  Algan and Cahuc's "Inherited Trust and Growth" (AER, 2010, Section II.B) does a much better job.  It uses the World Values Survey to measure trust in "home countries," instead of just national/regional dummies, allowing a direct (though coarse) measure of immigrant assimilation.  And it doesn't control for variables that are close proxies for trust.  Result: About 45% of trust is persistent - not overwhelming, but hefty.  Ultimately, though, Algan and Cahuc still dissatisfies me.  Shortcomings: (1) they control for several variables that plausibly capture assimilation, especially education and income; (2) they heavily restrict their sample, (3) other than Africa, India, and Mexico, all of the countries/regions of origin they use are European.  So while I was hoping to outsource trust assimilation to prior researchers, I ultimately decided I needed to crunch the numbers myself.  My approach closely mirrors Algan and Cahuc's: I use the General Social Survey to measure individuals' trust within the United States, and the World Values Survey to measure average national trust everywhere else.  When multiple years of WVS data were available, I averaged them.  When the two data sets' categories didn't perfectly mesh, I did the best with what I had.  Example: Since the WVS doesn't include Austria, I gave Austrians the trust rate for Germany.  I ended up with this: GSS Code Ethnic Origin WVS Trust GSS Code Ethnic Origin WVS Trust 1 AFRICA 15.4 22 PUERTO RICO 14.2 2 AUSTRIA 35.3 23 RUSSIA 27.7 3 FRENCH CANADA 38.9 24 SCOTLAND 29.5 4 OTHER CANADA 38.9 25 SPAIN 25.8 5 CHINA 45.6 26 SWEDEN 62.8 6 CZECHOSLOVAKIA 26.9 27 SWITZERLAND 36.7 7 DENMARK 60.2 28 WEST INDIES 3.5 8 ENGLAND & WALES 29.5 29 OTHER 49.5 9 FINLAND 54.4 30 AMERICAN INDIAN -- 10 FRANCE 18.7 31 INDIA 31.8 11 GERMANY 35.3 32 PORTUGAL 27.2 12 GREECE 20.1 33 LITHUANIA 27.2 13 HUNGARY 28.1 34 YUGOSLAVIA 20.1 14 IRELAND 29.5 35 RUMANIA 16.9 15 ITALY 28.3 36 BELGIUM 23.1 16 JAPAN 38.5 37 ARABIC 25.5 17 MEXICO 21.1 38 OTHER SPANISH 14.9 18 NETHERLANDS 54.6 39 NON-SPAN WINDIES 3.5 19 NORWAY 69.3 40 OTHER ASIAN 24.3 20 PHILIPPINES 5.6 41 OTHER EUROPEAN 26.4 21 POLAND 23.1 97 AMERICAN ONLY 34.5 Since measuring assimilation is my goal, I include (a) a dummy variable for first-generation immigrants (BORN=0 if foreign-born, =1 if native-born), and (b) separate coefficients for assimilation for first-generation immigrants and their descendants.  What do we get?Using the entire sample:Now remember: The formula for zero assimilation is TRUST = .00 + 1.00 * ANCESTRAL for foreign- and native-born alike.  What the data yield, however, is TRUST = .10 + .70 * ANCESTRAL for foreign-born, and TRUST = .22 + .56 * ANCESTRAL for native-born.  The upshot is that low-trust immigrants gain a lot of trust, especially after the first generation.  Suppose your parents come from a country where only 10% of people trust others.  Your parents' predicted trust in the U.S. is 17%, but yours is 28%, just 9 percentage-points below the U.S. average.   What happens if we distinguish voluntary immigrants from the descendants of slaves?  Some prominent cliometricians argue that slavery durably damaged trust in Africa, and it's highly plausible that slavery in America did the same here.  Given historic immigration patterns, virtually all native-born U.S. blacks descend from slaves, so I define the dummy variable SLAVE, where SLAVE=1 if (ETHNIC=1 and BORN=1).  Then I re-estimate:Now we see an extremely high rate of trust assimilation for descendants of voluntary immigrants, regardless of their origins: TRUST = .33 + .28 * ANCESTRAL.  If your ancestral trust is 10%, your predicted trust in the U.S. is 36%, a mere 1 percentage-point below the U.S. average.I'm well-aware, of course, that these results aren't good enough for publication.  I banged them out in a few hours.  But I still think I learned a lot by getting my hands dirty in the data.  The most important lesson: While scholarly claims about trust persistence aren't totally wrong, they're heavily exaggerated.  Common sense says that descendants of voluntary immigrants readily assimilate to mainstream U.S. culture.  And at least for trust, common sense is right. (7 COMMENTS)

24 мая, 17:49

K Syrah, Sera: How Charles Smith Went From Rocker To Rock Star Vintner

Even for a guy who was in the right place (Washington state) at the right time (the early 90’s), who studied wine his entire life (Smith never took a class), building a wine empire isa monumental achievement. But Smith makes it look simple. The secret to thesauce? Marketing.

24 мая, 16:30

What Sanctions? Russia Energy Billionaire Readies Massive London IPO

Oleg Deripaska is floating the idea of selling a quarter of his hydropower and aluminium empire to foreign investors in what may be the largest IPO in London this year.

24 мая, 16:27

150 years on, another Miklouho-Maclay is off to meet the Papuans

"I have always reacted normally to who I am. Maybe because I had no other choice?" Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay smiles, sitting on an office chair with impeccable posture. As is the proper way to sit for a hereditary nobleman. He was born exactly 102 years after his namesake and world-renowned great-great-grandfather Nikolai [Nicholas] Miklouho-Maclay landed on the shores of Papua New Guinea. Today he is the founder and director of the Miklouho-Maclay Foundation for the Preservation of Ethnocultural Heritage. His temporary office is directly opposite one of the oldest cemeteries in St. Petersburg - people have been buried here since the emergence of the Russian state and Russian Empire. Admittedly, the ethnographer is not buried here and, anyway, any physical proximity to his ancestors is a matter of pure accident: It just happened this way. He also says that he was named Nikolai not after the explorer, but because his parents liked the name. Today the descendants of Miklouho-Maclay, who studied the Papua New Guinea natives for 12 years, live mainly in Russia and Australia. But so far it’s only Nikolai who has decided that after 150 years he needs to to meet the Papuans and trace the footsteps of his ancestor. Moreover, to travel 18,000 kilometers exclusively by car, crossing seven countries. Family anecdotes, cannibals, and a deadly bite Very few people today remember anything about Miklouho-Maclay, except his name - and this upsets his great-great-grandson Nikolai. Nikolai Myklukha-Maklai: "Nikolai Nikolayevich (Miklouho-Maclay) never believed that one race or culture should dominate another." Photo: Explorer Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay, Malay Peninsula, 1874-75. Source: Archive Photo "There is Miklouho-Maclay's street in Moscow, and some people are absolutely convinced that my surname is in honor of the street. Also, I have been dogged by incidents because of my surname. On one occasion I called an ambulance for my mother and was asked for my name. And no ambulance came. I called back but was told: 'Young man, call the psychiatric clinic.' At times it becomes ridiculous: I arrive somewhere and am asked, 'What is your name?' - 'Miklouho-Maclay' - 'What?' - 'Miklouho-Maclay.' - 'What?' - 'Ivanov [the most common Russian surname - RBTH]' - 'Come in'." There is a video clip posted on the foundation's website in which residents of St. Petersburg are trying hard to guess who Miklouho-Maclay was, but all they can remember are some jokes which, in their opinion, are better not to tell. In the past Nikolai worked in the agricultural sector. He had his own business and used the money he earned to travel the world. Then he realized that his main job should be to try to preserve the memory of his ancestor. That was how he came up with the idea of an expedition by road to the shores of Papua New Guinea: First to reach Papua New Guinea via China, Thailand, and Indonesia, and then to drive across the whole of Russia, telling stories about the ethnographer. Nikolai realized that his main job should be to try to preserve the memory of his ancestor. That was how he came up with the idea of an expedition by road to the shores of Papua New Guinea: First to reach Papua New Guinea via China, Thailand, and Indonesia, and then to drive across the whole of Russia, telling stories about the ethnographer. Source: Ruslan Shamukov The crew includes scientists and explorers. Together, for two weeks, they will examine the daily life of the Papuans, to see if the natives have been influenced by Russian culture. The first white man in Papua, Miklouho-Maclay, became a synonym for all Europeans who later visited the islands. His name was given to crops brought from the mainland. Thanks to the Russian ethnographer, the local languages acquired words such as "topor," "kukuruza," and "arbuz" (Russian for "ax," "corn," and "watermelon", respectively). Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay: "During my childhood, since the age of 13, I was fond of sailing but only recently, 30 years later, I have discovered that one of my sailing friends charged several kopecks for exhibiting me to others." Source: Ruslan Shamukov Nikolai says he’s not afraid of anything (despite the fact that there are tribes of cannibals still living just a few kilometers inland from the eastern Maclay Coast). But his fellow team member (formerly a surgeon) Konstantin Bespalko has traveled around the world - the falls of Iguazu and Angel, the Galápagos Islands, Madagascar, Laos, Cambodia, and India - and he knows that there are things to be afraid of. "Ten years ago in Madagascar I was bitten by a toad of some kind. I was on a mountain and everyone said to me "oh, danger danger!" pointing at a little frog. It turned out that, if you step on it, two hours later you can bid farewell to your companions. I don't know when exactly it bit me but my whole leg ended up covered in blood because the blood stopped clotting - it must have had anticoagulants in its saliva. "And in Cambodia there was another incident: The rainy season started and the roads were covered in a thin sheet of water. So we stopped. And then we saw red dots on the trees. One person in our group decided to walk off the road. And the locals shouted ‘Stop!’ What were those red dots? They remain from the time of the Khmer Rouge and mean that the area has still not been cleared of mines. Only the narrow strip of road flooded with water had been cleared," Bespalko says. 'I can do it myself without the other Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay' There is a paper map spread on the desk and a glowing globe in the foundation's office. These must be the only things that hint at the type of activity its occupant is involved in. He says that, despite the numerous interviews he gives to journalists and his membership of the oldest Russian Geographical Society (its board of trustees includes the Russian president, the defense minister, and some of the country's richest people), he does not feel like an exceptional individual. A man of the Bongu Village, Papua New Guinea. Photo from the personal archive of Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay. Source: Personal archiveSource: Personal archive "Rather, I was surprised how important this is for other people. You know, during my childhood, since the age of 13, I was fond of sailing but only recently, 30 years later, I have discovered that one of my sailing friends charged several kopecks for exhibiting me to others. And what is amazing is not that he was making money from it, but that children at the time were prepared to pay to see a live Miklouho-Maclay," Nikolai recalls. Children from the Maclay Coast, Papua New Guinea, 2010. Photo from the personal archive of Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay. Source: Personal archive The magic of the name still works. Apart from the noble goal of preserving the memory of his ancestor and raising the level of erudition among today's schoolchildren, he doesn't admit to having any other goals. For example, his ancestor had political ambitions, among other things. Any school pupil can read in his textbooks that Miklouho-Maclay proposed that the land he had discovered should be colonized. The scientist and navigator suggested calling the islands Chernorossiya (Russian for "Black Russia,” because of the color of the indigenous population) and he himself wanted to be in charge of the colonial state. But the emperor did not allow it and the coast was colonized by Germany. "Russia's colonization was needed for one reason - to take under its protection the small ethnic groups that populated Papua New Guinea. Nikolai Nikolayevich (Miklouho-Maclay) never believed that one race or culture should dominate another," Nikolai observes politely after a short pause. "And ambition is a good thing," he says, animatedly. He recalls one of his great-great-grandfather's mottos. "If a person can afford it and he has ambition, it is a wonderful thing, and a big responsibility. A person can be judged by his goals. And he had big goals." Children From the Bongu Village, Papua New Guinea. Photo from the personal archive of Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay. Source: Personal archive 'And your goal - is it big enough?' "This must be my biggest goal. What you are talking about is a huge undertaking and if we manage to get it going… we should not distort history." Nikolai keeps saying that it’s not just about him being a descendant of a world-renowned person. "I set up this foundation only when I realized that I am quite a mature personality irrespective of the other Nikolai Miklouho-Maclay. I myself am a person who can do good things, without being linked to him. Yes, of course, while preserving his legacy. Yes, of course, while drawing on his work. It would have been silly not to draw on it." "I have always reacted normally to who I am. Maybe because I had no other choice?" Photo: Ruslan Shamukov Read more: Russia Versus Europe: Fear and loathing in the age of the Grand Tour>>>

24 мая, 14:00

The Real Reasons for Marvel Comics’ Woes

A recent push for diversity has been blamed for weak print sales, but the company’s decades-old business practices are the true culprit.

24 мая, 08:09

Wednesday’s best TV: Black Widow, The Met: Policing London, White Gold

A Dutch crime drama sees a woman head up her family’s drug empire, while likable PCs are on the beat in a police PR piece. Plus: the Inbetweeners reunite in a new comedy about double-glazing salesmanThe latest Walter Presents offering is a stylish Dutch crime drama centred on Carmen van Walraven, daughter of a notorious Amsterdam drug lord. She’s a woman who reluctantly becomes boss of the family business in order to clear the debts of her crooked and overreaching husband. First up, we meet the family in the run-up to what should be a joyous wedding. When the episode finishes, series one and two will be available to view via All 4. Jonathan Wright Continue reading...

21 ноября 2013, 08:27

Список литературы от Андрея Фурсова [3]

Книги на иностранных языках. В качестве источника использованы статьи и выступления Андрея Ильича Фурсова.  Герберт Уэллс одна из самых зловещих фигур 20-го века, который в конце 30х годов написал две книги, одна называется "Открытый заговор", а другая "О будущем", где откровенно говорилось о том, что будущее это жёсткий контроль верхушки над населением, у власти должны быть учёные и технократы, остальные выполняют их волю. В этом отношении Оруэлл и Хаксли только популяризировали идеи Бертрана Рассела и Герберта Уэллса. Удивительным образом не переведено на русский язык всё, что связано с глобальным управлением, более того эти книжки не переводились даже для служебного пользования. Название: Behold a Pale Horse Автор: William Milton Cooper Год: 1991 Язык: английский Уильям Купер – это человек, который специализировался на таких темах, как убийство Кеннеди, летающие тарелки. Он автор книги «Конь бледный». Так вот в июне Уильям Купер делает заявление, что в Соединенных Штатах, скорее всего в сентябре, самое позднее в октябре, произойдут серьезные теракты, и вину за них возложат на человека по имени Усама бин Ладен. Именно так, потому что у нас часто пишут Осама бен Ладен. Дело в том, что в арабском языке нет буквы «о» и нет буквы «е», так что Усама бин Ладен. В конце 2001-го года Купера застрелили полицейские, обвинив его в том, что он якобы оказал сопротивление полиции, а потом побежал и стал отстреливаться. Бедолаги полицейские и те, кто стоял за ними не знали, что Купер не мог бегать. Он вьетнамский ветеран и у него не было одной ноги, был протез. Однако этого человека застрелили – человека, который в 2001-м году сообщил о готовящемся теракте. Тем не менее, не смотря на все это, все повесили на Усаму бин Ладена Название: Our Times Автор: A. N. Wilson Год: 2008 Язык: английский В книге «Наше время», это по сути дела социальная история Англии, написанная популярно, автор пишет, что в 50-е годы англичане жили довольно бедно после войны, но они знали, что они англичане. А вот при Тэтчер произошло следующее, пишет он – «Англия превратилась в ничейный дом». Название: Rise of Professional Society, Revised Edition: England since 1880 Автор: Harold Perkin Год: 1989 Язык: английский Название: L'empire et les nouveaux barbares Автор: Jean-Christophe Rufin Год: 1991 Язык: французский В 1991 году во Франции вышла во многом пророческая книга очень интересного автора Жана Кристофа Рюфэна «Империя и новые варвары». Он пишет о том, что после 2020 года Европа и Соединенные Штаты, но в первую очередь Европа, столкнутся с очень серьезной проблемой — наплывом мигрантов, новых варваров. И в этой связи у Севера есть только три возможные стратегии в отношениях с новыми варварами. Первую он называет стратегией Клебера. Клебер — это французский генерал, соратник Наполеона, которого тот оставил в Египте, где Клебер насаждал европейские порядки и был убит. Вторая стратегия — стратегия экс-министра стратегического планирования Бразилии Роберто Мангабейра Унгеры: белый человек, европеец поднимает знамя борьбы Востока против Запада и возглавляет афро-азиатские орды. Наконец, третья стратегия — это стратегия Марка Аврелия. Европейцы проводят черту и не пускают варваров на свою территорию. Книга вышла почти 20 лет назад, и сегодня ясно, что стратегия Марка Аврелия, которой симпатизировал Рюфен, не срабатывает — африканцы и арабы уже в Европе. Название: The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life Автор: Charles Murray, Richard J. Herrnstein Год: 1994 Язык: английский Название: Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010 Автор: Charles Murray Год: 2012 Язык: английский На основе социологического исследования автор говорит о том, что 1% наверху, он вообще никак не соотносится с 99% Америки и другого человечества. Эти люди, которые живут сами по себе вообще, у них своя замкнутая среда обитания. А остальные 99%, в принципе, им помеха – это лишние едоки и т.д. Не надо мыслящую Землю создавать, есть альтернативная уже форма, для которой остальные 99% не нужны. Название: Доклад "Кризис демокартии" (The Crisis of Democracy) Автор: С.Хантингтон, М.Крозье, Дз.Ватануки (Michel Crozier, Samuel P. Huntington, Joji Watanuki) Год: 1975 Язык: английский Название: How the Scots Invented the Modern World Автор: Arthur Herman Год: 2001 Очень часто национальное государство противопоставляется империям. Началось это еще в XIX веке, когда французская и английская пропаганда твердила о том, какие плохие империи Австро-Венгрия, Германия и Россия, и какие хорошие – национальные государства Франция и Великобритания. Это было лукавством. Дело в том, что и Франция, и Великобритания были империями. Одна – сухопутная колониальная империя, с заморскими владениями, а другая – просто морская империя. Обратите внимание, наиболее успешными были те империи, у которых ядром было то самое национальное государство. Разумеется, эти национальные государства использовали и другие этнические группы. Например, вся история Ост-Индской кампании – это на 20% шотландцы. Есть даже очень забавная книжка «Мир, который создали шотландцы» – об экспансии Великобритании. Но, в любом случае, именно имперскость, империя – хорошее противоядие-антидот национализма. История показывает, что трагическая ирония истории заключается в том, что вне и без империи русские вообще лишаются исторических шансов.  Название: Les Royaumes combattants Автор: Jean-François Susbielle Язык: французский В 2008 году в Париже вышла в свет книга Жан-Франсуа Сюсбьеля «Борющиеся царства. К новой мировой войне». По мнению автора, после 2020-го мир вступит в период, похожий на эпоху Чжаньго («Борющиеся царства») в китайской истории, когда семь примерно равных по силе царств – Ци, Чу, Янь, Хань, Чжао, Вэй и Цинь – в течение почти двух столетий (403–221 до н. э.) вели борьбу за объединение китайского мира. Похоже, глобальный мир тоже вступает в подобную эпоху, и предлагаемая система «автономного управления» – один из индикаторов ее приближения. Название: The Sorrows of Empire: Militarism, Secrecy, and the End of the Republic Автор: Chalmers Ashby Johnson Год: 2004 Язык: английский Как показывает история, контроль над миром или крупным регионом, как правило, оборачивается сворачиванием демократии внутри страны-контролера. Классический пример - Рим. Как только он захватил полный контроль над Средиземноморьем, республика была обречена. Кстати, Чалмерс Джонсон в книге "Печали империи" (2004 г.) прямо пишет о том, что республика в Америке закончилась в 1990-е годы, к власти фактически пришли военные. Они строят мировую империю, которая дорого обойдется американскому народу. У книги показательный подзаголовок: "Милитаризм, секретность и конец республики". "Имперская республика" США ХХ в. превращается в квазиимперию. Впрочем, мощь этой империи - как военную, так и финансовую - переоценивать не стоит. Название: Coningsby, or The New Generation Автор: Benjamin Disraeli Год: 1844 Язык: английский В РФ действительно налицо противостояние между богатыми и бедными, растущий разрыв, поляризация между ними — децильный коэффициент и индекс Джини зашкаливают. Ситуация весьма похожа на накал классового антагонизма в Великобритании 1830-1840-х годов, который Дизраэли, тогда ещё не премьер-министр, а романист, охарактеризовал как наличие "двух наций". Т.е. социальный разрыв был таков, что верхи и низы оказались чуждыми друг другу как две различные нации (то же было в пореформенной России). Какой же выход видел Дизраэли? Простой: сокращение опасного разрыва социальными и экономическими мерами. Название: The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden Автор: Carroll Quigley Год: 1949 Язык: английский Можно сказать, что заговор был конкретной формой подготовки войн - системой выявления, артикуляции и представления тайным образом определенных интересов преимущественно наднационального уровня. А лучшим средством реализации этого процесса являлись различные закрытые или просто тайные структуры и их агенты. Причем многие структуры подобного рода создавались на самом высоком уровне. Один из лучших примеров - группа Сесила Родса, историю которой великолепно описал американский историк Кэрролл Куигли (1910-1977) в работе «Англо-американский истеблишмент», изданной в 1981 году. Название: Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World Автор: Barrington Moore Jr. Год: 1966 Язык: английский Достаточно взглянуть на 3 разные модернизации в Западной Европе 17 -19 веков, чтобы понять, что они зависели от исхода социальных битв, социальных боев 16 -17 веков, о чем Баррингтон Мур написал еще в 1966 году в своей замечательной работе «Социальные происхождения диктатуры и демократии», в которой анализировал 3 варианта европейской модернизации и все зависит от того, кто кому сломал хребет в социальных сражениях. Франция - корона и крестьяне, грубо говоря, сделали феодалов, феодал превращается в аристократа, переезжает ближе ко двору. Это один вариант модернизации через абсолютистское государство. Второй вариант с точностью до наоборот, где бывшие сеньоры выигрывают сражение у короны и крестьянства, второе издание крепостничества. Почему то есть такое мнение, что модернизация – это такой вариант развития обязательно с демократией, с парламентом и т. д. Модернизация может быть и в другой форме, форме рабства, вторичного издания крепостничества, она вообще может быть в архаичной форме. Это тоже модернизация. Третий вариант – это социальная ничья между крестьянами и землевладельцами, возникновения компромиссного уникального слоя в Англии, собственно из которого и выросла индустриализация. Один автор работ по социальной истории Англии написал однажды, что английская индустриализация могла вырасти только из землевладельческого строя Англии 17 – 18 века. Я думаю, что он прав. Название: The Cold War: A History Автор: Martin Walker Год: 1995 Язык: английский Глобальный, всеохватывающий характер ХВ хорошо подметил Мартин Уокер в замечательной книге «Холодная война». «Южную Америку и Африку к югу от Сахары, - писал он, - континенты, которые раньше оказывались вне борьбы, теперь засосало в ее воронку. Турки сражались в Корее, алжирцы - во Вьетнаме, кубинцы - в Анголе, а американские и русские школьники, чьи уроки в школе прерывались тренировочными сигналами угрозы атомной бомбардировки, росли, чтобы погибнуть в Сайгоне и Кабуле».  Названия: The Mind of the Strategist, The End of the Nation State and, The Borderless World Автор: Kenichi Ohmae Язык: английский Глобальному рынку капиталов адекватны, с одной стороны, наднациональные (структуры типа Евросоюза или НАФТА), которые намного крупнее государства, и они выигрывают за счёт масштаба и размера, с другой — региональные блоки, которые меньше государства, и они выигрывают за счёт динамики. Известный японский бизнесмен и исследователь К. Омаэ назвал такие блоки регион-экономиками — по аналогии с броделевско-валлерстайновской мир-экономикой, которой они, по его мнению, идут на смену. ). Классические регион-экономики — это Северная Италия, район Баден-Вюртемберг на верхнем Рейне, Силиконовая долина, «треугольник роста» Сингапур — Джохор — о-ва Риау, Токийский район, район Кансай (Осака — Кобе — Киото), Сан-Паулу в Бразилии и др. Главная причина эффективности регион-экономик — умение решать региональные проблемы с привлечением ресурсов глобальной экономики и, разумеется, то, что их социальные и политические характеристики жёстко подогнаны под экономические требования финансовой системы глобализации — никакой социальной или политической «лирики», homo economicus на марше. Название: Islamisme et États-Unis, une alliance contre l'Europe Автор: Alexandre del Valle Язык: французский Год: 1997 Горючая смесь исламизма, терроризма и наркоторговли, внедряемая, как показывает в работе «Исламизм и США: союз против Европы» А. дель Валь, в Европу спецслужбами США и связанными с ними частными фирмами, представляет серьезную угрозу для европейской государственности, культуры и идентичности. Борьба с европейским упадком, американизацией и исламизмом, пишет дель Валь, суть три аспекта одной и той же проблемы, поскольку, развивает эту мысль директор французского радио Р. Лабевьер, исламисты объективно выступают как «сторожевые псы глобализации» по-американски. В любом случае, в XXI в. США вступают серьезно уменьшив те выгоды, которые Япония и Западная Европа получили в результате победы «глобального Франкенштейна» в «холодной войне». Америка осуществила передел и это, по-видимому, лишь начало; похоже, нас ждут сюрпризы. Название: Tragedy & Hope: A History of the World in Our Time Автор: Carroll Quigley Год: 1966 Язык: английский Название: The Moral Basis of a Backward Society Автор: Edward C. Banfield Год: 1967 Язык: английский Традиционные ценности, формы социальной организации и идентичности в таких районах, как правило, в той или иной степени ослабляются и их место занимает то, что Э.Бэнфилд назвал "аморальным фамильизмом". Однако если такие сельские сообщества смогут организоваться в качестве коллективного грабителя или эксплуататора по отношению к более или менее развитым соседям, то они не только получают экономически-внеэкономическую основу существования, но эта основа становится дополнительным фактором как сохранения или даже усиления коллективного (этнического, социального или территориального) единства, так и ослабления "аморального фамильизма". Хотя последний благодаря "социальному хищничеству", присущему всем формам бандитизма ("вызывающего индивидуализма"), все равно развивается и так или иначе подтачивает кланово-племенную структуру. Еще один фактор ослабления последней и ее иерархии (в банды чаще всего сбиваются бедные и незнатные) - само наличие банд и функционирование бандитского промысла. Иными словами, взаимодействие коллективно-асоциальной и клановоплеменной структур носит противоречивый характер, в него встроен потенциальный конфликт, который и надо в определенных ситуациях (стратегия "святого Амвросия") использовать. Название: Great Degeneration Автор: Niall Ferguson Год: 2012 Язык: английский Америка не может больше доминировать в мире таким образом и в тех формах, в которых это имело место в последнее двадцатилетие – слишком широко шагала, вот и «порвала штаны». Поэтому сегодня американские аналитики в раздумьях: одни, как Чарльз Капчан и Адам Маунт предлагают некое «автономное управление» – передачу Америкой части полицейско-карательных функций, обеспечивающих глобальное накопление капитала, «государствам-преторианцам». Другие, такие как Найл Фергюсон, вообще предупреждают о том, что крушение американской империи может произойти очень быстро – обвально.