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19 апреля, 16:35

Our Intellectual Bankruptcy: The "Religion" Of Economics, UBI, & Medicare For All

Authored by Charles Hugh-Smith via OfTwoMinds blog, Clinging to magical-thinking fixes that change nothing on the fundamental level hastens collapse. Here we stand on the precipice, and all we have in our kit is a collection of delusional magical thinking that we label "solutions." We are not just morally and financially bankrupt, we're intellectually bankrupt as well. Here are three examples of magical thinking that pass for intellectually sound ideas: 1. Mainstream neo-classical/ Keynesian economics. As economist Manfred Max-Neef notes in this interview, neo-classical/ Keynesian economics is no longer a discipline or a science--it is a religion. It demands a peculiar faith in nonsense: for example, the environment--Nature-- is merely a subset of the economy. When we've stripped the seas of wild fish (and totally destroyed the ecology of the oceans), no problem--we'll substitute farmed fish, which are in economic terms, entirely equal to wild fish. In other words, the natural world cannot be valued in our current mock-science religion of economics. Other absurdities abound. Stripping the seas of wild fish adds to GDP, so it's all good, right? Dismantling newly constructed buildings and building a replacement structure also adds to GDP, so it's an excellent source of "growth." As Max-Neef points out, conventional economists have absolutely no understanding of poverty. If you need a sobering account of just how this abject willful ignorance works in the real world, I recommend reading The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. Gail Tverberg (among others) has shown how the existing economic model no longer makes sense of the actual economy we inhabit: The Economy Is Like a Circus. As for rising wealth/income inequality--there is a cure for that, but it's not in mainstream econ textbooks: The Only Thing, Historically, That's Curbed Inequality: Catastrophe Plagues, revolutions, massive wars, collapsed states—these are what reliably reduce economic disparities.(via Arshad A.) 2. Universal Basic Income. As noted in yesterday's essay, wages are no longer an adequate means of distributing the dwindling surplus of advanced economies. Wages as a share of GDP have been declining for decades, and only click up temporarily during massive speculative bubbles. Once these bubbles pop, which they inevitably do due to their instability and unsustainability, wage earners' share of GDP plummets to a new low. The mainstream is enthusing about the "solution": Universal Basic Income (UBI). The solution to low pay and scarcity of middle-class paid work is to give everyone a basic income for doing nothing. Delusional academics anticipate a flowering of creative talent akin to a new Renaissance as people are freed from work by robots and automation. But if we look at people already receiving the equivalent of "free money" UBI--disability-- studies find recipients are simply watching more TV and YouTube videos and pursuing opioids, not writing poetry and composing concertos. They are not volunteering in their community or engaging their communities in any positive fashion. What actually happens with UBI is recipients become isolated and miserable because UBI strips their lives of meaning, purpose and the need to contribute to a community. The real purpose of UBI is to chain every household to the state, and drain all social relations between the isolated "consumer" and the state. As tragic as the delusion of UBI is to individuals, it is unworkable financially because profits will fall as automation becomes commoditized, and the surplus available to distribute to every household will diminish. I explain this at some length in my books Why Our Status Quo Failed and Is Beyond Reform and A Radically Beneficial World: Automation, Technology & Creating Jobs for All. Much of what is passed off as "corporate profits" is accounting fraud and the monetization of what was once free. For example, all that customer labor: now that we pump our own gasoline, check and pack our own purchases, do our own banking--who's skimming the output of our labor? Yup, the corporations. Commoditization of software and tools + the Internet = loss of monopoly. This is a problem, for the core function of the state-cartel version of capitalism we inhabit is the state enforces a cartel-monopoly structure to guarantee steady surpluses it can tax for its own expansion. As automation is commoditized, profits plummet as competition can no longer be controlled by cartels or even the state--just as Marx laid out. Combine declining productivity and declining surplus (profits) (both for deeply structural reasons) and there cannot be enough money to fund UBI. Weirdly, proponents of UBI never even perform a back of the envelope calculation of cost and the source of all this free money (tax revenues and/or borrowing from future generations). Perhaps they intuit that such an exercise would reveal the bankruptcy of their magical thinking. As we shall see below, the system can't even support the entitlements it has already promised to hundreds of millions of people, never mind an additional universal entitlement. (Note to UBI enthusiasts: there are limits on what robots and automation can and will do: they will only perform work that is highly profitable. Since most human work is not profitable (or even paid), the idea that robots and automation will free everyone from work is delusional fantasy. I explain all this in greater detail in A Radically Beneficial World.) 3. Medicare for all. I understand the desire for a single-payer healthcare system, and have published various proposals over the years for such a system. The latest magical-thinking "solution" attracting widespread support (again, without any basis in actual numbers) is Medicare for all. The idea is: take a system (Medicare-Medicaid) that's already bankrupting the government and the nation and expand it from 70 million people to 320 million people. Uh, right. Shall we consult reality before embracing delusional "solutions"? Here's a chart of the rise of administrative costs in healthcare, public and private. Proponents of Medicare for All claim admin costs are lower in Medicare, but this conveniently overlooks the estimates that 40% of Medicare costs are paper-shuffling, needless or harmful tests, procedures, etc. and outright fraud. We know a few things as fact. One is that the populations qualifying for Medicare and Medicaid (the elderly and low-income households) are expanding at a high and very predictable rate. The other thing we know is that the Medicare-Medicaid costs are rising at a rate far above the growth rate of the economy that supports these programs (GDP), far above the growth rate of tax revenues and far above the growth rate of wages, which matters because payroll taxes fund Medicare. It doesn't take much to extend these lines and conclude Medicare-Medicaid alone will bankrupt the federal government and the nation. The problem is these programs are bloated by fraud, defensive medicine, predatory pricing for medications, and every other costly ill of our healthcare system. Like every other centrally funded/regulated sector, Medicare-Medicaid is optimized for maximizing private-sector profits and increasing regulatory costs. This is one manifestation of the diminishing returns on the entire centralized-control model: We'd all like "solutions" that don't change anything, but when the system itself is the source of our problems, changing nothing guarantees collapse. As noted in the article linked above, various inequalities and asymmetries get resolved by collapse. Clinging to magical-thinking fixes that change nothing on the fundamental level hastens collapse. In that sense, magical-thinking fixes are "solutions," but not the sort their proponents imagined. *  *  * If you found value in this content, please join Charles in seeking solutions by becoming a $1/month patron of my work via patreon.com. Check out both of Charles' new books, Inequality and the Collapse of Privilege ($3.95 Kindle, $8.95 print) and Why Our Status Quo Failed and Is Beyond Reform ($3.95 Kindle, $8.95 print, $5.95 audiobook) For more, please visit the OTM essentials website.

18 апреля, 23:18

Nevada Secretary Of State Says She Has Evidence Of Voter Fraud In Presidential Election

function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); The Nevada secretary of state has accused her state’s Department of Motor Vehicles of facilitating voter fraud and said she has evidence non-citizens voted in last year’s presidential election. Secretary of State Barbara Cegavske (R) wrote in a letter Friday to DMV Director Terri Albertson that DMV workers had been accepting voting applications from non-citizens and forwarding them to the secretary of state’s office. Cegavske said she had evidence non-citizens voted in the presidential election, but didn’t elaborate. President Donald Trump has stoked fears of voter fraud, claiming repeatedly that millions illegally voted in the 2016 election. Like Cegavske, Trump has offered no evidence, but the White House is gearing up for a federal investigation. Voting fraud is extremely rare.  Cegavske, who supports requiring voters to produce a photo ID, said in January that while there was no evidence of voter fraud in the state during the presidential election, she said she was aware of attempted fraud related to registration. It’s unclear what changed. “There’s nothing else,” Gail Anderson, Cegavske’s deputy for southern Nevada, told the Nevada Independent, referring to the secretary of state’s letter alleging voter fraud. “When we have information that can be provided, we certainly would do that.” Cegavske’s office did not respond to repeated requests for comment. Gov. Brian Sandoval (R) seemed unaware of the evidence for Cegavske’s claim, but said Monday he “expects to hear more.”  Joe Gloria, registrar of voters in Clark County, the most populous in Nevada, told the Independent he was unaware of any voter fraud probe. Federal law requires states to allow residents to register to vote at DMV offices.  The Nevada DMV director responded to Cegavske’s allegation with a strongly worded letter on Saturday that said the secretary of state’s office had signed off on the DMV’s voter registration procedures. “Your letter comes as a complete surprise as you and your office have reviewed, contributed to, and approved the processes you are expressing concerns about,” DMV director Albertson wrote. Albertson noted that DMV officials would flag suspect applications for further review by a county clerk or registrar to determine voting eligibility. The governor defended the DMV in the public dispute. “They were operating under the policies and guidelines that were adopted pursuant to input, review and approval of the Nevada Secretary of State’s Office,” Sandoval told the Independent. “I’m going to rely on (DMV Director) Terri Albertson — they are proceeding in accordance with what has been approved,” Sandoval told the Las Vegas Review-Journal. “So I guess the ball is in the secretary of state’s court.”  The ACLU of Nevada said in a statement on Monday that election officials, not the DMV, had the burden of verifying the eligibility of voters. Under the National Voter Registration Act, the DMV “cannot make determinations regarding voter eligibility” and must send voter registration applications to state election officials for a judgement, the ACLU said.  -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

17 апреля, 13:50

Индийский BSE Sensex 30 закрылся в небольшом минусе

В понедельник, 17 апреля, фондовый рынок Индии продемонстрировал слабо отрицательную динамику по итогам сессии в ожидании публикации финансовых отчетностей ряда компаний. Отметим, что в четверг второй по величине в Индии провайдер услуг в сфере программного обеспечения Infosys опубликовал прогноз по выручке, который оказался хуже ожиданий аналитиков, что впоследствии разочаровало участников рынка. Из важной макроэкономической статистики в Индии был опубликован индекс потребительских цен, который в марте вырос на 5,7% г/г, тогда как аналитики прогнозировали увеличение показателя на 5,98% г/г. На момент закрытия торгов индекс Nifty 50 уменьшился на 0,13% до отметки 9 139,3 пункта, а индекс BSE Sensex 30 просел на 0,16% до 29 413,66 пункта. Среди компонентов индекса Nifty 50 в лидерах роста по итогам торгов были котировки акций GAIL и Grasim Industries, подорожавшие на 3.

13 апреля, 10:55

"Газпром" изучит маршрут поставки газа в Индию

"Газпром" к августу подготовит "Технико-экономический анализ вариантов поставок газа из Российской Федерации и из третьих стран в Индию", сообщает компания. На проведение исследования выделят 15,824 млн руб.

13 апреля, 10:55

"Газпром" изучит маршрут поставки газа в Индию

"Газпром" к августу подготовит "Технико-экономический анализ вариантов поставок газа из Российской Федерации и из третьих стран в Индию", сообщает компания. На проведение исследования выделят 15,824 млн руб.

13 апреля, 08:41

«Газпром» начнет поставки 2,5 млн т СПГ в Индию в следующем году

По сообщению заместителя министра энергетики России Юрия Сентюрина, поставка сжиженного природного газа компании «Газпром» в Индию в объеме 2,5 млн т начнется со следующего года. По словам Сентюрина: «Мы находимся на стадии начала поставок СПГ (в Индию – прим. ред.). Подписан был документ с индийцами, с 2018 года должны начаться поставки. Это газпромовский портфель, поставщик […]

12 апреля, 14:23

«Газпром» начнет поставки сжиженного газа в Индию в 2018 году

Контракт предусматривает поставки 2,5 млн тонн топлива в год

08 апреля, 08:00

Blind date: ‘I asked if she’d ever been taken up the Shard before’

Gail, 50, brand manager, meets Jane, 55, teacher What were you hoping for? Someone who looked like Meryl Streep, with the wit of Victoria Wood and the voice of Mariella Frostrup. Continue reading...

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06 апреля, 18:16

Woman cleared of careless driving after crowd-funded prosecution

Gail Purcell cleared of driving carelessly in central London after Cycling UK fund brought prosecution against herA woman accused of knocking down and killing a cyclist has been cleared of careless driving following a crowdfunded private prosecution.Gail Purcell, 59, allegedly failed to spot Michael Mason, 70, as he rode along Regent Street in central London. Continue reading...

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05 апреля, 19:32

Build Your Career As A Generalist, Not A Specialist.

Should you take the generalist or specialist career path? Gail Galuppo, Chief Marketing Officer at Aflac gives her advice.

03 апреля, 16:00

Driver faces private prosecution over death of cyclist in London

Case at Old Bailey brought by cycling organisation after collision in Regent StreetThe driver of a car that hit a cyclist who later died has appeared at the Old Bailey in a private case brought by the Cyclists’ Defence Fund. Gail Purcell, 59, from St Albans, is charged with causing death by dangerous or inconsiderate driving, after a collision with cyclist Michael Mason, 70, in central London. She denies the charge. Continue reading...

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01 апреля, 00:00

The Dreaded Trump Curse

Gail Collins, New York Times

28 марта, 17:35

Nerd-shamers and perverts: why University Challenge is going viral

With his emphatic answering style, Eric Monkman is the latest contestant on the show to light up Twitter. But too often, the contestants are mocked for their eccentric brilliance – or worse, leched overEric Monkman – answering fast and fiercely to win a semi-final last night for Wolfson, Cambridge – has become the latest University Challenge contestant to go viral. Sharers were drawn to the Canadian economics student’s furrowed concentration-face from which he machine-guns answers at a pitch suggesting a fear that Jeremy Paxman, at 66, may be struggling to hear the answers. Monkman joins previous fabled Cambridge reply-machines including Ralph Morley of Trinity, who correctly answered a question before Paxo had asked it; Ted Loveday of Caius, who won 10 opening 10-pointers in a single round; and Oscar Powell of Peterhouse, who, while trying to identify the singers on the hit song Je T’aime, performed a curious charade of a someone trying to remove gobbets of something from between his teeth and hide them in his ear or hair. Plus, there was Gail Trimble of Corpus Christi, Oxford, who got 15 starters for 10 in one show. Continue reading...

28 марта, 09:43

Florida Congresswoman Tells Trump: Pay Up Or Keep Out

function onPlayerReadyVidible(e){'undefined'!=typeof HPTrack&&HPTrack.Vid.Vidible_track(e)}!function(e,i){if(e.vdb_Player){if('object'==typeof commercial_video){var a='',o='m.fwsitesection='+commercial_video.site_and_category;if(a+=o,commercial_video['package']){var c='&m.fwkeyvalues=sponsorship%3D'+commercial_video['package'];a+=c}e.setAttribute('vdb_params',a)}i(e.vdb_Player)}else{var t=arguments.callee;setTimeout(function(){t(e,i)},0)}}(document.getElementById('vidible_1'),onPlayerReadyVidible); The congresswoman who represents the Florida district that includes President Donald Trump’s Mar-a-Lago resort wants the White House to help pay for his frequent official visits to the area.  “We understand the president wanting to be here every week,” Rep. Lois Frankel (D-Fla.) said on Monday, per CBS Miami. “We understand that. This is paradise, right?” However, she said presidential visits to Palm Beach County have cost $1.7 million in overtime pay and other expenses so far this year. A nearby airport shut down during presidential visits has lost $30,000 every weekend Trump was in town and it missed out on a $440,000 helicopter contract.   In a “friendly” letter also signed by Democratic Florida Reps. Alcee Hastings and Ted Deutch, Frankel urged the White House to pay for some of the costs of presidential visits.  “What we’re saying to the White House is: ‘Please step up to the plate and help us get this money back,’” said Frankel, via WPBF. “And if you’re unable to do that, consider curtailing your travel.”  Frankel represents portions of Palm Beach, where Mar-a-Lago is located, as well as parts of West Palm Beach. The president has spent five weekends in the area since his inauguration in January. Frankel suggested Camp David as an alternative destination, the Palm Beach Post reported. The letter also echoed the concerns of some local officials who have grumbled at the rapidly rising costs of Trump’s regular visits.  “I would never consider a proposal that says we’re not going to use our county resources when the president’s here. It’s our patriotic duty,” county commissioner David Kerner told the Washington Post last week. “It’s just unfair that burden should be borne alone.” The letter also noted that an upcoming visit by Chinese dignitaries was expected to cost the area’s taxpayers an additional $280,000 just to cover the sheriff and fire departments related to the trip, per The Hill.  Palm Beach Mayor Gail Coniglio ― a Republican ― said she was “hopeful” the city could get some of that money back, The Palm Beach Daily News reported. Palm Beach safety director Kirk Blouin told the paper that staffing for protests was a bigger expense than handling security for the president. He appeared less hopeful for a reimbursement.  “In the history of the protection of the Office of the President, I’m not aware of any law enforcement being reimbursed for that,” Blouin was quoted as saying. “If the money’s available, we’ll certainly seek reimbursement.” -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

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20 марта, 16:28

Unite denies Momentum affiliation plan

Unite's acting general secretary Gail Cartmail accuses Tom Watson of interfering in the democracy of the union.

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20 марта, 01:51

Wonder Woman Doesn't Have Armpit Hair Because Women's Bodies Freak Men Out

The curious case of Gail Gadot's armpits has set the internet aflame.

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16 марта, 00:00

Trump Channels Old Hickory

Gail Collins, New York Times

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09 марта, 00:00

Getting Freedom From Health

Gail Collins, New York TimesWhat’s the rush on repealing Obamacare? It’s true President Trump did promise speediness during the campaign. (“You’re going to end up with great health care for a fraction of the price and that’s gonna take place immediately after we go in. O.K.? Immediately. Fast. Quick.”) But that was before he discovered that health care was … “complicated.”

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04 марта, 18:45

Unite explains decision to suspend £10,000 donation to Siôn Simon

Union alleges Labour’s West Midlands mayoral candidate had ‘mutual support arrangement’ with Len McCluskey’s rivalUnite suspended a £10,000 donation to Labour’s West Midlands mayoral candidate, Siôn Simon, because of alleged support from the union’s leadership candidate Gerard Coyne, the acting general secretary has said.Unite’s West Midlands regional board had approved the funding for the Labour campaign but the acting general secretary, Gail Cartmail, said she blocked the payment after receiving “overwhelming evidence that Mr Simon’s campaign and Mr Coyne’s campaign have entered into some form of a mutual support arrangement”. Continue reading...

03 марта, 23:08

Bernie In Kansas

Kansas Democratic Party leaders scored a genius point when they invited Senator Bernie  Sanders to rally the troops. On the same day that former Labor Secretary Tom Perez was elected national Democratic Party chair, Bernie came to Kansas to keynote the Kansas Democratic Party’s annual Washington Days celebration. Loping across the stage, red-faced and waving, the tireless Sanders said: “Apparently, I was incorrectly told Kansas is a Republican state,” referring to the Topeka High School gymnasium crowd of 4,000, plus the over 1,000 students and teachers waiting to hear him later in the school auditorium.  He said the robust turnout spoke to how many Americans are concerned and ready to “fight back.” One of the warm-up speakers, James Thompson, a civil rights attorney, is running for the 4th congressional district seat vacated by Mike Pompeo. An Army veteran who as a boy was briefly homeless, Thompson said that Bernie had told him backstage that “the revolution begins here in Kansas.” Another pre-Bernie speaker, Gail Finney, a fifth-term African-American legislator from Wichita, called herself a “Berniecrat.” I am not a Berniecrat, and was worried that attending the Vermont Senator’s speech would give me a case of “buyer’s remorse,” that I might suffer regret at not supporting Bernie, rather than Hillary, for President. But that night, watching Bernie up close from my position in the press section, I felt the way I did during the campaign. His mantra of economic equity is critically important, and I admire his energy, stamina, focus, and principles. But then, as now, I feel he lacks the range to lead the country. During the campaign, I underestimated the desire for radical change in the country. So, we have a President whose henchman Steve Bannon calls for “deconstruction of the administrative state.” The Trump administration wants to burn the house down, and in a month’s time they have scorched the foundation. Bernie was in Topeka to lift Democrats and progressives out of a post-election gloom, and he did that. The facts he presented about the redistribution of wealth upwards to the top 1 percent gained new urgency and poignancy given the dramatic post-election changes wrought by the Trump presidency. I was energized to be with several thousand like-minded souls, sardined into a gym affectionately called The Dungeon, at the beautiful, historic high school both my children attended. When Bernie reassured us that we are not returning to the days of xenophobia, homophobia, racism and sexism, the audience gave him a standing ovation, one of many. Near the end of his hour-long speech he said, “Despair is not an option,” pointing out that since Trump lost the popular vote by 3 million votes, he has “a mandate for nothing.” Sanders maintained that on every major issue, the clear majority of the American people are “on our side.” He also cited the 130 Town Hall meetings being held that day in which masses of people were exhorting their congressional representatives – whether they dared show up – not to repeal the Affordable Care Act. Bernie’s opening joke ― that he must have been mistakenly informed that Kansas is a Republican state – underscores that we are certainly not solidly Republican. And the national election that gave us Donald Trump saw Kansas Democrats gain 12 seats in the state House and one in the Senate. Those numbers, plus the moderate Republicans who beat their more conservative opponents, have made for some promising math in the Kansas legislature this session. We in Kansas have been led for over six years by an autocratic ideologue, Sam Brownback, Trump’s country cousin of sorts, and Kansas has a palpable hunger for change. Before the legislature went on break, the House passed a tax reform bill that would have raised personal income taxes, restored a tax bracket and closed the LLC small business loophole that Governor Brownback created. When the Governor vetoed that bill, the House did the seemingly impossible and overrode his veto by one vote. The Senate, the more conservative body, passed the same bill, but were three votes short of a veto-proof majority. After recess, the legislature needs to craft a tax reform bill that will sail over the governor’s veto pen in both legislative branches. A few days after Bernie spoke in Kansas, newly-elected DNC chair Tom Perez was interviewed on NPR. He cited the need for a “50-state strategy,” which he said entailed “not simply electing the president, but we’re also working to elect people from the school board to the Senate across the nation.” When asked whether this strategy had any chance in red states, Perez said: “Well, absolutely. You look at what happened in Kansas. Donald Trump won by 14 points, and they [Democrats] picked up 14 seats in the state legislature because there’s radical social engineering going on by Gov. Brownback.” That was 13 seats, not 14, but Kansas legislators seem to be showing the will to shift from Brownback’s disastrous tax policies that have public school teachers paying more income tax than lawyers. It may not be the start of Bernie’s revolution – this is Kansas, after all – but it’s a return to fairness and common sense over ideology. If it can happen in Kansas, it can happen nationwide. Top photo by Ann Leffler Palmer. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

14 ноября 2014, 00:27

Азиатский банк развития сообщил о создании трубопроводной компании ТАПИ

Государственный концерн «Туркменгаз», предприятие Afghan Gas, пакистанская Inter State Gas Systems (Private) Limited и индийская GAIL учредили трубопроводную компанию ТАПИ — Туркмения-Афганистан-Пакистан-Индия — с равными долями участия. Об этом сообщила пресс-служба Азиатского банка развития. АБР в 2013 году был назначен странами-участниками ТАПИ транзакционным советником по созданию трубопроводной компании и выявлению лидера коммерческого консорциума, призванного возглавить строительство и эксплуатацию трубопровода, отмечает в ночь на 14 ноября ТАСС. «Учреждение ТАПИ — ключевой рубеж в развитии газопроводного проекта и осязаемый результат трансформационного сотрудничества между вовлеченными сторонами, предвещающий укрепление энергобезопасности, расширение деловых перспектив и достижение большего мира и стабильности в регионе», — заявил генеральный директор Департамента Центральной и Западной Азии АБР Клаус Герхаузер. Планируется, что по 1800-километровому газопроводу ТАПИ будет ежегодно экспортировать до 33 млрд кубометров туркменского природного газа. Туркмения обладает четвёртыми по величине в мире доказанными запасами газа. Магистраль протянется от туркменского месторождения Галкыныш до пункта Фазилка на границе Индии с Пакистаном. Стоимость проекта превышает $7,6 млрд. Как заявил президент Туркмении на прошедшем в конце октября заседании Совета старейшин, «строительство газопровода ТАПИ планируется начать в 2015 году».