Cost-reduction measures and improved demand are expected to support Q2 results of Mosaic (MOS).
Магазинам по продаже одежды, обуви и ювелирных украшений оказалось непросто распродать свои летние коллекции. Причина — прохладная погода, которая заставила покупателей отложить покупку летних вещей в долгий ящик. Стимулировать потребителей удалось при помощи распродаж, которые […]
Since the earliest days, foreign architects have been active in the Russian lands. In the Middle Ages, Italians played an important role building the Kremlin and the earliest Moscow churches. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, the tsars and tsarinas turned to Italian and French architects to build St. Petersburg, while in the second half of the 19th century architects from northern Europe become more prominent, especially with the Art Nouveau. In the 21st century, foreign architects face a more complicated political and social terrain, and they are not always welcomed for various reasons: highly innovative projects sometimes don’t match the aesthetic tastes of many Russians, and other times the projects are simply too expensive. Nevertheless, the contemporary Russian architectural scene has a number of success stories of great buildings designed by foreigners. 1. Garage Museum of Contemporary Art, by Rem Koolhaas Iwan Baan/OMAGarage Museum in Gorky Park Iwan Baan/OMASoviet mosaics inside the museum Iwan Baan/OMAGarage Museum of Contemporary Art The prominent Dutch architect and his company OMA took the challenge to reconstruct an old Soviet restaurant and turn it into the Garage Museum of Contemporary Art. Under contract from Russia’s most famous art patron, Dasha Zhukova, Koolhaas turned the ruins of an abandoned Soviet building into a modern polycarbonate rectangular construction with emphasis on functionality. Inside, however, he left the remaining decorative elements such as tile and mosaic panel. "In this project I show respect for that epoch and atmosphere of the 1960s. Soviet metaphors are still inside," Koolhaas said. The architect also worked on a project for a new district in St. Petersburg called the Baltic Pearl, but it was finally built by Chinese architect Heng Li and Pacific Studio Arсhitecture. 2. The Dominion Tower, by Zaha Hadid Ilya IvanovInside the Dominion Tower Ilya IvanovThe Dominion Tower Ilya IvanovInside the Dominion Tower This Iraqi-British architect and designer, who started her career in Koolhaas’s OMA, has two futuristic buildings in Russia. First, an office building in Moscow, the Dominion Tower, was built in Hadid’s favorite deconstructivist style. The project was conceived in 2005 and work began in 2008. Due to the global financial crisis, however, it was postponed and the building opened only in September 2015. The Tower truly sticks out amid its surroundings; it’s a futuristic geometrical building in the middle of an industrial zone on Sharikoposhipnikovskaya Street in Moscow. Read more: New Zaha Hadid's creation worth 36,5 mln USD opens in Moscow Another building by this famous woman is a private house in the Barvikha luxury village. Rumor says that Russian businessman Vladislav Doronin had it built for his then girlfriend, supermodel Naomi Campbell. The house is called Capital Hill Residence and looks like a space shuttle. 3. Premium class hotel complex in Crimea, by Norman Foster Mriya Resort & SpaPremium class hotel complex in Crimea, by Norman Foster Mriya Resort & SpaPremium class hotel complex in Crimea, by Norman Foster Mriya Resort & SpaPremium class hotel complex in Crimea, by Norman Foster British architect Norman Foster, author of the Millennium Bridge in London, built the luxury Mriya Resort & Spa Hotel 25 kilometers from Yalta. The hotel is in the form of Lotus petals, and has 422 rooms, a conference hall, a spa zone and a private area with villas. Foster, however, had several projects in Russia that didn’t come to fruition and which were canceled due to the financial crisis. For example, the planned 612-meter high "Russia Tower" in the Moscow City complex was started but then demolished, and the area was eventually turned into a parking garage. 4. Golden Bridge in Vladivostok, by Norman Foster Getty ImagesLightning strikes the city skyline at night beyond the Golden bridge on Golden Horn Bay in Vladivostok Yuri Smityuk/TASSA view of the bridge from the lighthouse on the Basargin Cape. Yuri Smityuk/TASSA general view of the bridge behind a statue of Saints Cyril and Methodius who invented Cyrillics Soviet authorities always wanted to make Vladivostok better than a certain other city just across the Pacific – San Francisco. So, Foster was charged with building the Golden Bridge - a breathtaking structure that stretches more than 1.3 kilometers and which is now Vladivostok’s main symbol. This cable-stayed construction hangs above the Golden Horn Bay and was erected for the APEC summit in 2012. Foster is also building the head office for the Russian Copper Company, and construction should be finished by 2019. 5. Academy of Chess in Khanty-Mansiysk, by Erick Van Egeraat Vladimir Fedorenko/RIA NovostiChess Academy in Khanty-Mansiysk. Vladimir Fedorenko/RIA NovostiChess Academy at night Dutch architect Erick Van Egeraat has been working in Russia since the early 2000s saying that the country has great potential. He built the Academy of Chess in Khanty-Mansiysk, winning the Best Building Award in 2011. Van Egeraat was originally slated to design the City of Capitals towers for the Moscow City International Business Center. The project, however, was deemed too complicated and the contract was instead given to the American architecture firm, NBBJ. 6. Vershina Mall in Surgut, by Erick Van Egeraat VershinaVershina Mall in Surgut VershinaInside the mall The 2012 Best Building Award went to another of Van Egeraat’s project – the Vershina Mall in Surgut that allows visitors to walk around clockwise. Van Egeraat also came up with the design to reconstruct the Dynamo Stadium in St. Petersburg, which should have been completed for the 2018 World Cup. The Architectural Heritage Preservation Society, however, decided the project was too innovative, and the project was given to a Russian architecture studio. 7. New Stage of the Mariinsky Theater in St. Petersburg, by Diamond Schmitt Architects Diamond Schmitt ArchitectsNew Stage of the Mariinsky Theater on Kryukov channel in St. Petersburg Diamond Schmitt ArchitectsInside the new building Alexei Danichev/RIA NovostiThe lobby of the new building Valery Gergiev, head of the Mariinsky Theater, came up with the idea of a new theater in 1997, and when a competition was held five international architectural firms put in bids. French architect Dominique Perrault won, but some time later he was booted from the project and the new theater was completed by Canada's Diamond Schmitt Architects. According to rumors, the new company was chosen personally by Gergiev. The new Mariinsky, however, is considered a failure. Architectural critic Grigory Revzin called it “something between a department store and McDonalds.” Read more: Mariinsky's new stage causes debates among theatre fans 8. St. Petersburg’s Gazprom Arena, by Kisho Kurokawa Ruslan Shamukov/RIA NovostiSt. Petersburg stadium on Krestovsky Island Nikolay Gyngazov/Global Look Press68,000-seat football stadium was built at the cost of 43 billion rubles (about $782 million) Ruslan Shamukov/RIA NovostiSt. Petersburg arena at night This is one of the most drawn-out and expensive construction projects in recent history, and it changed names several times during construction – Zenit, Zenit-Arena, Gazprom-Arena. The stadium was designed by Japanese architect Kisho Kurokawa. First, it was announced that 6.7 billion rubles ($113 million) would be needed, but in 2007 the architect died just as work began. The stadium’s price tag constantly increased and finally reached 43 billion rubles ($728 million) when it opened in 2017. 9. New terminal of Pulkovo Airport, by Grimshaw Architects Grimshaw ArchitectsNew terminal of Pulkovo Airport Grimshaw ArchitectsFuturistic golden lines of Pulkovo Grimshaw ArchitectsOutside the new terminal The first terminal of St. Petersburg’s only airport was built between 1936 and 1950, (with construction coming to a standstill during the Second World War). Then, the Pulkovo-2 terminal was built in 1980, and there have been no new additions since. Even though the city is Russia’s top tourist mecca, all passengers arriving by air had to pass through these two antiquated terminals. So, in 2013 a project led by Grimshaw Architects (U.K.) in collaboration with Ramboll (Denmark) and Pascall+Watson (U.K.), built a new terminal. The design is said to be inspired by St. Petersburg churches, palaces and landscapes with its bridges and islands. 10. Zaryadye Park in Moscow, by Diller Scofidio + Renfro Press Photo Project of Zaryadye Park Press photo Project of Zaryadye Park New York-based design studio Diller Scofidio + Renfro won the competition to build a park in the center of Moscow near the Kremlin. About 13 hectares are now under construction, to be opened in September. The project is ambitious, and one of its main features will be four climate zones. There will also be a Philharmonic concert hall and a hotel complex. Another feature will be a floating walking bridge that will offer stunning views. Read more: 10 amazing transformations Russian cities are set to experience in 2017
For five years in a row this southern city has topped the ranking of Russia's best places to live, and it is not surprising. Krasnodar’s main street is so green that walking along it feels like a stroll in the park, local eco-friendly food is served on tables in restaurants, and a high-speed train will take you to the Black Sea coast in just 2 hours. RIA Novosti/Vitaly Timkiv I usually visit new Russian cities by taking the train. This time, it’s Krasnodar, the unofficial capital of the Russian south, about 1,300 kilometers from Moscow. My comfortable double-decker train from Moscow arrives, after 19 hours, at 5:30 a.m. I’m shocked: it’s already + 28 Celsius and the sun is rising. Summer in Krasnodar is so long that even September is warmer than May. Next to the train station I see a small Lenin statue surrounded by minibuses, as well as their drivers and passengers. Apart from that, the streets are empty. The small houses along the main streets hide themselves behind big fences and vine tendrils, just like in the south of Europe. More than 830,000 residents live in Krasnodar, but at 6 a.m. you will hardly see even one of them. The city is quite young; founded in 1793, but the settlement only obtained official city status in 1867, exactly 150 years ago. The street signs sometimes mention a place called Yekaterinodar. That’s the old name of Krasnodar, which means ‘gift of Catherine.’ Actually, two Catherines decided the city’s fate: Catherine the Great gave the land to the local Cossacks to build a fortress. And St. Catherine of Alexandria is the patron saint of the city. In 1930, Stalin tried to erase all memory of the city's imperial past, so Yekaterinodar became Krasnodar – ‘a red gift.’ Nevertheless, Krasnodar retains memories of its historical past. Instead of English, the street signs are doubled with their pre-Soviet names. Lenin Street used to be Sobornaya (Cathedral) Street, and Sovetskaya Street was called Grafskaya (Palatine). Fur hats and horses for the strong Legion-Media For centuries Yekaterinodar was the military headquarters of the Kuban Cossacks. After the Russian-Turkish and Russian-Polish wars in the 18th century, the Black Sea Cossacks were granted their own lands in the Kuban region by Catherine the Great, where they founded a military fortress and their own capital. It was considered as a gift of honor for their help on the battlefield. After the revolution in 1917 the Cossacks set up their own republic in Kuban, but in the 1920s they were deported by the communist government, which viewed them as a threat. Many also died of starvation in the Soviet famine of 1932–33. Only later in the 1930s did the repression stop, and soon after the Cossack organizations began anew. Today, the Cossacks are still classified as an armed organization, but more often they present themselves as keepers of old traditions. They've opened museums, and they dance and sing at every major traditional festival. Also, the Kuban Cossack Choir tours the world. Between steppes and Vienna RIA Novosti/Vitaly Timkiv Walking through Krasnodar today you won’t meet many Cossacks, but you will see a lot of small sculptures, friendly people in shorts, summer dresses and a light smile on their lips. I suppose it’s because of the weather. While in Moscow we have about 1,730 average sun hours per year, Krasnodar enjoys more than 2,100. A good reason to smile, isn’t it? There's a surprise in the city center around Krasnaya Street and Zhukov Square. While you will recognize a monumental post-Soviet colorful mosaic on the left, there's one bourgeois town villa after another on the right. Neo-classicism, Art Nouveau, and many more early 20th century Western Europe architecture styles are delights for the eye. Peggy Lohse I head on to the Krasnodar Memorial Museum, founded in 1879 by Evgeny Felicyn, a local Cossack military, scientist, historian who was dedicated to social causes. Except for the exhibit, you should check out the surprisingly rich décor inside the Bogarsukov villa, where the museum has been located since the early 1960s. And do not lose sight of the ceiling! There you’ll find Caucasian scenes from the steppe, as well as gold and silver ornaments á la Vienna. The town’s green thumb RIA Novosti/Vitaly Timkiv Where else to go in Krasnodar? Locals have a clear answer: walking along Krasnaya Street, which crosses the entire city center and passes almost all important sights, including the statue of Catherine the Great and the local Triumphal Arch. A long green stripe leads to the city theater and a square with a monumental Kuban flag. Close to the middle of Krasnaya Street I need a rest, a coffee and a snack. No problem, there are dozens of cafes. My personal tip: try the Guryevskaya kasha in the southern Russian coffeehouse chain ‘Khlebnye istorii’. This is not what you often find on a menu, and it’s tasty and healthy. Peggy Lohse Now, the lower part of Krasnaya invites you on intensive shopping tours, and will surprise you on the weekend. On Friday evenings starting at 8 p.m. the street is closed for cars and public transportation to give pedestrians, joggers, bikers, skaters, musicians, artists and all the people without a car more space to enjoy the weekend. Walking along the opposite side of Krasnaya Street, you make a circle and reach the route’s starting point through the city’s heart – the Catherine Garden. The old trees remember Krasnodar’s Cossack leader, whose house used to stand across the road in the 19th century – locals believe the young city once started from this place 150 years ago.
С момента распада картеля «Белорусская калийная компания» в 2013 году, положившего конец сотрудничеству ПАО «Уралкалий» и ОАО «Беларуськалий», мировые цены на калийные удобрения (далее сырье), в частности углекислый калий (калийная соль), снизились в два раза на фоне избыточного предложения на рынке и ввода в эксплуатацию дополнительных производственных мощностей. Рост мирового спроса на данное сырье достаточно предсказуем на уровне 2-3% в год, это означает, что предложение остается главным индикатором рыночной цены. Потребность в калийных удобрениях в 2017 году прогнозируется на уровне 62-63 млн тонн, причем на крупнейшего импортера, Китай, приходится около 10-11 млн тонн. В прошлом году оценочные мультипликаторы североамериканских производителей калийных удобрений выросли, а акции трех крупнейших эмитентов продемонстрировали подъем в начале 2017 года, поскольку участники рынка ожидают долгожданный разворот цен на данное сырье. Однако эти надежды, по-видимому, ошибочны, учитывая, что предложение по-прежнему превышает спрос, а производители продолжают работать с максимальной производственной загрузкой. За исключением массового и непредвиденного снижения предложения, рынок калийных удобрений, в отсутствие драйверов роста, похоже, двигается в сторону циклического спада. Динамика акций крупнейших североамериканских производителей калийных удобрений До 2013 года глобальный процесс ценообразования на калийную продукцию был довольно прост: трейдинговая фирма Canpotex Ltd., которая занимается экспортом калийных удобрений крупнейших североамериканских производителей Agrium Inc., Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan и The Mosaic Company, обычно первой заключала крупные контракты на поставку сырья в Китай. Это установило ценовой стандарт для всей Азии и остального мира. Однако Белорусская компания «Беларуськалий» узурпировала мировое лидерство 3 года назад, когда проявила готовность снизить цены в погоне за более высокой долей рынка. Так, с 2013 по 2017 год «Беларуськалий» подписывал крупные контракты на поставку с Китаем и Индией раньше, чем Canpotex, российский «Уралкалий» или кто-либо из прочих игроков. Тем самым белорусская компания значительно подорвала мировые цены в 2015 году, заключив контракт на поставку калийных удобрений в КНР по цене $315/тонн, когда рыночные цены составляли $330-$340/тонн, а в 2016 году и вовсе по ставке $219/тонн. В то же время аналогичные предложения «Беларуськалия» были приняты в Индии и других частях Азии, что продемонстрировало твердое намерение компании пожертвовать частью прибыли ради захвата мирового рынка. Североамериканские производители, некогда диктовавшие свои условия, оказались в ситуации, когда им пришлось принять новые цены, чтобы сохранить присутствие в быстрорастущем азиатском регионе. Высокие объемы производства не спасают американские компании от ожесточенной конкуренции, особенно когда их денежные издержки производства намного выше, чем у «Беларуськалия» и «Уралкалия», заставляя довольствоваться меньшими объемами заказов при еще более низких ценах и отсутствии перспектив изменения ситуации в ближайшем будущем. Себестоимость производства калийной соли в 2016 году ($/тонн.) Даже после значительных усилий по реструктуризации, направленных на снижение издержек, самый демпингующий североамериканский поставщик Potash Corp. по-прежнему несет гораздо большие расходы на производство, нежели «Уралкалий» и «Беларуськалий» (хотя в открытом доступе нет конкретных данных о расходах белорусской компании, вероятно, что они сопоставимы с показателями российского конкурента). Долгосрочные последствия этого несоответствия являются для заокеанских компаний ужасающими. Североамериканские игроки будут по-прежнему терять долю рынка во всем мире. На фоне того, что подавляющее большинство калийных удобрений, производимых в Канаде и Соединенных Штатах, продается за рубежом (у Potash Corp. около 70% доходов поступает от экспорта), можно предположить, что их лучшие дни позади. В то же время риск перенасыщения рынка преследует всех калийных производителей и экспортеров. Немецкий химический концерн K+S AG в июне 2017 года начал наращивать производство на своем руднике Бетьюн, которое, как ожидается, вырастет до 2 млн тонн в год уже в декабре. В другой части мира Туркменистан недавно построил крупный калийный завод, способный экспортировать 1,2 млн тонн калия в год в Индию и Китай (с максимальной производственной мощностью 1,4 млн тонн). Более того, страна уже объявила о планах расширения строительства калийных горных и производственных объектов с помощью своих белорусских коллег, поэтому в среднесрочной перспективе ожидать восстановления высоких мировых цен ошибочно. Аргументы в пользу последнего приводятся в годовых отчетах североамериканских производителей, которые прогнозируют снижение запасов сырья в Китае и Индии и сообщают о прогрессе в переговорах с китайскими импортерами по поводу повышения цен на отдельные категории продукции. продолжение читайте по ссылке https://qbfin.ru/analytics/
The widths of the Pacific continued unaltered for millions of years. Temperatures scarcely dropped there in the Ice Ages. Generation after generation of Pacific birds were able to evolve in an almost completely stable world. Birds which somehow or other had arrived on remote islands branched into different species. In the Atlantic, there was hardly […] The post What does the puffin tell us about the Atlantic? appeared first on Marginal REVOLUTION.
1. Premier Suite and Ambassador Suite at Hotel Metropol Moscow Ambassador Suite / Hotel Metropol Moscow This hotel itself is enough provides enough reason to visit Moscow because it’s a beautiful example of Art Nouveau architecture, built by the prominent British architect William Walcot. The façade itself is a masterpiece. There are fine majolica mosaics, and the biggest one, “Princess of Dreams,” was designed by the legendary Russian artist Mikhail Vrubel. Other talented artists also contributed to the interior of the hotel. Ambassador Suite / Hotel Metropol Moscow In July 2017, the historic hotel completed a renovation of its luxury suites with both historic and modern interiors. These two suites are the most expensive and the most prestigious. They not only have a view of Tverskaya Square and the Bolshoi Theater, but they have also been the preferred residence of the most important and famous guests to the city since the hotel was built in 1899-1905. Ambassador Suite / Hotel Metropol Moscow The three rooms of the Ambassador Suite contain interior details that date back to the late 19th century. It also has a piano that Michael Jackson played during his visit to Moscow in 1993. Premier Suite / Hotel Metropol Moscow The two-room Premier Suite is slightly less expensive but also has antique decor. It is a great place, not only for a holiday, but also for official receptions and business meetings. Staying in either suite will get you access to the hotel’s Executive Lounge, which offers breakfast, dinner, snacks and unlimited drinks. The price: 152,810 rubles ($2,534) for the Ambassador Suite and from 106,200 rubles ($1,761) for the Premier Suite metropol-moscow.ru 2. Penthouse at Ararat Park Hyatt 1st floor / Ararat Park Hyatt Madonna, Rihanna, George Michael and Hugh Jackman used to stay at this hotel, which is located right behind the Bolshoi Theater. From its great rooftop restaurant, you can see the whole of Moscow laid out before you. But don’t be surprised to learn that the famous Hyatt breakfast, highly regarded by the glamorous young ladies of Moscow, is not included in the price of your penthouse stay. 1st floor / Ararat Park Hyatt The renowned hotel designer Tony Chi, who previously worked on Park Hyatt rooms in Shanghai and Washington, has carried out the renovation of the hotel and designed the two-story penthouse. Hotel representatives highlight that the suite is a perfect place for cocktail parties and other luxury receptions. 2nd floor / Ararat Park Hyatt The suite is designed with many mirrors and reflective surfaces. It also contains a luxury bath and a Jacuzzi with a view of the Kremlin. To top it off, the French perfumer Blaise Mautin has created a special scent for the cosmetic line that has been specifically curated for this room. The Price: 354,000 rubles ($5,870) moscow.park.hyatt.com 3. Red Square Suite of Hotel Baltschug Kempinski View from the Red Square Suite / Hotel Baltschug Kempinski This new suite was added to the hotel after its recent renovation and its main advantage is the panoramic view it offers of Moscow’s city center – Red Square, the Kremlin, and St. Basil's Cathedral – everything is right there, and you can feel like you’re inside a postcard. Another perk is that the hotel is partnered with St. Basil’s so, upon request, guests can receive a personal tour of the church, including a visit to the bell tower. Red Square Suite: living room / Hotel Baltschug Kempinski The whole area of the suite (a living room, two bedrooms, two bathrooms and a closet) is 125 square meters, but it can be expanded to up to six rooms at the guest’s request, according to a hotel representative. Red Square Suite: bedroom / Hotel Baltschug Kempinski Another reason to stay at the Baltschug is that it is a historic building – the façade of the hotel dates back to 1898, and you can feel as if you are in a czarist, pre-revolution-era Moscow, but with the advantage of modern and innovative interior design. The hotel is situated in a historic area of Moscow on Baltschug Island. The Price: 542,800 rubles ($ 9,000) www.kempinski.com 4. The Ritz-Carlton Suite The Ritz-Carlton Suite / The Ritz-Carlton Moscow This hotel is probably the favorite for celebrities, who like to stay here and take pictures from the rooftop with its Kremlin view. The best and most expensive accommodation is on the 11th floor and provides the same stunning panoramic view as the roof with an oversized bedroom, oversized marble bathroom and even a personal sauna. Bedroom / The Ritz-Carlton Moscow The suite contains a living room with a grand piano and a fully equipped kitchen, but you probably won’t use it, because there is also 24 -hour room service and a concierge staff especially dedicated to serving the guests of this suite. All of these rooms are high-security. Dining room / The Ritz-Carlton Moscow Another advantage of the hotel is that it’s right on Tverskaya Street, a five-minute walk from all the main sightseeing destinations and theaters. Located in the same building are several restaurants, including the famous Russian restaurant Novikov. The price: 1,180,000 rubles ($19,568) www.ritzcarlton.com 5. Royal Suite Pozharsky at Four Seasons Moscow Pozharsky Royal Suite Lounge / Four Seasons Moscow The name of this suite tells you everything there is to know. This accommodation is not just luxurious, it deserves a royal guest. The hotel press release states that the classic interiors of the suite will make you feel like you are in a private luxury apartment. Bathroom / Four Seasons Moscow The suite is situated on the seventh floor and has three bedrooms with king-size beds, a living room, a dining room (that can seat 10 people) and a private terrace with a view of the Kremlin, Manezhnaya Square and Alexandrovsky Garden. There is also a private sauna and a guest bathroom. Bedroom / Four Seasons Moscow The hotel building is new, but it was built according to the design of the Hotel Moscow, which was located in the same place and was constructed from 1932-35. There is a legend about the asymmetric façade of the hotel: The construction team showed Joseph Stalin a plan of the future building with two versions of the façade on the same drawing. Stalin signed the plan without any comments and the builders were too afraid to choose just one of the designs, or to ask again, so they combined the sketches. The price: 1,180,005.9 rubles ($19,568) www.fourseasons.com Read more: Airport hotels in Moscow & St. Petersburg: Pros and Cons
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Mayakovskaya Metro Station / Vostock-Photo Several of the stations on the Green Line of the Moscow Metro provide shockingly beautiful examples of design in the Stalinist Empire style. With their Roman mosaics, bronze medallions, marble columns and gold-leaf decorations, these stations are the pride of the Moscow Metro, which is often referred to as the largest "underground museum" in the world. Today, the Green Line, also called the Zamoskvoretskaya Line, includes 22 stations with exits leading, among other places, to the Kremlin, Red Square, the main building of the Tretyakov Gallery and the Belorussky Railway Station. The most magnificent of these stations were built during the mid-1930s and early 1940s. They represent the might of the Soviet people and glorify the labor of workers and peasants. RBTH will tell you about four of these stations that are definitely worth a stop. Dinamo Dinamo / Nikolai Galkin/TASS One of the USSR's main objectives was to foster a nation of healthy citizens capable of rebuilding factories and reviving agriculture. As a result of this focus on health, sports became one of the main themes used in the decor of the Dinamo station. It was named after the city’s biggest stadium and was built in 1928 in the Constructivist tradition. Dinamo / Nikolai Galkin/TASS The design of the station’s above-ground pavilion was built in the Neoclassical style as an homage to Ancient Greece, the birthplace of the Olympic Games. Marble Corinthian columns are decorated with friezes and bas-reliefs depicting sports and competitions. Porcelain medallion at Dinamo metro station / Nikolai Galkin/TASS Underground, the decor is more restrained and includes seven types of marble. Decorating the walls are porcelain medallions that show scenes featuring different types of athletes. They were made according to the sketches of the renowned sculptor Elena Janson-Manizer. Mayakovskaya Mayakovskaya / Nikolai Galkin/TASS Many architects and historians regard this as the most beautiful station, not only in the Moscow Metro, but in the world, and it has been described as an Art Deco masterpiece. Mosaics at the central hall of the station / Nikolai Galkin/TASS The station, which opened in 1938, was designed by the celebrated Soviet architect Alexey Dushkin and all of the most modern techniques from the time were used. Instead of heavy pillars, there are high, slender columns, made of aircraft steel that create the feeling of a large hall. To accompany these, there are numerous mosaics, based on the sketches of the artist Alexander Deineka that sparkle in the bright illumination of the spotlights. Mayakovskaya metro station / Nikolai Galkin/TASS There are currently 34 mosaics on the domed ceiling of the station hall. Their theme is "24 Hours in the Land of the Soviets" and they depict popular Soviet imagery with titles like Two Airplanes, Grain Harvesting, Airship over the Spassky Tower and more. The design of the station was highly lauded at the time, and at the 1939 New York World's Fair the Mayakovskaya Station project was awarded the grand prize. Novokuznetskaya Passengers at Novokuznetskaya metro station / Nikolai Galkin/TASS This station was one of the most luxuriously decorated of those built during the Second World War. Enormous marble benches, with Renaissance-style sculpted armrests, line the platforms here. Above them, there are bronze decorative medallions with pictures of flags, shields, and guns, as well as portraits of great Russian military commanders from Alexander Nevsky to Alexander Suvorov and Mikhail Kutuzov. Portrait of Russian Duke Alexander Nevsky at Novokuznetskaya metro station / Konstantin Kokoshkin/Global Look Press The ceiling In the middle of the hall is decorated with giant brass chandeliers and six mosaics with motifs depicting daily life in the USSR. They were made during the Siege of Leningrad and designed by Alexander Deineka. The principal color of these mosaics is dark blue, and they were intended to imitate the sky, despite being deep in these subterranean interiors. Novokuznetskaya / Nikolai Galkin/TASS After the war, a sculpted plaster frieze was added to the already-lavish decor, showing military and patriotic subject matter, interspersed with military decorations. Teatralnaya Teatralnaya metro station / Vostock-Photo Along with Mayakovskaya, this station represents the pride of Moscow's "underground museum." Its exits lead to the Bolshoi and Maly Theaters, Red Square and the Kremlin, so the richness of the ornamentation was designed to impress both Russians and foreigners alike. It was designed by the renowned Russian architect Ivan Fomin, who referred to the ticket hall as the "anteroom." It was to be his last work. An underground walk between Teatralnaya Station and Ploshchad Revolyutsii Station. / Nikolai Galkin/TASS The pillars and central vault, with their diamond-shaped coffered ceilings, are lined with marble, and the floor has a checkerboard design of black and yellow granite. Porcelain sculptures at Teatralnaya metro station / Nikolai Galkin/TASS The space is decorated with giant porcelain reliefs that depict the dances and music of the peoples of the USSR. These dancing figures and musicians, wearing traditional costumes, represent just seven of the Soviet republics - Georgia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. Don’t miss these 5 stations on the Moscow Metro’s Circle Line
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Peter I, the first emperor of Russia — who reigned from 1682 to 1721 — was well known for his love of curiosities. His collection of unusual and unique items, the Kuntskamera, is full of rarities ranging from mineral deposits to the fetuses of deformed still-born infants. His collection is still exhibited in St. Petersburg today. During his rule, every monarch in Europe knew that there was no better way to please the powerful Russian czar than to give him an unusual present. This is why Frederick William I of Prussia came up with an elaborate gift in his attempt to win Peter I’s favor. In 1716, he presented the Russian emperor with a chamber, designed by the finest Prussian baroque architects and sculptors, decorated with amber and gold. This was the famous Amber Room, which would later be called the Eighth Wonder of the World due to its astounding beauty. From Prussia to Russia Peter I’s descendants had the chamber remodeled and significantly expanded, turning it into a pearl of their prosperity. By the end of the 18th century, it had been transformed into a gorgeous room covering almost 100 square meters and decorated with six tons of amber, gold leaf and semi-precious stones. Historians and jewelers still argue over the approximate value of the Amber Room with estimates ranging from $142 million to over $500 million. Catherine the Great — who reigned from 1762 to 1796 — had the chamber placed in her summer residence, the Catherine Palace, which was located in Tsarskoye Selo (now the city of Pushkin, 30 km south of St. Petersburg). This unique piece of art was constantly maintained and remained in the Catherine Palace until 1941. Ironically, a large-scale restoration was scheduled to take place that year but, due to the war, this never happened. Amber Room, Catherine Palace, Tsarskoye Selo, near St. Petersburg. / Getty Images Devoured by war World War II broke out in June 1941. The fighting was very challenging for the USSR, especially during the first few months. By that September, the city of Pushkin had been occupied by the German army. By this time, many Soviet museum exhibits and priceless works of art had already been shipped to Siberia for safekeeping but the Amber Room was too fragile and heavy to transport. Under the reign of Adolf Hitler, numerous works of art from previous centuries, the Amber Room included, were officially viewed as property that had been stolen from the German people. The Nazis, therefore, reclaimed this treasure and sent the dismantled Amber Room to Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia, 1088 km east of Moscow). According to Alfred Rohde, the German art historian who supervised the collection at the Königsberg Castle from 1926-1945, the Germans took good care of the Amber Room. Rohde claims that it even survived the heavy bombing of Königsberg in 1944, when most of the city’s historic center was burnt down, because the chamber had been disassembled and stored in the castle’s basements. Nevertheless, when Soviet troops captured Königsberg in April 1945 they did not find any trace of the room or its contents. The Amber Room had disappeared. Gone for good? There are plenty of theories as to where the Amber Room went, the simplest being that Rohde lied and the collection had been completely destroyed during the intense fighting for Königsberg. Another theory claims that the chamber remains buried somewhere in the basements underneath the Königsberg Castle, which was demolished by the Soviets in 1969. Experts believe that if this is the case, the chamber would be as good as destroyed because amber requires certain temperatures and conditions to be preserved and is likely to decay underground. Lend-Lease: How American supplies aided the USSR in its darkest hour Other suggestions are more enticing to the adventurers who still hope to find the Amber Room. For example, the room could have been dismantled and shipped to Germany when the Nazis realized their defeat was inevitable. A Russian historian Andrei Przedomsky even believes that this piece of art is hidden in undisclosed German Secret Service bunkers outside of Kaliningrad. Some other researchers have posited that the chamber was secretly moved to South America, along with the several Nazi leaders who fled after 1945. One of the most exotic tales suggests that Germany never seized the Amber Room at all–at least not the real one. According to Fedor Morozov, a specialist from Pushkin, Soviet restorers had copied the decorations, and skillfully replaced the originals with duplicates, before moving the original Amber Room to a safe location prior to the war. Morozov is certain that the Soviet government shipped the contents to Armand Hammer, an American businessman and a close friend of the Soviet Union, as a reward for his support of the country’s Lend-Lease program. A flawless duplicate Several pieces from the original Amber Room did survive World War II. In 2000, Germany returned two pieces of the room’s decor to Russia, a Florentine mosaic and an amber bureau. However, it seems that the entirety of the contents will not be found so Russian scientists and sculptors have worked to reconstruct the lost masterpiece. Their meticulous work, which included the participation of German craftsmen, started in 1981 and lasted for more than 20 years, costing $11.35 million. The newly restored Amber Room was opened in 2003 at the Catherine Palace in Pushkin. The Catherine Palace in Pushkin ruined by German invaders, 1945. / Boris Kudoyarov/RIA Novosti Baron Eduard von Falz-Fein, a Russian-born businessman from Liechtenstein, has spent 30 years of his life searching for the Amber Room. In 2004 he said that while the original chamber appears to have been lost forever, the new version is a worthy substitute. “I saw the old Amber Room, when I was five years old, and I’ve seen the new one. The new one is even better,” von Falz-Fein told Argumenty i Fakty. Enthusiasts are still welcome to continue the hunt for the original Amber Room but it is far easier to go to Pushkin and enjoy the masterful recreation. This article is part of the Russian X-Files series in which RBTH explores Russia-related mysteries and paranormal phenomena. Read more: Russian jeweller recreates the Amber Room in his workshop
Archaeologists in Akaki begin restoration work on the nearly 2,000-year-old tile mosaic. Alicia Powell reports. Subscribe: http://smarturl.it/reuterssubscribe More updates and breaking news: http://smarturl.it/BreakingNews Reuters tells the world's stories like no one else. As the largest international multimedia news provider, Reuters provides coverage around the globe and across topics including business, financial, national, and international news. For over 160 years, Reuters has maintained its reputation for speed, accuracy, and impact while providing exclusives, incisive commentary and forward-looking analysis. http://reuters.com/ https://www.facebook.com/Reuters https://plus.google.com/u/0/s/reuters https://twitter.com/Reuters
**Giovanni Pico della Mirandola**: Oration on the Dignity of Man: "Most esteemed Fathers, I have read in the ancient writings of the Arabians that Abdala the Saracen on being asked what, on this stage, so to say, of the world, seemed to him most evocative of wonder, replied that there was nothing to be seen more marvelous than man... >...And that celebrated exclamation of Hermes Trismegistus, "What a great miracle is man, Asclepius" confirms this opinion. >And still, as I reflected upon the basis assigned for these estimations, I was not fully persuaded by the diverse reasons advanced for the pre-eminence of human nature; that man is the intermediary between creatures, that he is the familiar of the gods above him as he is the lord of the beings beneath him; that, by the acuteness of his senses, the inquiry of his reason and the light of his intelligence, he is the interpreter of nature, set midway between the timeless unchanging and the flux of time; the living union (as the Persians say), the very marriage hymn of the world, and, by David's testimony but little lower than the angels. >These reasons are all, without question, of great weight; nevertheless,...
NCSA Mosaic был одним из первых кросплатформенных браузеров на рынке. Встретили его с огромным благоговением. Всего за несколько месяцев после выхода летом 1993 года Mosaic изменил представление не только о браузерах, но и о WWW в целом. Гэри Вулф писал в Wired, что Mosaic «производил сильное впечатление не информации, а личности». Mosaic сделал веб более приспособленным для сотен тысяч людей, впервые выходящих в онлайн. Конечно, Mosaic было легко установить на любой операционке. Он был чрезвычайно прост в использовании. Но большую роль в этих изменениях наверняка сыграл тег IMG. Конечно, за несколько месяцев до его выхода никто не знал, насколько браузер станет популярным. Mosaic был разработан в Национальном центре суперкомпьютерных приложений [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, NCSA] в Иллинойском университете в Урбана-Шампейн. Разработкой руководил упорный Майк Андриссен, в ту пору ещё бывший студентом, вместе с сотрудником NCSA Эриком Бина. Андриссен интересовался вебом с тех пор, как за два года до этого впервые познакомился с ним. Читать дальше →
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Komsomolskaya station was constructed to act as a type of “gateway” to Moscow. / Legion Media The Moscow Metro is known all over the world for being the largest underground museum. Many of the stations were luxuriously designed and decorated by leading Soviet artists and sculptors in the Stalinist Empire style as a demonstration of the power and wealth of the Soviet Union. At the center of the map of Moscow’s metro system there is a ring line, consisting of 12 stations with continuously running trains that circle the heart of the city. This line was constructed following the Second World War, and the decoration glorifies the military might of the Russian people. Almost every station has architecture of cultural significance. In order to experience the art, you only need to enter the metro one time. As you ride around the ring line, exit the metro car, take some time to view the art and architecture at each stop and, without transferring or exiting the station, get on the next train until you reach the next stop. RBTH is ready to guide you on this tour of the five most interesting stations of this underground museum. Park Kultury Park Kultury. / Legion Media This station leads to Moscow’s main park, Gorky Park. The station includes five types of marble, from veined light gray to black, and other features, such as empire chandeliers and marble bas-reliefs. Park Kultury. / Legion Media These bas-reliefs were made according to the sketches of Isaac Rabinovich, who also decorated the USSR pavilion at the 1939 World’s Fair in New York. Park Kultury. / Legion Media They depict the labor and leisure activities of the Soviet people, as well as the types of activities they participated in at the famous Gorky Park, including flying model planes, dancing and playing football and tennis. Taganskaya Taganskaya. / Konstantin Kokoshkin/Global Look Press Medieval architecture is the main theme of this station's design. Intersections of arches create a kind of cross vault similar to those found in Russian boyar chambers from the 13th to 16th centuries. Taganskaya. / Legion Media The pillars are generously decorated with majolica panels, in the style of the studio of Andrea della Robbia, the famous Florentine sculptor of the 16th century. Taganskaya. / Nikolai Galkin/TASS However, instead of featuring images of Madonna, you will find profiles of heroes of the Soviet Army, such as sailors, tank operators and pilots, basking in glory with victorious banners and bayonets, painted with enamel and gilding. Komsomolskaya Komsomolskaya. / Legion Media This station was constructed to act as a type of “gateway” to Moscow because it is located under the three busiest Moscow railway terminals. Komsomolskaya. / Nikolai Galkin/TASS It represents the peak of the Stalinist Empire style with its elegant bronze chandeliers, marble arcades and monumental mosaics made from smalt. Komsomolskaya. / Legion Media Today, the station is adorned with eight mosaic panels, designed in the style of ancient temple architecture. They depict famous Russian warriors, commanders, and the leader of the Russian Revolution, Vladimir Lenin, who is portrayed giving a speech in Red Square. Novoslobodskaya Novoslobodskaya. / Legion Media This is one of the most ceremonial stations in the Moscow Metro. It is best known for its 32 stained-glass panels, which were all designed by the famous Soviet artist Pavel Korin. Novoslobodskaya. / Nikolai Galkin/TASS The stained glass windows were made in Latvia, according to Korin’s sketches, because Russia did not have a tradition of working with stained glass or any masters of the craft. Before its opening, the architects were afraid that Muscovites would associate the station with Catholic churches, but instead, they found that residents likened it to an incredible underwater world. Novoslobodskaya. / Legion Media Six of the stained-glass panels depict people from different professions including a musician, an agronomist and, of course, an architect. The remaining 26 panels contain intricate geometric patterns and stars. Kievskaya Kievskaya. / Legion Media This was the last station to be built on the Moscow Central Ring. It was built under the personal supervision of General Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, who initiated the Soviet "thaw" policy and dismantled Joseph Stalin's cult of personality. It is believed that the elegant decor was a way for Khrushchev to pay tribute to his Ukrainian homeland. Kievskaya. / Legion Media Following the opening of the station, the Soviet leader declared a "war" on excesses in architecture, thereby ensuring the unrivaled glory of this underground “palace.” Its lobby, like those at some other stations, is decorated with marble and granite, and the columns are decorated with 18 mosaic panels in the Florentine tradition. Kievskaya. / Ruslan Krivobok/RIA Novosti These bas-relief panels tell the history of relations between Russia and Ukraine, from the time of the Pereyaslav Rada in 1654 (when the Cossacks swore an oath to the Russian Tsar) to the October Revolution in 1917. The titles of the panels speak for themselves with works entitled: Pushkin in Ukraine, The Liberation of Kiev by the Soviet Army in 1943 and The Friendship of Russian and Ukrainian Collective Farmers. Read more: Take a closer look at the Moscow Metro’s most famous statues
As Rome begins to swelter, the scent of this spicy, salty barbecued ‘devil’s chicken’ begins to waft over the rooftops. It’s a chewy, succulent treat ready to rip apart and devour with red pepper and almond stewFirst catch your cobblestone. That was the suggestion of my butcher Roberta. Years ago, driving home past the ancient city wall with her husband after a day working on the family stall on Testaccio market, they ran over something. Concerned for both the thing and their tyre, they stopped the car to discover a pair of dislodged cobblestones. Romans call cobblestones sampietrini, and much of the historic centre is still an almost living, breathing mosaic of leucite rock that dates back to the 16th century. From above they appear to be large, shiny pebbles but, dislodged, each cobble is long and bevelled, like a molar tooth complete with stumpy root; and heavy – not the sort of thing you want under a tyre. Seeing there were no visible holes nearby, Roberta picked up the wayward cobbles and took them home. They’ve been weights for her chicken “devil’s style” ever since.I didn’t go and catch a cobble, even though at the moment there are great piles of them here in Testaccio as erupted sections of sampietrini are dug up then re-laid, the chink, chick of the Selciarolo’s hammer providing a sort of metronome to increasingly hot afternoons. When I need a weight, the old iron that keeps the kitchen doors open steps in to press a pudding or a chicken deep into a pan. A brick would also work, or pan full of water according to Roberta; although that sounds like a recipe for a flood to me. Whatever you use as a weight, the chicken needs to be spatchcocked or butterflied – opened up like a book with the wings tucked in – and well seasoned. Alla diavola means “devil’s style”: think heat and naked flames (although possibly not hellish ones). In Rome the heat usually comes from loads of freshly ground black pepper. Recipes from Tuscany and Naples suggest various degrees of chilli and herbs, too. I use both black pepper and peperoncino chilli, mixing them with olive oil, which I use to baste and baste. Continue reading...
Hofburg Palace, Vienna (Austria) - Speakers at the opening of the 5th Global Forum of the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations all emphasized conflict resolution using Syria as an example. Under the sparkling chandeliers of the Hofsburg Palace in Vienna, world leaders and other participants are meeting to discuss ways to further the goals of the UNAOC while encouraging more responsible leadership. The foreign minister of Austria Michael Spindelegger opened the session by stressing how his country's tradition of wanting a dialogue matches the goals of the UNAOC. That theme was later elaborated on by the country's Federal President Heinz Fischer. U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon spoke about conflict resolution, job creation and specific troubles going on around the globe. "In too many places, anti-Muslim sentiment has become commonplace," Ban Ki-moon said. "Migrants from all backgrounds are vilified instead of embraced. When such attitudes are left unchallenged, racists feel empowered." He spoke at length about Syria, describing it as a 'mosaic of tribes, religion, culture and traditions. Later, during a press conference, he blamed the language of hatred for creating a divide in the world.