• Теги
    • избранные теги
    • Компании39
      • Показать ещё
      Страны / Регионы10
      • Показать ещё
      Люди1
      Разное4
      Показатели1
      Сферы2
Выбор редакции
16 апреля 2014, 18:55

Peugeot’s revival plan: Striving for the podium

THE Peugeot group (PSA) won the Marrakech World Touring Car Championship on April 13th, with Citroën C-Elysées coming first, second and third. That cheered its new boss. Carlos Tavares, a racing fanatic, joined Peugeot’s archrival, Renault, as a test driver in 1981, rising to become that company’s number two before taking the wheel at PSA on March 31st. He now wants to see his new company enjoying the same success financially as it has had on the racetrack.The second-largest European carmaker, in volume terms, is struggling to escape from losses topping €7 billion ($9.7 billion) in the past two years. A €3 billion capital increase agreed on in principle in March, which hands both Dongfeng, a Chinese carmaker, and the French state 14% stakes in exchange for €800m apiece, will help PSA secure its future. On April 14th Mr Tavares set out how he proposed doing it.Mr Tavares is seen by many as the first genuine “car guy” to run PSA for some time. His real forte may be on the numbers side, however. “Back in the Race”, as his recovery plan is called, has four broad goals but one overwhelming message: forget about volume and market share, focus on profits and cashflow. The first aim is to distinguish more clearly Peugeot’s high-end family cars from Citroën’s cheaper, trendy ones, pulling out Citroën’s DS range as a stand-alone premium brand. The idea is to reduce the percentage...

17 сентября 2013, 18:20

Продажи машин в Европе упали до минимума с 1990 года

Фото: picture alliance/dpa Продажи новых легковых автомобилей в Европе упали до минимальных значений за последние 23 года. Об этом свидетельствуют данные Ассоциации европейских производителей автомобилей. В Европе продолжается снижение спроса на новые машины. На фоне высокой безработицы и слабого состояния экономики в Европе покупают все меньше машин. За первые 8 месяцев 2013 г. объем продаж новых авто упал на 5,2% по сравнению с аналогичным периодом 2012 г., составив 7,84 млн единиц. Это самый низкий показатель продаж новых автомобилей за первые восемь месяцев года в ЕС с 1990 г. Об этом свидетельствует вышедшая статистика Ассоциации европейских производителей автомобилей. (Association des Constracteurs Europeens des Automobiles, ACEA). Наиболее существенное снижение продаж было отмечено в ведущих экономиках Западной Европы, а также в скандинавских странах. По сравнению с 2012 г. продажи новых автомобилей упали в Германии (-6,7%), Франции (9,7%), Италии (9,2%), Австрии (7,2%), Голландии (-33,3%), Швеции (8,5%), Финляндии (-11,4%), а также в ряде других стран. Наиболее заметное снижение было отмечено по таким производителям, как PSA Peugeot Citroën (-11.8%), Renault (-8,5%), GM Group (-9.0%), FIAT Group (-8.9%), Ford (-7,4%), Toyota Group (-5.6%). Продолжение неутешительной динамики продаж в Европейском регионе уже стало причиной для прогнозов о дальнейших убытках и необходимости сокращения расходов в европейской автомобильной промышленности.  Moody's: автопроизводители Европы потеряют миллиарды В начале сентября в рейтинговом агентстве Moody's отметили, что на фоне самого низкого уровня спроса за последние два десятилетия крупные производители, включая Fiat SpA и PSA Peugeot Citroen, потеряют порядка 5 млрд евро в данном регионе в 2013 г.  Автопроизводители обещают новые увольнения в Европе Главы ряда крупнейших автомобильных производителей были вынуждены признать, что в европейских подразделениях будет продолжен процесс сокращения производства и увольнения персонала.

31 июля 2013, 20:09

Евросоюз одобрил выделение 7 млрд евро Peugeot

Евросоюз одобрил выделение финансовой помощи объемом в 7 млрд евро французской автомобильной компании PSA Peugeot Citroen.Средства будут выделены французскими властями. Однако взамен за подобную уступку автоконцерн согласился снизить уровень задолженности, а также воздержаться от новых приобретений. Финансовая помощь будет выделена в рамках кредита, ставка которого будет расти вслед за улучшением ситуации в концерне. Помощь была одобрена французским правительством еще в конце 2012 г., однако требовалось согласие и властей Евросоюза. Данные средства позволят предоставлять покупателям более дешевые кредиты, что должно поддержать спрос на ее продукцию.Высокая безработица в еврозоне привела к тому, что производители, например Peugeot и Renault, ожидают падения рынка на 5% в 2013 г. Продажи в Западной Европе сократились на 6,2% до 1,11 млн автомобилей в июне и на 6,6% до 6,06 млн автомобилей по итогам первой половины года.В июне сократились четыре из пяти крупнейших рынков Европы, включая рынок Германии, где падение составило 4,7%, и рынок Франции, который сократился на 8,4%. В Великобритании продажи выросли на 13%. Продажи Peugeot сократились на 11%, продажи General Motors упали на 9,9%, при этом продажи автомобилей Chevrolet рухнули на 23%, а по Opel и Vauxhall показатель упал на 7,2%.Крупнейший автопроизводитель Европы Volkswagen столкнулся с сокращением продаж в Европе на 4,4% в прошлом месяце. Самое сильное снижение было по подразделению Audi, где продажи сократились на 8,9%. У BMW показатель упал на 7,7%.

Выбор редакции
08 марта 2013, 01:22

Business › Carmakers rush to join small crossover trend

Small crossovers, a downsized combination of sports utility vehicle (SUV) and passenger car, were a big hit at the Geneva Motor Show this week, with many manufacturers keen to squeeze into the promising niche amid an otherwise depressed market. The French group PSA Peugeot Citroen gained a foothold in the…

Выбор редакции
19 февраля 2013, 13:23

Продажи автомобилей в ЕС рекордно низкие за 23 года

Продажи новых автомобилей в странах Европейского союза снизились в январе 2013 г. на 8,7% по сравнению с тем же месяцем 2012 г. до 885 тыс. штук, говорится в сообщении Европейской ассоциации производителей автомобилей (ACEA).Показатель стал рекордно низким для января с начала отслеживания данных в 1990 г. Сокращение продаж отмечается уже 16 месяцев подряд.Великобритания стала единственной из крупнейших экономик региона, показавшей рост продаж в январе: продажи автомобилей здесь увеличились на 11,5%, тогда как в Германии, Испании, Франции и Италии было отмечено снижение соответственно на 8,6%, 9,6%, 15,1% и 17,6%.Несмотря на некоторое снижение продаж, Германия остается крупнейшим автомобильным рынком Европы Страна Число проданных автомобилей в январе Германия 192 тыс. Великобритания 143,643 тыс. Франция 124,798 тыс. Италия 113,525 тыс. Рост продаж в январе продемонстрировали BMW (6,6%), Daimler (3,7%), Kia (7,2%), Jaguar Land Rover (19%), Honda (10,3%) и Mazda (11,4%).Автопроизводитель Volkswagen сохранил позиции лидера европейского авторынка. Продажи компании в январе сократились на 5,2% до 215,861 тыс. автомобилей, рыночная доля Volkswagen выросла до 24,4% с 23,5%.PSA Group уменьшила сбыт продукции в прошлом месяце на 16,3% до 101,68 тыс. автомашин. Ее доля на европейском рынке сократилась за год до 11,5% с 12,5%.Renault сократила продажи в Европе на 5,6%, рыночная доля французского автопроизводителя увеличилась до 8,6% с 8,3%.Продажи GM Group на европейском рынке уменьшились в прошлом месяце на 5,5%, Ford - на 25,5%, Fiat - на 12,3%. Объем реализации Peugeot упал на 16,6%, Citroen - на 15,9%.

09 февраля 2013, 21:37

French Socialist Nightmare: 'The State Cannot Do Everything'

Wolf Richter   www.testosteronepit.com   www.amazon.com/author/wolfrichter The preannouncement came Thursday evening: PSA Peugeot Citroën, France’s largest automaker, would have a write-down of €4.7 billion. On top of a hefty operating loss. It would be colossal. An all-time record. Rumors spread immediately that PSA would need a bailout. The second in four months. PSA passenger car sales in France dropped nearly 17% in 2012 from an already awful 2011. In January they dropped another 16.7%. Sales for all automakers dropped 15%, and PSA’s market share had eroded further. Kia-Hyundai sales jumped 21.2%, the only major automaker with gains. Even Volkswagen Group got clobbered: down 23.9%. PSA isn’t internationally diversified enough. It doesn’t have much in China and nothing in the US, the largest markets in the world, both growing. It’s mired in Europe where auto sales have ground to a halt. It’s bleeding €200 million a month. It’s trying to lay off 8,000 workers and shutter its plant in Aulnay-sous-Bois. And its Banque PSA Finance was bailed out last October with €7 billion in taxpayer money. The government was so worried that it was actively studying a bailout, sources told the Liberation after the losses were announced. It was just hypothetical. “But if a capital infusion would become inevitable, the state could participate,” the source said. Instantly, a cacophony of discord erupted—within the Socialist government. Another chapter in the saga of the deindustrialization of France—a process that has afflicted France, like other developed nations, for decades as manufacturing has wandered off to cheaper countries. But now there’s a near national consensus: the state needs to step in and stop it, according to a poll that CSA conducted for Les Echos and the Institut Montaigne.... The same Institut Montaigne that had shocked the establishment last April with a new French Paradox: employees in France were more dissatisfied with their jobs and more stressed at work than their counterparts in the rest of Europe—despite highly protective, “dense and complex” labor laws that allowed the French to work fewer hours, work less often over the weekend, and have a “less sustained pace of work.” And it dared to wonder if the sacrosanct labor laws were still protective, or if they’d become counterproductive even for employees. Gasps all around. Deindustrialization has been on the front burner since the presidential campaign last year. But now, in the poll, it came down to a single question: Is the decline in manufacturing a phenomenon that can be reversed? The resounding response spread across all professional levels, all ages, and the entire political spectrum—78% of the respondents said yes. The French expect the government to do “the maximum” to prevent plant closures, explained Jérôme Sainte-Marie, director of CSA’s political opinion division—something that those on the extreme right and left had been clamoring for all along. Now they “find themselves comforted” by the survey results, he said. And it puts the government in a quandary. So far, it has shied away from nationalizing troubled plants. A risky path: the phrase by Lionel Jospin that “the state cannot do everything” was “absolutely impossible to maintain,” Sainte-Marie said. “Public opinion doesn’t want to hear it.” He was referring to a Socialists nightmare. Jospin, Socialist Prime Minister from 1997 to 2002, had admitted that he could not prevent layoffs at a Michelin factory, that the state couldn’t do everything (“l’État ne peut pas tout”). A phrase—or a concept, rather—according to some political soothsayers, that contributed to his humiliating defeat in the 2002 presidential election. He was trounced in the first round by right-wing Jean-Marie Le Pen, which forced the left to vote for Jacques Chirac in the second round just to keep the unpalatable Le Pen out. An unforgettable horror story still for the Socialists. For a Socialist government to admit again that the state couldn’t do everything, that some layoffs and plant closures would be allowed, was fraught with perils. During the presidential campaign, they’d promised the “reindustrialization” of France, and “the French took them by their word,” said Sainte-Marie. So what to do about PSA? “This company cannot, must not disappear,” said Budget Minister Jérôme Cahuzac Friday morning during an interview. “We have to do what we have to do so that it survives.” He’d already worked out the details: the bailout money would come from the state-owned Strategic Investment Fund (FSI). Minutes later, Finance Minister Pierre Moscovici disagreed: “Jerome Cahuzac talked about a theoretical scenario and the tools available to the state,” he said. But “such a state bailout is not being considered, is not necessary, and would not add anything.” Sources in his entourage agreed, “A capital infusion by the state is not on the agenda.” By midday, Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault jumped into the fray. A bailout was not “on the agenda,” he echoed. PSA hadn’t requested it. Though there was “a tool, the FSI,” that could do it. But “this question hasn’t been raised today. Therefore, there is no question.” But if necessary, he grumbled, PSA would have to “be saved at all costs.” And so continues the saga of the decline of the private sector à la Française. Tuesday morning, the 168 employees of automotive component maker DMI in Vaux, a tiny town near Montluçon in the Department of Allier, smack-dab in the middle of France, rigged about ten gas cylinders throughout the factory they’d been occupying and threatened to blow it up—unless their demands were met. Read.... French Workers Threaten To Blow Up Their Factory.

Выбор редакции
08 февраля 2013, 00:01

Peugeot Citroën on the road to €6bn losses

While executives insisted the ‘accounting writedown’ would not have an impact on its financial recovery plan, the heavy losses will worry investors

29 января 2013, 19:00

Peugeot Citroen объявила о создании машины, которая будет ездить на воздухе

Источник перевод для mixednews – CowancheeФранцузский автомобильный гигант Peugeot Citroen считает, что сможет выпустить на дороги машины, использующие в качестве топлива воздух, уже к 2016 году.Учёные концерна заявляют, что такие машины позволят снизить счета за топливо для среднего потребителя на 45 процентов. А во время передвижения по городу цена будет снижаться на все 80 процентов, поскольку машина будет питаться воздухом четыре пятых всего времени.Технология Hybrid Air позволяет автомобилю размером с Citroën C3 или Peugeot 208 выбрасывать всего лишь 69 граммов СО2 на километр путиСнижая издержки: взгляд внутрь двигателя Hybrid Air, который позволяет на 45 процентов уменьшить расходы на топливоСистема использует обычный двигатель внутреннего сгорания, специальную гидравлику и адаптированную коробку передач совместно с цилиндрами, работающими на сжатом воздухе, которые запасают и отдают энергию. Это позволяет автомобилю ездить на бензине или воздухе, или их комбинации.Воздушное питание будет использоваться только в городах, автоматически включаться при скоростях ниже 70 километров в час и использоваться 60-80 процентов времени перемещений по городу. К 2020 году по прогнозам компании подобная технология будет позволять автомобилям проезжать в среднем 190 километров на 4.5 литрах бензина.Система компрессии воздуха позволяет использовать всю энергию, которая обычно теряется во время торможения и остановки машины. Двигатель и насос находятся внутри капота и питаются из танка со сжатым воздухом под днищем машины, идущим параллельно с выхлопной системой.Новая революционная технология Hybrid Air – первая, в которой комбинируются топливо и сжатый воздух – это прорыв в сфере гибридных автомобилей, поскольку в ней больше не требуются дорогие батареи.Система питания воздухом будет автоматически включаться на скоростях ниже 70 километров в час и работать до 80 процентов времени при поездках по городуМашины, оснащённые технологией Hybrid Air, будут стоить приблизительно на тысячу фунтов дешевле существующих моделей гибридных автомобилей.Новая система питания может быть установлена на любой семейный автомобиль без изменения внешней формы и размера или уменьшения внутреннего пространства. Снаружи воздушно-топливная машина будет выглядеть идентичной обычной.Peugeot 208 – одна из моделей, которая может получить технологию воздушного питания уже в самом ближайшем будущемАвтомобилисты никогда не столкнутся с проблемой закончившегося сжатого воздуха поздней ночью на безлюдной сельской дороге, поскольку машины будут оснащаться сложной системой искусственного контроля, которая будет следить за тем, чтобы запасы воздуха пополнялись автоматически.Воздух будет сжиматься и выпускаться, следуя своему собственному ритму по мере того, как автомобиль будет ускоряться или замедляться.Помимо новой революционной системы питания, Peugeot также планирует внедрить использование новых материалов – таких как легковесные стали и алюминиевые композиты – в своих более крупных автомобилях вроде Peugeot 508 и Citroen C5, что позволит им снизить до 20 процентов расходов на топливо.Компания также планирует внедрить в производство автомобилей другие инновации, например электрический усилитель руля вместо гидравлического, и новые шины, которые позволяют уменьшить трение.Ссылка

25 января 2013, 00:47

Auto Giants Collaborate On Green Car Battery

TOKYO (AP) — Toyota Motor Corp. and BMW Group are working together on next-generation batteries for green vehicles called "lithium-air" as their collaboration, first announced in late 2011, moves ahead in fuel cells, sports vehicles and other fields. But both sides said Thursday the partnership will not involve a capital alliance while spanning a wide range of technologies for green vehicles. The Japanese and German automakers aim to complete a fuel-cell vehicle system by 2020, and a concept for a mid-size sports vehicle by the end of this year. They will also work together on developing lightweight technologies such as composites, which will help make cars greener. Joint research will be started to develop a lithium-air battery, which will be more powerful than the current lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles, they said. The technology, which other automakers are also working on, will allow a major part of the battery's energy-making process to come from the oxygen in air. BMW AG board member Herbert Diess told reporters the cooperation will help both companies boost competitiveness in new technologies. "We really share the same vision," he said at a news conference in Nagoya, central Japan, live-streamed at Toyota's Tokyo office. Toyota Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada said working with BMW will allow for a much faster development as they pool their resources. He said the companies share a corporate culture and they have built trust over the last year. An agreement to work on technologies together was signed in June last year. BMW, known for its strong design and sporty cars, could be a good match for Toyota, reputed for innovation and solid engineering but sometimes criticized as making dull cars. Global automakers are forging such partnerships to become more competitive. French carmaker PSA Peugeot Citroen and General Motors Co. of the U.S. have a deal to share in purchases of parts and services to cut costs. Toyota already has a joint venture with Peugeot Citroen to make small cars in Europe.

Выбор редакции
29 ноября 2012, 20:44

Changan sells 50% interest in auto JV

CHINA'S Changan Automobile Group is selling its 50 percent stake in a car venture with PSA Peugeot Citroen to its listed unit, Chongqing Changan Automobile Co, sources with direct knowledge of the matter said, in a sale worth 2 billion yuan (US$320 million).

Выбор редакции
09 ноября 2012, 00:11

Cycling safety campaigners fear effect of Bradley Wiggins crash

Activists insist sport's benefits outweigh risks after cycling star and his coach hurt in separate accidentsShane Sutton can't remember what happened on Thursday morning. All he knows is that he had headed out for his usual spin before going to the velodrome in Manchester, where he is head coach for the GB Cycling Team. He likes to get a few hours in on the bike before work.But as for what happened when he rode along the Stockport Road, the A6, near to the junction with Clare Road in Levenshulme just after 8.55am? Nothing. All he knows is that when he came to, he was en route to Hope hospital.Doctors would later tell the 54-year-old Australian he had suffered concussion and a small bleed on the brain. His condition soon stabilised, but he was lucky to be alive. The 61-year-old driver of the Peugeot which hit him was not hurt and has not been arrested.It was horrible timing. The night before, Sutton had been fielding calls from journalists anxious for updates on another bike accident involving one of his most famous charges.Bradley Wiggins, the winner of this year's Tour de France and multiple Olympic gold medal winner, had been knocked off his mountain bike by a Vauxhall Astra van coming out of a petrol station near his home in Eccleston, near Chorley in Lancashire. He was taken to hospital with bruises to his right hand and ribs. The driver, again, was fine: if horrified to be told by police exactly who she'd hurt.The crashes made national news bulletins. Phone-in shows stopped talking about the US elections and turned their attention to cycle safety. Newsround, the BBC's children's programme, asked its viewers whether they felt safe on their bikes. No, said many. "Although it helps you to keep fit, I think riding a bike on roads is dangerous and unsafe because vehicles may not be able to see you," said Gabrielle, from Durham.Cycling campaigners listened in horror. After Britain's triumphs at the Olympics and the Tour, hopes were high that more Britons would get off the sofa and on to the saddle. Could these two high profile accidents undo all that good work?"With accidents like this there is always the concern that the publicity will put people off cycling and make them think it is more dangerous than it is," said Chris Peck, policy co-ordinator for the CTC, the national cyclists' organisation. "We know there is an overinflated fear of cycling, yet studies show that the health benefits outweigh the risks by 20 to 1."British Cycling, the national governing body for cycling, which pays Sutton's wages, was at pains to point out that "cycling is not an intrinsically dangerous activity". A spokesperson said: "It is extremely rare that our riders and coaches are hurt while out cycling on the road, even rarer that two incidents should occur in a short space of time, and we wish Shane and Bradley a speedy recovery."But Peck said he was not surprised that Wiggins was hit on a major rural road. "Cyclists are disproportionately likely to be hit on these roads, he said. "A study showed there are 170 cyclist deaths per billion kilometres cycled on major rural roads, but only eight per billion kilometres on minor urban roads." The latter rate is the same as in the bicycling nirvanas of the Netherlands or Denmark, he added.It is unclear yet whether anyone will be charged in connection with the two crashes. But a Department for Transport (DfT) analysis of cyclists' injuries found that two-thirds of crashes involving adult cyclists were deemed by police to be the fault of drivers, with just one in five blamed solely on the cyclist. "Crashes like this are far too common and the reaction from drivers familiar - 'Sorry mate, I didn't see you'," said Peck. "It's time for the police to start treating incidents of bad driving seriously and for courts to keep bad drivers off the streets."There was a 16% increase in the number of serious injuries to cyclists last year, while cycling levels only rose by 1-2%, suggesting the risk of being injured while cycling rose. According to the DfT, 10% of adults in England now cycle at least once per week. This figure varies significantly by area, from more than 50% to less than 5%. So far this year, 104 cyclists have been killed in Britain; the total for 2011 was 107.Some believe the deterioration in traffic policing may be in part responsible for worsening accident rates. Figures obtained by CTC show there has been a 22% reduction in traffic police in Lancashire over the past 10 years, with just 155 traffic police covering 4,303 miles of road.But there is evidence the government has started to take cycle safety more seriously. Earlier this week, the all-party parliamentary group on cycling officially launched an inquiry into how to get Britain cycling. The inquiry will see experts and organisations give evidence across a broad range of issues – highlighting the barriers to cycling and cycling's benefits – before a written report is published in April 2013.Yet cycling organisations believe more needs to be done to improve conditions for cyclists on the roads. "British Cycling is calling on the government to put cycling at the heart of transport policy to ensure that cycle safety is built into the design of all new roads, junctions and transport projects, rather than being an afterthought," said the British Cycling spokesperson.Wishing Wiggins and Sutton well, the road safety minister Stephen Hammond said: "The government is fully committed to encouraging cycling and improving safety and recently launched the first THINK! cyclist campaign. We have also invested £30m to tackle dangerous junctions for cyclists and are giving more than £1bn to councils to design solutions appropriate to their local transport challenges, including improving their road infrastructure to encourage cycling. The vast majority of projects funded by the £600m Local Sustainable Transport Fund also contain a cycling element."Yet not all MPs are so enlightened. When then Tory transport minister Theresa Villiers was knocked off her bike this year, Tom Harris, now shadow environment minister, offered the following bon mot: "I trust that when she returns to her duties after that speedy recovery, she will use her ministerial car rather more often and her push bike rather less often."Bradley WigginsCyclingCyclingFitnessRoad safetyHelen Piddguardian.co.uk © 2012 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved. | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds

05 ноября 2012, 17:10

"РЖД" выкупила 75% акций "дочки" Peugeot Citroen

"РЖД" выкупила 75%-й пакет акций логистической компании Gefco, которая принадлежит французскому автоконцерну PSA Peugeot Citroen.Как сообщается в пресс-релизе Peugeot Citroen, сделка завершится до конца года, а согласование покупки с антимонопольными органами намечено после подписания договора. Peugeot Citroen объявила о продаже своей дочерней транспортной компании "Российским железным дорогам" еще в середине сентября. Однако среди претендентов на приобретение акций оказались несколько инвестиционных фондов, компания Platinum Equity и Gores Group. Известно, что предварительно "РЖД" заплатит за пакет акций 800 млн евро. Сумма дополнительных дивидендов составит 100 млн евро.Gefco занимается перевозкой комплектующих и готовых автомобилей PSA Peugeot Citroеn по пятилетнему контракту. Основным рынком является Западная Европа (75% выручки). Вторым по величине клиентом компании является General Motors (7% PSA). В июле General Motors подписала с Gefco договор на перевозку автомобилей и компонентов из США в Европу, включая Россию. Выручка Gefco в 2011 г. составила 3,8 млрд евро, операционная прибыль - 223 млн евро.

05 ноября 2012, 16:53

РЖД выкупили у Peugeot Citroen акции Gefco

Открытое акционерное общество «Российские железные дороги» (РЖД) подписало в понедельник контракт на покупку 75% акций логистической компании Gefco у французского автомобильного концерна PSA Peugeot Citroen, передает сайт РИА Новости. Завершить сделку планируется до конца года после выплаты всей суммы контракта. После подписания договора начнется согласование сделки в антимонопольных службах тех стран, где наиболее широко представлен бизнес РЖД и Gefco. Церемония подписания состоялась в Париже в штаб-квартире Peugeot. Подписи под документом поставили президент РЖД Владимир Якунин и глава PSA Peugeot Citroen Филипп Варен. В середине сентября появилась первая информация, что французский концерн, испытывающий в последнее время серьезные финансовые трудности, договорился о продаже РЖД своей транспортной «дочки». Среди других претендентов на акции назывались несколько инвестфондов, а также компании Platinum Equity и Gores Group. Ожидается, РЖД заплатит за пакет акций 800 млн евро. Еще 100 млн евро будут выделены в качестве дополнительных дивидендов. В Gefco трудится 9,4 тысячи человек, 4,5 тысячи из них работают во Франции. Компания имеет более 300 представительств в 32 странах мира. Ее крупнейшим клиентом является Peugeot Citroen, за которой следует General Motors. По итогам прошлого года выручка компании выросла на 13% до 3,78 млрд евро. Планируется, что после сделки по продаже акций компания не поменяет своего юридического лица и останется во Франции. Кроме того, свой пост должен сохранить действующий глава логистической компании Люк Надаль (Luc Nadal).

03 ноября 2012, 05:41

Nationalizing Companies Is Part Of The French DNA

Wolf Richter   www.testosteronepit.com   www.amazon.com/author/wolfrichter In France, socialism isn’t a political movement that swept the elections this year, and it isn’t an economic philosophy that moved once again to the forefront, but it’s part of the DNA of much of the population. And it produces classic knee-jerk reactions to the current economic morass—such as the nationalization of tottering automaker Peugeot. French automakers are in a death spiral, within a market that is morose. In October, auto sales fell 7.8% from prior year, and a breath-taking 15.8% once the two extra selling days this October (23 instead 21) are taken into account. Year to date, sales are down 13.3%. PSA Peugeot Citroën dropped 5% for the month and 17.2% for the year. Its captive finance subsidiary, Banque PSA Finance, was bailed out by the taxpayer last week to the tune of €5 to €7 billion. More bailouts are on the horizon. Layoffs loom, but political resistance is enormous, and it might be impossible to shrink PSA’s capacity down to reality. Renault crashed. October sales were down a catastrophic 26.4%, for a decline of 20.5% so far this year. All hopes rest on the arrival of its miracle car, the new Clio 4, which would not only stimulate Renault’s sales but goose the entire market. Good luck. In a few days, the company will start discussions with unions on how to improve its “competitiveness”—and everyone knows what that means for the hapless workers. The killer? In October, the French brands together plunged 15.2% ... but foreign brands rose 2.5%. For the year, the market is down 13.3%, a horrid figure, but PSA is down 17.2% and Renault 20.5%. They’re getting killed at home! You can blame the decomposing market on the government or on the debt crisis or on the weather, but if your market share is plummeting, you can only blame yourself—and if you don’t fix the problem, you become irrelevant. Hence the ingenious idea to poll the French on what they thought about nationalizing Peugeot. Not bailing it out. Not resurrecting it from a pre-packaged bankruptcy, as the US had done with GM. But nationalizing it upfront. It would turn the manufacturer into a political entity. Layoffs would become impossible. As would success. And the French DNA spoke: Overall, 56.7% were either for nationalizing it or didn’t care (32.2% and 24.5%). Only 43.3% were against it. Among workers, 64.8% were either for it or didn’t care (51% in favor, 13.8% shrugging it off). Even among managers and professionals, 33.7% were for it, though 58% opposed it, and only 8.2% didn’t know. While the government is grappling with the crisis that has washed over France [Desperate French Government Threatens To “Requisition” Vacant Buildings], almost a third of the population sees nationalization as a solution, and a quarter of the population doesn’t mind. If it weren’t for EU rules that pried open markets, carved up national monopolies, and introduced competition, many of the largest French corporations would still be owned by the state. Yet, lots of vestiges remain—in a country where the central government’s big footprint amounts to 56.3% of GDP (2013 budget). Air France, for example, was “privatized,” but even after its merger with KLM, the government still owns 18.6% of the group. Renault was privatized in 1996. Crédit Lyonnais, once the largest bank in France, was majority owned by the state when it almost went bankrupt in 1993; it was acquired by Crédit Agricole in 2003. EDF is still a state-owned mega utility that owns, among other things, all of France’s 58 active nuclear reactors. Any suggestion by intrepid politicians of taking some baby steps towards privatizing it can trigger strikes, and sometimes a few cables mysteriously get cut. You don’t joke about privatizing EDF. France Telecom was privatized in January 1998 under Socialist Prime Minister Lionel Jospin. Resistance was huge, and only a Socialist could overcome it. But then came the stock offering. I was living in France at the time. It was one heck of a hoopla. Shares were hyped for months. Everybody wanted a piece of the pie. It was the dot-com bubble, even in France. The stock soared. In March 2000, it hit €219 a share, and people felt rich and smart. It now trades for around €11. Employee suicides have become a problem. And the government still owns 27% of it ... and names the CEO. Because it’s in the French DNA. But, good grief, I shouldn’t nag. In my beloved California, politicians tax like the French, Chriss Street writes, though the state, like France, is already suffering from wealth and business flight. And now Governor Brown is threatening with a doomsday scenario to raise taxes again. Read.... California’s Brilliant Political Shake-Down Move. And here is my edgy, seat-belt mandatory novel about car salesmen, their toxic language, their managers, their shenanigans, and their efforts to stay alive in their nasty world. Read the first few chapters of TESTOSTERONE PIT for free on Amazon.

25 октября 2012, 02:44

Shooting From The Hip And Hitting Consumers: Protectionism In France

Wolf Richter   www.testosteronepit.com   www.amazon.com/author/wolfrichter That France’s economy is hurting is an understatement. Today’s manufacturing index tested depths not seen since 2009 during the trough of the financial crisis. Orders plunged and employment was morose. The service sector index dove to the lowest level since January 2009. Cited reasons: “unfavorable business climate and lack of visibility.” It confirmed yesterday’s Insee business climate index, which, at the lowest level since mid-2009, was mired in pessimism. So the government deployed its big gun: Industry Minister Arnaud Montebourg. He’d turn around the economy by revitalizing industry; and he has been on the forefront with his vision. In July, he announced that the government would ask the European Commission to “monitor” the free-trade agreement between the EU and South Korea. He pointed at the “very substantial increase in imports of Korean vehicles” during a time when vehicle sales in France were cascading downhill. He wanted the EU to stick additional taxes on Korean cars. In August, the French government submitted the formal request to the European Commission. At the Paris auto show in early October, Montebourg attacked the Koreans for the “social hardness” hiding “behind the windows of every Hyundai and Kia” and accused them of “social dumping” [Worse than the Infamous Lehman September: France’s Private Sector Gets Kicked off a Cliff]. But on Monday, he got slapped in the face. “He is protectionist,” said European Trade Commissioner Karel De Gucht and then pointed out the big conundrum: France has more of the world’s 500 largest corporations than any other EU member state, but they were more successful outside France than in France. How to re-industrialize France, given its 35-hour workweek and its salary costs, that’s the big question, Gucht said, but he didn’t think that Montebourg was “really interested in the long-term.” It was part of Gucht’s smack-down of the French request to “monitor” Korean imports. And Montebourg’s idea of subsidizing European industries? “The absence of national subsidies is one of the keys of the European market,” Gucht explained, in case Montebourg had missed it in school. And then he mentioned something else the Industry Minister might have missed: The EU has a €300 billion trade surplus with the rest of the world—and France has a trade surplus with Korea. In fact, of the nearly 400,000 new Hyundai and Kia vehicles registered in the EU during the first half of 2012, more than half were manufactured in the Czech Republic and Slovakia—both EU members—and in Turkey. Then there is GM, partner of teetering PSA Peugeot Citroën; most of its 103,000 Chevrolet’s sold in the EU were manufactured in Korea. Renault imported over 10,000 4x4 Koleos and Latitudes from its Korean subsidiary. Montebourg had opened his mouth and had inserted his foot [He should have read my hard-edged but funny book on the car business, TESTOSTERONE PIT, the novel; enjoy the first few chapters for free on Amazon]. He had better luck posing for Parisien Magazine, dressed in a €49 sailor’s jersey by Armor-Lux, holding up a €230 Moulinex blender, and displaying a Michel Herbelin watch that retails for €790 ($1,000+). Not exactly a watch that the 24% of the young people who don’t have jobs can afford. Behind him was the French flag. All of it was “Made in France.” His priority was “le Made in France,” he said. “There’s a choice that’s more important than any other, and that is to preserve France’s industrial base.” He suggested a variety of remedies, such as installing “Made-in-France” aisles in supermarkets to better guide consumers. He called for the rebalancing of “unbalanced relationships” between industrial nations to “defend French and European industries.” The results of worldwide free trade, as “proposed by the WTO,” were a “disaster,” he said—not remembering the EU’s €300 billion trade surplus. Consumer groups lambasted him—not everyone can afford a €790 watch. But on Saturday, the day after the article had appeared in the Parisien, sales of the jerseys at the company’s 50 stores jumped by 60% - 65%, compared to Saturday a week earlier, said Armor-Lux CEO Jean-Guy Le Floch. Visitors to its website shot from an average of 2,000 per day to 7,000. And the fancy watch? Internet traffic to the company’s site soared ten-fold the day the article appeared. Excellent promo. But naïve. Only 40% of the products Armor-Lux sells are (at least partially) made in France. The rest is made elsewhere. And the watch? According to Atlantico, the quartz movement, dial, hands, and glass came from Switzerland. The buttons and enclosure were not French either. While the bracelet might have come from a French supplier, it would have been made in Portugal, Mauritius, and Asia. But the watch was assembled in France and qualified for the “Made in France” label. So, Montebourg’s vision is unlikely to revitalize the French economy, beyond the benefits of the promo. The US government over the last five years squandered $7.6 trillion on Keynesian demand-side stimulus to resuscitate demographically shrinking demand as 80 million baby-boomers moved out of their peak spending years. But with only 23 million born between 1995 and 2012, “Generation Z” is too small for demand-side stimulus to revive the economy. So there are consequences, writes Chriss Street. Read.... Supply-Side Economics Is Coming Back.

Выбор редакции
24 октября 2012, 17:13

Peugeot Citroen получит поддержку от французских властей

Власти Франции и банки-партнеры Banque PSA Finance Group собираются выделить автомобильному концерну государственные гарантии в объеме до 7 млрд евро в течение трех лет, говорится на официальном сайте компании. Таким образом, французское правительство осуществит самую масштабную интервенцию в отрасль.

Выбор редакции
22 октября 2012, 10:39

Дайджест иностранной прессы за 22 октября

Lloyds Banking Group. Новый взгляд на бонусы - FTРуководство британского банковского гиганта Lloyds Banking Group решило пойти навстречу требованиям ограничить бонусы менеджменту. Сейчас, по данным источников издания, в банке пересматривают программу вознаграждений, ее срок может быть увеличен до 10 лет. Таким образом, кредитная организация, на 40% принадлежащая государству, хочет снизить давление со стороны политиков и акционеров, обвиняющих менеджмент Lloyds в жажде наживы в трудные для страны времена.По мнению экспертов, увеличение сроков выплат заставит руководство банка больше заботиться о долгосрочных интересах акционеров. Lloyds Banking Group не единственная кредитная организация, столкнувшаяся с подобными проблемами. Ранее конфликты менеджеров и акционеров также случались на собраниях акционеров Citigroup, Credit Suisse и Barclays. Prospect Global Resources заключила мегасделку с КНР – WSJ Американская калийная компания Prospect Global Resources заключила крупный контракт с китайской Sichuan Chemical Industry Holding Co. В рамках договоренности американцы поставят в Поднебесную объем калия, в два раза превышающий уровень всего экспорта этого сырья из США за 2011 г. Сумма сделки составила $2 млрд. Китайцы закупят 500 тыс. метрических тонн калия в течение 10 лет начиная с конца 2015 г. В прошлом году экспорт калия из США составил 215 метрических тонны. Формально о сделке компании сообщат позднее в понедельник. Американцы могут столкнуться с рядом трудностей при выполнении условий контракта. Ведь для столь масштабных поставок им придется увеличить добычу на месторождении Холбрук (штат Аризона). А эта задача потребует соответствующих разрешений от правительства и сотен долларов инвестиций. Рынок труда в КНР продолжает "нагреваться" - WSJ Ситуация на рынке труда в Китае продолжает ужесточаться, что приводит к удорожанию стоимости труда в стране и подрывает потенциал компаний-экспортеров. По данным бирж труда ста городов Китая, спрос на рабочую силу в стране сейчас превышает предложение. Так, соотношение вакансий к соискателям в III квартале составило 1,05 раза. По сравнению со II кварталом показатель не изменился. Зарплаты населения в минувшем квартале также продолжили расти, что отразилось в увеличении располагаемого дохода населения. Так, в III квартале показатель увеличился на 12,5% по сравнению с аналогичным периодом прошлого года.Рост зарплат, неблагоприятно сказывающийся на экспортно ориентированном бизнесе, имеет и свои положительные стороны. Увеличение доходов населения увеличивает и внутренний спрос (несмотря на традиционную склонность китайцев к накоплению), постепенно меняя тем самым структуру национальной экономики. Ситуация с безработицей во Франции в ближайшие месяцы не улучшится – Le Monde Тем временем во Франции ситуация на рынке труда далека от стабильности. По словам министра труда страны Мишеля Сапена, данные по безработице будут "тревожными" еще в течение нескольких месяцев, так как многие компании планируют сокращать штат в связи с кризисом. "Мы достигли исключительно тревожного уровня, с ситуацией надо бороться", - сказал он. Уровень безработицы во Франции в сентябре составил 9,7%, включая заморские территории -10%. В конце августа страна достигла символической отметки в 3 млн безработных. По прогнозам Информационного центра экономической конъюнктуры, в 2013 г. уровень безработицы в стране возрастет до рекордно высоких 11%. Комментируя ситуацию, Сапен обвинил в росте числа безработных политиков. По его словам, меры по улучшению ситуации на рынке труда были приняты слишком поздно из-за президентской гонки.GM и Peugeot вскоре объединят закупки – Reuters Сотрудничество между американской General Motors и французским автомобилестроительным концерном PSA Peugeot Citroen не стоит на месте. По словам гендиректора GM Дэна Акерсона, компании вскоре объявят о начале совместных покупок. Компании еще зимой подписали масштабное соглашение о сотрудничестве. GM приобрела 7% акций французского автопроизводителя. PSA и GM, по условиям соглашения, должны были не только совместно закупать комплектующие, но и собирать автомобили на общей платформе. Однако в прессе стали появляться сообщения, что американцы не спешат делиться с французами технологиями и собирать автомобили на мощностях Opel в Германии. Кроме того, простаивают планы компаний по организации производства в Бразилии. Руководство американского автоконцерна объясняет это тем, что сейчас внимание альянса сосредоточено на Европе.

01 октября 2012, 13:39

Безработица в еврозоне достигла рекордных 11,4%

Безработица в еврозоне в августе 2012 г. составила 11,4%. Этот уровень является рекордным с 1995 г. и совпадет с медианным значением прогнозов экономистов, опрошенных Bloomberg.Безработица среди молодежи Европы Уровень безработицы достиг рекордных значений на фоне развития долгового кризиса в регионе, что привело к сокращению рабочих мест в компаниях. Европейские компании сейчас откладывают принятие инвестиционных решений и не нанимают новых сотрудников, опасаясь надвигающейся рецессии, мер жесткой бюджетной экономии и замедления роста мировой экономики. Такие экономические перспективы привели к тому, что французские и немецкие компании, включая Deutsche Bank AG, PSA Peugeot Citroen and Air France-KLM Group, сокращают заработные платы."Рост в зоне евро недостаточен для создания достаточного количества рабочих мест, а уровень безработицы еще не достиг своего пика, - заявлял ранее экономист Standard Chartered Bank Томас Кастерг. - Тревожной тенденцией является то, что число безработных растет в таких странах, как Германия, которые ранее были достаточно защищены".Сегодняшний отчет показал, что в сентябре количество безработных составило 18,2 млн, что на 34 тыс. больше, чем в августе. "Конца ужаса нет и в помине, - сказал старший экономист NG Group в Брюсселе Карстен Бржеск. - Уровни безработицы по-прежнему растут и будут расти в дальнейшем. Это уже не только проблема периферийных стран, поскольку рынки труда в ключевых странах также слабеют".

20 августа 2012, 22:32

Guest Post: The Demise Of The Car

From PeakProsperity contributor author Gregor Macdonald The Demise of the Car India’s recent series of power blackouts, in which 600 million people lost electricity for several days, reminds us of the torrid pace at which populations in the developing world have moved onto the powergrid. Unfortunately, this great transition has been so rapid that infrastructure has mostly been unable to meet demand. India itself has failed to meets its own power capacity addition targets every year since 1951. This has left roughly one quarter of the country’s population without any (legal) access to electricity. That’s 300 million people out of a population of 1.2 billion. Indeed, it is the daily attempt of the underserved to access power that may have led to India’s recent grid crash. But the story of India’s inadequate infrastructure is only one part of the difficult, global transition away from liquid fossil fuels. Over the past decade, the majority of new energy demand has been met not through global oil, but through growth in electrical power. Frankly, this should be no surprise. After all, global production of oil started to flatten more than seven years ago, in 2005. And the developing world, which garners headlines for its increased demand for oil, is running mainly on coal-fired electrical power. There is no question that the non-OECD countries are leading the way as liquid-based transport – automobiles and airlines – have entered longterm decline. Why, therefore, do policy makers in both the developing and developed world continue to invest in automobile infrastructure? Interestingly, instead of investing in the powergrid, India embarked earlier last decade on a massive highway project, known as the Great Quadrilateral. This created a kind of grand, national circular whose “four and six-lane, 3,625 miles run through 13 states and India's four largest cities: New Delhi, Calcutta, Chennai (formerly Madras), and Mumbai (formerly Bombay),” according to a 2005 New York Times article. The piece continues, describing the ongoing, 15-year effort (to be completed this year) as “the most ambitious infrastructure project since independence in 1947 and the British building of the subcontinent's railway network the century before.” Alas, the irony is rich. India conceived of this highway project as oil prices hit deep lows at the end of the past millennium. Now that the highway network is constructed and oil prices have more than quadrupled, it is massive investment in the powergrid that hundreds of millions of Indians so desperately need instead—not road building. Sunk-Cost Decision Making and the Overfocus on Autos But it’s not just India that has incorrectly invested in automobile transport. The other giant of Asia, China, has also placed large resources into auto-highway infrastructure. It appears that at least a decade ago, the developing world made the same assumption about future oil prices as was made in Western countries. The now infamous 1999 Economist cover, Drowning in Oil, reflected the pervasive, status-quo view that the global adoption of the car could continue indefinitely. A decade later, however, we find that after oil’s extraordinary price revolution, the global automobile industry is now starved for growth. In the same way that Western economies have shed enormous tranches of oil demand so that emerging markets could increase their oil consumption, automobile transport is now either stagnating or in outright decline outside of China. You cannot have a growing automobile industry in the United States when American oil demand is down over 12% since 2005. And you cannot have a growing auto industry in Europe when EU oil demand has shed over a million and half barrels a day – another 10% decline. Europe’s declining oil demand is particularly significant, given that coming into the last decade, the EU was already a highly efficient user of oil. To have taken off even more demand in the past 5 years shows just how tough high oil prices have become in Europe. The result is nothing less than a devastation of Europe’s auto industry, which has already lost 800,000 jobs and looks ready to lose another 500,000 more according to recent forecasts, as reported by Bloomberg. Meanwhile, here is Time Magazine’s big thematic piece from just last month: Europe’s Debt Crisis Seems Bad? Look at Its Car Industry Just how bad are things in motoring Europe? On Wednesday Peugeot reported it lost over $993 million in the first half of 2012 alone. The same day, American maker Ford announced second quarter net income of just over $1 billion world-wide — but a $404 million loss in Europe, where the company now expects total losses to exceed $1 billion by year’s end. Meanwhile, General Motors Europe affiliate Opel-Vauxhall has lost a whopping $14 billion since the start of the century, and is almost certainly facing the same sort of layoffs and plant closures Peugeot has announced.....What’s more, the sector is almost certain to see more bad news on the revenue front. According to the Brussels-based European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (EAMA), new car registration declined by nearly 7% in the first half of the year. All told, projected total sales of 12.4 million cars in 2012 would represent a nearly 20% slide in volume over 2007, when the current string of annual shrinkage began. Forecasts that once saw activity improving by 2013 now push returning health in the sector beyond the recessionary horizon now stretching far off into the European distance....That dismal outlook on the demand side is compounded by concerns over excess supply. Industry analysts say auto manufacturers in Europe maintain around 30% more production capacity than the market will bear. Captured Governments Like other dying industries of the past century, the global auto industry has entered decline after having fully embedded itself in the political complex. Regardless of political leaning, federal governments from Europe, to Japan, to the United States have and will continue to do everything possible to save the industry. US automakers received their first bailout in late 2008 from the Bush Administration. The bailouts continued in the Obama Administration. (Both presidencies that could hardly be more dissimilar, but were united in their assumption of an enduring future for cars). For Republicans -- a party that claims to adhere to free-market principles -- releasing a first payment of over $13 billion to the industry was a classic foxhole-conversion in the midst of the financial crisis. For Democrats -- a party that claims to be concerned with climate change, the environment, and public transport -- the enormous financial support to the industry was only one part of the current administration’s continued embrace of the auto-highway complex. More broadly, however, global governments are captured by sunk-cost decision making as the past 60-70 years of highway infrastructure investment is now a legacy just too painful to leave behind. Interestingly, whether citizens and governments want to face this reality or not, features of the oil economy are already going away as infrastructure is increasingly stranded. Moreover, there are cultural shifts now coming into play as young people are no longer buying cars – in the first instance because they can’t afford them, and in the second instance because it’s increasingly no longer necessary to own a car to be part of one’s group. See this piece from Atlantic Cities: Young People Aren't Buying Cars Because They're Buying Smart Phones Instead Youth culture was once car culture. Teens cruised their Thunderbirds to the local drive-in, Springsteen fantasized about racing down Thunder Road, and Ferris Bueller staged a jailbreak from the 'burbs in a red Ferrari. Cars were Friday night. Cars were Hollywood. Yet these days, they can't even compete with an iPhone - or so car makers, and the people who analyze them for a living, seem to fear. As Bloomberg reported this morning, many in the auto industry "are concerned that financially pressed young people who connect online instead of in person could hold down peak demand by 2 million units each year." In other words, Generation Y may be happy to give up their wheels as long as they have the web. And in the long term, that could mean Americans will buy just 15 million cars and trucks each year, instead of around 17 million. If future car sales in the US will be limited by the loss of 2 million purchases just from young people alone, then the US can hardly expect to return to even 15 million car and truck sales per year. US sales have only recovered to 14 million. (And that looks very much like the peak for the reflationary 2009-2012 period)  Indeed, the migration from suburbs back to the cities, the resurrection of rail, and the fact that oil will never be cheap again puts economies – and culture – on a newly defined path to other forms of transport and other ways of working. Cars and the Environment Recently, the main focus of the global climate change and environment communities has centered on coal-fired power generation. But it's the transport sector that is ripe for changing, given that declining gasoline consumption is already trending favorably in the same direction. Recent data from EIA Washington shows, unsurprisingly, that US emissions from all energy consumption has fallen back to levels seen twenty years ago. As CO2 emissions from total US energy demand fell back to levels in the early 1990s, US oil demand has also fallen to levels last seen in that same time period. And thus the official Washington posture towards US oil consumption remains quite conflicted. Washington wants less dependency on foreign oil, lower CO2 emissions, and cheaper gasoline. On the other hand, Washington refuses to meaningfully shift its Transport budget from highways to public transportation. Ultimately, global governments will be left standing in the way of a process that’s now gaining momentum and is unlikely to be reversed. Obsolete Infrastructure For half a century, the auto-highway complex has been a conduit for political power, and myriad players have self-interested reasons to maintain the system. However, the contraction of motorized transport in the West – a natural outcome of high oil prices and debt saturation – will gain further strength as various states (or countries) simply run out of money to build new roads. As discussed in California: Bellwether for the Rest of America, the highway-rich landscape of the Golden State (for example) sucks up 90% of its transport budget. But California roads are now among the worst in the nation, costing drivers some of the highest on-road expenses merely as a result of poor surface conditions. To the extent that states can no longer maintain roads to an adequate standard, infrastructure will become stranded. We see the same related effects in US airport infrastructure as many regional airports have either seen a huge reduction in traffic or have shut down completely. (The US Postal Service and its current financial difficulties also reflect the emerging trend, as the USPS is obligated to deliver mail to remote locations even as postal revenues drop on the higher cost of – you guessed it – energy and gasoline.) Eventually, drivers will be asked to pay higher tolls and other fees to maintain roads, as public funds, in a time of flat economic growth, are diverted to other services. This will then compound the transition as the costs of maintaining and running a car go even higher. Every car driver is now subsidized. As the subsidy goes away, more drivers will be forced off the road. Yes, it is painful for both politicians and the public to acknowledge that much of our infrastructure is no longer needed and cannot be redeployed. The public is only now becoming aware that the energy costs of road-building and road-maintenance have gone through the same price revolution as the price of oil. Governments at all levels find that simply keeping the existing roads operable – and not even in particularly good repair – requires enormous annul sums of capital. And, the per-mile construction cost of new roads is prohibitive. When the national highway system was originally constructed, of course, oil prices were at an inflation-adjusted level of around $12-$14 per barrel. That oil prices now trade at 8 times those levels has completely changed the economic return on road building. Unsurprisingly, the demand for asphalt has crashed back to levels last seen in the early 1980s.  US Product Supplied of Asphalt and Road Oil End of the Grand Public Subsidy of Roads The United States has only just begun a long reduction of public spending on roads and highways. The current administration has shifted only a few percentage points of the transport budget from the auto-highway sector to public transport -- but that shift will grow larger as the years progress. And while it took many decades for such a shift to develop in the US, the same process will be more rapid in the developing world. In other words, the advance, peak, and decline of motorized transport in China and India will be much more rapid as these nations and their giant populations arrive more quickly to the limits of oil based transport. Indeed, there is already evidence in the data that oil adoption rates have slowed considerably as the majority of new energy demand comes online to the powergrid. In Part II: Rise of the Global Powergrid, we further examine the poor investment prospects of roadbuilding as economies enter the next leg of energy transition. Interestingly, one of the implications of this shift is that oil will be set free to advance to much higher price levels. A paradigmatic shift in global energy usage is underway that has finally become more well-defined, and more visible. Oil is no longer the new great game; grid power, with its inherent flexibility, is now emerging. Click here to access Part II of this report (free executive summary; paid enrollment required for full access).

29 января 2013, 19:00

Peugeot Citroen объявила о создании машины, которая будет ездить на воздухе

Источник перевод для mixednews – CowancheeФранцузский автомобильный гигант Peugeot Citroen считает, что сможет выпустить на дороги машины, использующие в качестве топлива воздух, уже к 2016 году.Учёные концерна заявляют, что такие машины позволят снизить счета за топливо для среднего потребителя на 45 процентов. А во время передвижения по городу цена будет снижаться на все 80 процентов, поскольку машина будет питаться воздухом четыре пятых всего времени.Технология Hybrid Air позволяет автомобилю размером с Citroën C3 или Peugeot 208 выбрасывать всего лишь 69 граммов СО2 на километр путиСнижая издержки: взгляд внутрь двигателя Hybrid Air, который позволяет на 45 процентов уменьшить расходы на топливоСистема использует обычный двигатель внутреннего сгорания, специальную гидравлику и адаптированную коробку передач совместно с цилиндрами, работающими на сжатом воздухе, которые запасают и отдают энергию. Это позволяет автомобилю ездить на бензине или воздухе, или их комбинации.Воздушное питание будет использоваться только в городах, автоматически включаться при скоростях ниже 70 километров в час и использоваться 60-80 процентов времени перемещений по городу. К 2020 году по прогнозам компании подобная технология будет позволять автомобилям проезжать в среднем 190 километров на 4.5 литрах бензина.Система компрессии воздуха позволяет использовать всю энергию, которая обычно теряется во время торможения и остановки машины. Двигатель и насос находятся внутри капота и питаются из танка со сжатым воздухом под днищем машины, идущим параллельно с выхлопной системой.Новая революционная технология Hybrid Air – первая, в которой комбинируются топливо и сжатый воздух – это прорыв в сфере гибридных автомобилей, поскольку в ней больше не требуются дорогие батареи.Система питания воздухом будет автоматически включаться на скоростях ниже 70 километров в час и работать до 80 процентов времени при поездках по городуМашины, оснащённые технологией Hybrid Air, будут стоить приблизительно на тысячу фунтов дешевле существующих моделей гибридных автомобилей.Новая система питания может быть установлена на любой семейный автомобиль без изменения внешней формы и размера или уменьшения внутреннего пространства. Снаружи воздушно-топливная машина будет выглядеть идентичной обычной.Peugeot 208 – одна из моделей, которая может получить технологию воздушного питания уже в самом ближайшем будущемАвтомобилисты никогда не столкнутся с проблемой закончившегося сжатого воздуха поздней ночью на безлюдной сельской дороге, поскольку машины будут оснащаться сложной системой искусственного контроля, которая будет следить за тем, чтобы запасы воздуха пополнялись автоматически.Воздух будет сжиматься и выпускаться, следуя своему собственному ритму по мере того, как автомобиль будет ускоряться или замедляться.Помимо новой революционной системы питания, Peugeot также планирует внедрить использование новых материалов – таких как легковесные стали и алюминиевые композиты – в своих более крупных автомобилях вроде Peugeot 508 и Citroen C5, что позволит им снизить до 20 процентов расходов на топливо.Компания также планирует внедрить в производство автомобилей другие инновации, например электрический усилитель руля вместо гидравлического, и новые шины, которые позволяют уменьшить трение.Ссылка