16 ноября, 05:02

Secretary Lew Sends Letter to 115th Congress on Puerto Rico

January 17, 2017   The Honorable Mitch McConnell Majority Leader United States Senate Washington, DC  20510   Dear Mr. Leader:  As the 115th Congress begins, we write to underscore the need for additional legislation early in this session to address the economic and fiscal crisis in Puerto Rico.  The Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic Stability Act (PROMESA) provided Puerto Rico with important fiscal oversight and debt restructuring tools, and now the Oversight Board and Puerto Rico’s new Governor must take the critical next steps required by this federal legislation.  Working with the new Governor, the Oversight Board now must certify a Fiscal Plan and set a path to comprehensively restructure the debt before the expiration of PROMESA’s automatic stay.   Treasury has continued to provide both the Oversight Board and the new Governor with technical assistance as requested, and will remain able to do so after the transition to the next Administration.   Despite the important progress achieved to date with bipartisan support, the work is not done.  As Puerto Rico moves forward on these next steps, Congress must enact measures recommended by both Republicans and Democrats that fix Puerto Rico’s inequitable health care financing structure and promote sustained economic growth.  Without congressional action to address these issues, Puerto Rico’s return to growth and opportunity will be a significant challenge.   Most urgently, Congress should address Puerto Rico’s “Medicaid cliff” funding issue before April as recommended last month by the Congressional Task Force on Economic Growth in Puerto Rico.  Failure to do so would jeopardize health care for up to 900,000 poor U.S. citizens living in Puerto Rico. CONGRESSIONAL TASK FORCE REPORT On December 20, the Congressional Task Force on Economic Growth in Puerto Rico, established by PROMESA, released its Final Report.  The bipartisan report provides an overview of the economic challenges facing Puerto Rico and a series of potential solutions that, if crafted well and enacted quickly, are necessary for a sustainable economic recovery.  It is important that Congress not only turn ideas into action, but in doing so, address Puerto Rico’s significant remaining economic and social challenges in meaningful ways to help put Puerto Rico on a path of sustained economic growth. As the report acknowledges, Puerto Rico faces an imminent shortfall in health care funding that could leave up to 900,000 Americans without coverage if Congress does not act in the near future.  Puerto Rico’s already vulnerable health care system is stretched further by a Zika outbreak that, as of January 4, has resulted in over 34,000 cases, and will affect numerous women, children, and families for years to come.  It is time to provide a long-term solution to Puerto Rico’s historically inadequate federal Medicaid financing, which threatens the viability of Puerto Rico’s Medicaid program and worsens Puerto Rico’s fiscal crisis.  If Congress fails to craft a long-term solution, immediate action is still needed to ensure full fiscal year 2018 financing to avoid the “Medicaid cliff” identified in the report.  Without action before April, Puerto Rico’s ability to execute contracts for Fiscal Year 2018 with its managed care organizations will be threatened, thereby putting at risk beginning July 1, 2017 the health care of up to 900,000 poor U.S. citizens living in Puerto Rico. Additionally, Puerto Rico continues to suffer from double digit unemployment and a labor force participation rate that is only two-thirds that of the U.S. average.  A federally-financed, locally-administered Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) in Puerto Rico would create incentives for work and increase participation in the formal economy – just as it has done for decades in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.  Instead of recommending the immediate enactment of an EITC, the Task Force only suggested Congress further explore the proposal.  We strongly encourage Congress to enact this powerful economic driver to bolster Puerto Rico’s future.  Our analysis of the situation over the last several years demonstrates that an EITC would be the most effective and powerful tool to address these structural challenges to economic growth. Beyond those two major issues, the Task Force recommended a number of other policies that we agree should be enacted.  First, we appreciate the bipartisan recommendation for Congress to continue authorizing Treasury to provide technical assistance to Puerto Rico.  Furthermore, while we recommend a different approach to expand the Child Tax Credit to more Puerto Rican families, one that is locally administered, we welcome the Task Force recommendation for Congress to expand the Child Tax Credit in Puerto Rico, to the extent it is well-designed and supplements an EITC program for Puerto Rico.  We support the Task Force’s acknowledgment of the importance of data in benchmarking economic growth and fiscal developments in Puerto Rico and the recommendations to improve data quality and timeliness.  Finally, we are pleased with the recommendations on small business incentives, and the need to include Puerto Rico in funding and training programs that address Puerto Rico’s differential treatment in some Federal programs.  It is time for Congress to move quickly to put these recommendations into law. Last summer, Republicans and Democrats in Congress took decisive action in PROMESA to help improve Puerto Rico’s fiscal position by establishing an independent oversight board and providing it with comprehensive debt restructuring tools.  As you know, these tools were provided to Puerto Rico as an alternative to a federal bailout and provide Puerto Rico’s government and the Oversight Board with comprehensive authorities to address the debt crisis. Members of Congress now must work together quickly to enact well-crafted legislation to encourage growth and opportunity for our fellow citizens in Puerto Rico. The Treasury Department and the Department of Health and Human Services stand committed to working with you to achieving those goals throughout the remainder of the transition to the next Administration.                                                                    Sincerely,     Jacob J. Lew                                       Sylvia M. Burwell Secretary                                             Secretary Department of the Treasury                Department of Health and Human Services   Identical letter sent to:             The Honorable Charles E. Schumer             The Honorable Paul D. Ryan             The Honorable Nancy Pelosi​​​

16 ноября, 05:02

Treasury Secretary Lew's Exit Memo: Eight Years of Progress at Treasury and a Look to the Future of American Financial Prosperity

  WASHINGTON –U.S. Treasury Secretary Jacob J. Lew has authored a departure memorandum that recounts the progress and work of the U.S. Department of the Treasury over the last eight years. The memo then outlines Secretary Lew’s visions and goals for the future of the Treasury Department. The Secretary closes his departure memorandum with personal reflections on the importance of bipartisan cooperation, his optimism about America’s future, and his hope that future policymakers will take careful stock of the successes of this Administration as they consider the next steps forward.   Please see the memo attached. Treasury Exit Memo.pdf   The full text of the memo is below:         Department of the Treasury Exit Memo     Secretary Jacob J. Lew   Cabinet Exit Memo │January 5, 2017 Introduction   The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) is the executive agency responsible for promoting economic prosperity and ensuring the financial security of the United States.  This role encompasses a broad range of activities, such as advising the President on economic and financial issues, encouraging sustainable economic growth, and fostering improved governance in financial institutions.    Treasury’s mission was challenged like few times before in our nation’s history during the 2008 financial crisis.  As few of us can forget, signs of trouble first emerged in the housing market, which set off a cascade of shocks in 2007 and 2008, including the collapse of Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers, the freezing of credit markets, and the loss of trillions of dollars of wealth held by Americans in their homes, other assets, and businesses.  By the time President Obama took office, the United States was in the midst of the worst recession since the Great Depression.  The economy was shrinking at its fastest rate in 50 years and shedding more than 800,000 private-sector jobs per month.  Unemployment peaked at 10 percent in 2009, a level not seen in over 25 years.  The auto industry, an embodiment of American ingenuity and economic strength, was teetering on the edge of collapse; the deficit had hit a post-World War II high; and homes in neighborhoods across the United States faced foreclosure.    Though the financial crisis was perhaps the most pressing challenge the country faced in 2008, it was far from the only one.  Health care spending was on an unsustainable path, and millions of Americans lived in fear of facing a significant medical problem without insurance.  Middle-class and working family incomes had stagnated for much of the previous three decades.  Wealth disparities had grown to levels not seen since the 1920s.  And after two major wars in the Middle East and strained relationships in many parts of the world, the standing of the United States around the world was in need of significant repair.   We have come a long way as a country since 2008.  In the following pages, I will recount the Administration’s record of progress, with a specific focus on the role Treasury has played.  I will also articulate a vision for the future, and recommend steps to be taken in the coming years to make progress towards that vision.  Finally, I will end with some personal reflections.   Eight Years of Progress Economic Recovery Over the eight years since President Obama took office amidst the worst financial crisis of our lifetimes, we have seen a sustained economic recovery and a significant decline in the federal budget deficit.  We have cut the unemployment rate in half.  Our economy is more than 10 percent larger than its pre-recession peak.  U.S. businesses have added a total of 15.6 million jobs since private-sector job growth turned positive in early 2010.  Household incomes are rising, with 2015 seeing the fastest one-year growth since the Census Bureau began reporting on household income in 1967.  And our financial system is more stable, safe, and resilient, providing the critical underpinnings for broad-based, inclusive, long-term growth.  There are many factors that explain why the United States was able to bounce back so strongly from the recession.  First and foremost, I credit the resilience of the American people.  In addition, our policy response to the crisis was immediate and robust.  Led by my predecessor, Treasury Secretary Tim Geithner, policymakers put in place a wide-ranging strategy to restore economic growth, unlock credit, and return private capital to the financial system, thereby providing broad and vital support to the economy.  In February 2009, just 28 days after taking office, President Obama signed the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, which provided powerful fiscal stimulus that resulted in a less severe recession and stronger recovery than we otherwise would have seen. Investments made through our Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) provided stability to our financial system, and the Automotive Industry Financing Program helped prevent the collapse of the U.S. auto industry.  TARP also included housing initiatives that helped millions of struggling homeowners avoid foreclosure and lower their monthly payments.  These efforts bolstered the housing market and strengthened consumer finances more broadly.  And funds expended under TARP have been repaid in full, at a profit to taxpayers: in total, TARP invested $412 billion in financial institutions, large and small, during the financial crisis, and as of October 2016, these investments have returned $442 billion total cash back to taxpayers.    Critically, we also acted quickly to reform our financial system, working with Congress to enact the most far-reaching and comprehensive set of financial reforms since the Great Depression: the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.  Wall Street Reform transformed the way the financial system operates, and Treasury and the financial regulators have continued to work together since its passage to implement important reforms such as the Volcker Rule, risk retention, and resolution planning for large, complex financial institutions.  Because of these efforts, our system today is more stable, more transparent, and more consumer-focused.  Wall Street Reform also created the Financial Stability Oversight Council, a body that looks across the entire financial system to identify future threats to financial stability, and the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, a watchdog agency that is working hard to protect Americans from unfair, deceptive, or abusive financial practices.   The progress we have made on implementing reform has resulted in a safer, stronger, and more stable American financial system—one better positioned to support growth rather than work against it, more likely for consumers to get fair treatment in their interactions with financial institutions, and less prone to major failures of financial firms that can harm Americans on Main Street.  This progress must be sustained through continued follow-through, to avoid allowing a return to the recklessness and abuse that predated the worst global financial crisis of the last 80 years. A More Inclusive Economy  Beyond working to bring our economy back from the brink and to spur growth, we also undertook efforts to ensure that more citizens have a fair shot at sharing in our nation’s prosperity.  One of the Administration’s most significant achievements was the 2010 passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which extended health insurance to millions of Americans who had not previously had it, allowed young adults to stay on the health plans of their parents, barred insurance companies from denying coverage to people with preexisting conditions, and strengthened Medicare’s solvency.  Once the legislation was signed into law, Treasury implemented the law’s many new tax provisions.  Beyond the ACA, the Administration made a number of other key changes to the tax code that has made our tax system significantly fairer and more equitable.   Through programs like the Community Development Financial Institution Fund and myRA, and through extensive stakeholder engagement, Treasury has worked to promote access to the financial system for underserved and vulnerable populations.  We also successfully worked with Congress to pass bipartisan legislation to enable Puerto Rico to undergo a financial restructuring.  With continued commitment from policymakers in both the Commonwealth and the United States, this legislation will begin to put Puerto Rico on a fiscally sustainable path so that the 3.5 million Americans living there are not denied essential services and economic opportunity.  Leading in the Global Economy As we put into place the financial regulatory framework to prevent future crises in the United States, we also led the international response to the crisis.  We worked through the G-20 to help mobilize $5 trillion in fiscal stimulus, expand the resources of the international financial institutions by $1 trillion, and establish new institutions like the Financial Stability Board to prevent future crises.  Our approach elevated the G-20 as the premier platform for international economic cooperation and put in place a demonstrated mechanism for international response.   Following the financial crisis, many countries turned to policies of fiscal austerity, and Treasury vigorously advocated for a more balanced use of policy levers.  Over the next several years, Treasury engaged closely with our partners and through the G-20 and other multilateral bodies to emphasize the need for short-term growth and longer-term structural reforms to put the global economy on stronger footing.  Through our sustained engagement, we achieved a number of commitments from the G-20, including moving away from austerity-only fiscal policy and avoiding competitive currency devaluation.    We have used the G-20 to advance a global growth agenda, and the U.S.-China Strategic & Economic Dialogue to foster increased bilateral economic coordination and engagement with China.  Our sustained engagement with China has allowed us to exert positive pressure on Chinese exchange rate policy—whereas China once intervened in foreign exchange markets to drive down the value of its currency, in the past year, we have seen China intervene to prevent a rapid depreciation in the renminbi, which would have had negative consequences for the Chinese and global economies.  Treasury also worked to solidify U.S. leadership by modernizing the international economic architecture to ensure that it would remain relevant in a changing world.  In particular, securing the passage of International Monetary Fund (IMF) quota reform sustained U.S. leadership on the global stage.  Our leadership in the IMF in turn enabled us to work through it to promote policies that supported U.S. economic and security objectives, such as economic stability in Ukraine and Greece. Promoting a Safer World Treasury has also continued to use its unique financial capabilities to address a variety of national security and foreign policy threats posed by terrorists, criminals and other bad actors.  To address the changing threat posed by terrorism, including the threat posed by ISIL, we have worked with our international partners to deny terrorist financiers, fundraisers, and facilitators access to the international financial system with financial measures and targeted actions.    Treasury’s sanctions against Iran played a critical role in forcing Iran to the table to negotiate a deal that cuts off the country’s pathways to a nuclear weapon.  To hold Russia accountable for its aggression in eastern Ukraine and its occupation and attempted annexation of Crimea, we imposed sanctions that led to tighter financial conditions, weaker confidence, and lower investment in Russia.  We also secured new domestic and multilateral sanctions measures against North Korea in the face of Pyongyang’s continued provocative behavior with regard to nuclear weapons and weapons of mass destruction.  All the while, we have worked to craft a cohesive vision for the use of sanctions, in which sanctions are informed by financial intelligence, strategically designed, and implemented with our public and private partners to focus pressure on bad actors and create clear incentives to end malign behavior, while limiting collateral impact.   In the face of emerging cyber threats, we have also made significant progress in coordinating cybersecurity efforts among financial regulators and the private sector, both domestically and internationally, to improve the financial sector’s resilience and to establish best practices for industry and government.        A Vision for the Future     Looking across the next five years, 10 years, and beyond, I see four major goals that mirror the progress above.  Treasury should focus on: (i) continuing to promote more inclusive growth; (ii) moving from recovery to long-term fiscal health, (iii) remaining a leader in the global economy; and (iv) adjusting to the new threats in our world.  Each of these goals brings with it major challenges that we must collectively overcome in order to reach them.   Continuing to Promote Inclusive Growth Through the work of this Administration, the U.S. economy is growing again.  But working families have not shared fully in the benefits of economic growth over the past decade, and there is evidence that our society has undergone structural changes that have fundamentally altered the basic social compact.  It is crucial that the next Administration builds on the work already done to ensure that our prosperity is broadly shared.  There are many aspects to inclusive growth, including: investing in infrastructure to create good middle-class jobs and lay the foundation for future growth, giving workers a stronger voice, enacting progressive tax policies, making quality education more available and affordable, and investing in retraining programs for those who have lost their jobs.  One component most directly within Treasury’s purview is increasing access to the financial system; currently, many low-income and minority families are effectively locked out, operating without a credit card or banking history.  Finding creative ways to increase access to the financial system—such as fostering new technologies—will help individuals and families transfer money and make payments safely and affordably.  Financial inclusion allows people to manage life’s unexpected financial shocks, build long-term financial security, and take advantage of economic opportunities, like starting a business.  Our inclusive growth agenda should not, however, be limited to domestic issues: more than 2.6 billion people live in poverty around the world, and more than two billion people rely solely on cash transactions.  Moving underserved populations from a cash economy to formal banking not only increases their economic opportunity but also strengthens our ability to combat illicit and dangerous finance.   Moving from Recovery to Long Term Fiscal Health The actions of this Administration, and the economic recovery those actions helped support, have sharply reduced deficits since 2009.  However, both the Administration and the Congressional Budget Office project that, absent any changes in policy, the deficit will rise steadily over the next decade and beyond.  Thus, while the actions of this Administration have put the country on a solid fiscal footing today, we must also focus on the long-term fiscal health of our nation.   In recent years, the Administration has proposed a combination of smart investments and policy reforms that would keep the deficit under three percent of GDP for the next 10 years and nearly eliminate the fiscal gap over the next 25 years.  Tax reform to curb inefficient tax breaks for the wealthy, close loopholes, and reform the taxation of capital income and financial institutions would make the tax system fairer and lower the deficit.  Comprehensive immigration reform would boost labor force participation, productivity, and ultimately growth, directly addressing key fiscal challenges.  Continued focus on health policy to further improve health care quality and control cost growth remains critical.  This policy vision shows that investments in growth and opportunity are fully compatible with putting the nation’s finances on a strong and sustainable path.  It also shows that responsible deficit reduction can be achieved without endangering vital support to poor Americans or undermining commitments to seniors and workers.   Under President Obama’s leadership, there has been substantial economic and fiscal progress, showing what is possible when strategic investment to grow the economy is paired with smart reforms that address the true drivers of long-term fiscal challenges.  While there is some scope for additional borrowing to finance smart investments in the next few years, ever-increasing borrowing is not sustainable as a long-run strategy, particularly when used to finance spending that does not generate higher growth or improvements for the middle class and in the case of deficit-increasing tax cuts, which deepen income and wealth disparities that are already a serious concern.  Instead, the long-term fiscal health of the nation depends on smart investments in the middle class, tax reforms that close loopholes for the wealthy and ensure that everyone plays by the same set of rules, comprehensive immigration reform, and health reforms that build on our progress to date without sacrificing coverage or quality.   Remaining a Leader in the Global Economy The United States must continue its long history of international economic leadership.  Such leadership benefits American workers and families and enables the United States to project its values abroad to achieve its larger foreign policy objectives.  Of course, the world has changed since the creation of our international financial architecture after World War II, and we must change with it.  Perhaps somewhat counterintuitively, our influence internationally will increase if we share the benefits, as well as the responsibilities, of managing the global economic and financial system with emerging economies, such as China.  Our influence, however, cannot be sustained if we either back away or insist on protecting the status quo.   But we face a host of challenges.  Our relationship with China is one of the most important in the world.  While we have made much progress over the past eight years, the degree to which China is willing to takes the steps necessary to follow through on commitments to reorient its economy toward more sustainable growth, open up to foreign businesses, and be a partner in global governance, remains to be seen.  As we saw from the example of Chinese exchange rate policy, engagement between the United States and China is an important means of maintaining pressure for China to implement policies that are necessary for China’s own medium and long-term economic health and to create a level playing field for the world economy.   The UK’s decision to leave the European Union sent shockwaves through Europe and the world, and we must closely monitor the situation and continue to argue for the benefits of continued integration post-Brexit.  Japan’s economy faces the ongoing challenges of an aging population and high public debt hampering the government’s ability to foster growth.  We must also keep a watchful eye on emerging economies and the unique challenges they face.  In particular, in recent years, we have made progress in our relations with Latin America, particularly with Mexico and Argentina, and we should build on that progress.   Adjusting to the New Threats in Our World With the rise of state-sponsored and lone wolf terrorism, rogue nations, and international strongmen, we must address the reality that we live in a dangerous world.  Making it safer means using every tool available—including the financial tools available to Treasury—to defeat and degrade terrorist organizations like ISIL.  We must continue to leverage our ability to impose crippling sanctions on states and individuals to change behavior.  We must seek to eliminate the proliferation of nuclear weapons.  Cyber attacks on our financial system represent a real threat to our economic and national security, and maintaining vigilant and coordinated efforts to keep pace with and respond to these threats has been and will remain a crucial piece of Treasury’s work.  And we must recognize global climate change for the economic and existential threat that it is and band together with the rest of the world to avert catastrophe.    How to Make Our Vision a Reality How do we accomplish the goals laid out above?  To be sure, there are a host of paths policymakers might take to do so, but I believe the following steps, which range from specific policy prescriptions to more general advice, are the most immediate.  Infrastructure Spending Moving forward, we must redouble our efforts to make investments in our country’s transportation infrastructure, which help create middle-class jobs in the short term and drive broad-based economic growth in the long term.  Indeed, by fixing our aging roads, bridges, and ports, we will help lay a foundation for widely shared economic expansion.  The President’s business tax reform framework, discussed in more detail below, would generate substantial one-time revenues to fund new infrastructure investments.  Paying for these investments by taxing overseas business profits would both be fiscally responsible and would help fix the perception that our tax system is not a level playing field.   Continuing to come up with fresh, new ways to deploy capital will help the country achieve these goals.  Effective partnerships between government and the private sector can play an important role in developing innovative solutions that efficiently leverage resources.  And taking advantage of historically low interest rates to fund high-return public investments is simply smart fiscal policy.  This Administration has long advocated for the creation of a national infrastructure bank, which would provide critical financing and technical support to foster public-private partnerships in U.S. infrastructure and establish a predictable source of long-term financing that would allow U.S. infrastructure to be consistently improved. Business Tax Reform Over the last eight years, Congress and the Administration have taken important steps to make the tax code fairer, support working families, and roll back unnecessary and unaffordable tax cuts for high-income families.  In addition, using its administrative tools, the Administration has made substantial progress over the past eight years in combatting abusive tax practices.  However, our business tax system remains in need of reform.  As I have emphasized repeatedly throughout my time as Treasury Secretary, only Congress can enact business tax reform, which is necessary to remove incentives for businesses to relocate overseas, raise one-time revenues to promote infrastructure spending, and simplify tax compliance for smaller businesses.   President Obama’s proposed plan for business tax reform sets out a framework for modernizing our business tax system.  Among other elements, it would prevent companies from using excessive leverage in the United States to reduce their tax burden, impose a minimum tax abroad to help fight the global race to the bottom, impose a one-time tax on unrepatriated foreign profits, and reform the taxation of financial and insurance industry products.  It also would close loopholes and special credits and deductions to lower rates without shifting the tax burden to individuals.  Enacting such a plan would enhance our competitiveness and create an environment in which business rather than tax considerations drive decision-making.  The President’s framework is also fiscally responsible, ensuring that business tax reform does not add to deficits over the long-term.  I am hopeful that this framework will help to equip the new Congress to take responsible action on business tax reform.   Housing Finance Reform Fixing our housing finance system remains the major unfinished work of post-financial crisis reform.  Though the housing market has made significant strides thanks to efforts on the part of the Administration to help struggling homeowners, stabilize the housing finance system, and restore broader economic growth, many homeowners and neighborhoods continue to struggle.  Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac remain in conservatorship and continue to rely on taxpayer support.  Only legislation can comprehensively address the ongoing shortcomings of the housing finance system.  A starting point for such legislation should be the principles President Obama laid out in 2013, which stressed a clearly-defined role for the government to promote broad access to consumer-friendly mortgages in good times and bad.  While private capital should bear the majority of the risks in mortgage lending, reform also must provide more American households with greater and more sustainable access to affordable homes to rent or own.  Global Economic Integration Global economic integration, including high-standards trade, leads to better economic outcomes than isolation and protectionism.  High-standard trade agreements such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership can expand U.S. economic growth, open markets for American exports, and strengthen labor and environmental safeguards so that American workers can compete on a level playing field.  But economic uncertainty, both domestically and abroad, threatens this framework.  Whether driven by trade, technological advances, or the changing structure of the markets for labor and capital, these anxieties are real and deeply felt.  In order to continue to enjoy the benefits of an integrated world, we need to focus on policies that address the real issues of inequality, such as slowing wage growth and increasing disparities in pay, to ensure that the benefits of trade are broadly felt.      Strengthening the rules, alone, is not enough.  To preserve this important engine of economic growth and international integration the United States and other advanced economies must also design and implement policies—including fiscal and tax policies—that advance the cause of inclusive, sustainable, and broad-based growth.  Not all countries have the fiscal space sufficient to meet these needs, but after years of urging by the United States, policies of austerity are one-by-one giving way to policies designed to grow demand and improve incomes.  The United States must continue to be an active voice in the global discussion of these issues.    The United States must also maintain its leadership in the international financial architecture and ensure that the U.S.-led international financial system is adapting to best preserve U.S. interest in a changing world.  This includes continued governance reforms of the IMF and multilateral development banks to reflect a changing world.  Clear global rules create opportunities and incentives for innovation, invest, and work, which are critical to the United States and drive economic progress in other regions of the world. Continued Engagement with Challenging Partners  Just as global economic integration has fueled economic growth, that integration—and our economic strength—provides us with additional tools to advance our priorities on the international stage.  We should continue to use these tools judiciously to maintain pressure on those countries that take aggressive and destabilizing actions, such as Russia and North Korea, and provide sanctions relief when the targeted malign behavior changes, as with Iran and Burma.  And, as we chart new courses with other countries, such as Cuba, we should be mindful of how we can use our economic tools to create the conditions for a changed relationship.    We must always take care to avoid the overuse of sanctions, particularly our most unilateral tools like secondary sanctions that extend to non-U.S. persons.  If we overuse these powerful tools, we risk lessening their impact when they are most needed and ultimately threaten our central role in the global financial system.  Looking Forward with Optimism We have learned the hard way that deadlock does not produce good results—government shutdowns and near default on our debt cost the United States both economically and in standing around the world.  It did not work in the 1990s, and it did not work over these past eight years. What has worked is finding opportunities in the sometimes quiet periods when bipartisan cooperation can lead to honorable compromise.  In recent years, we have seen that targeted budget agreements could pave the way for more orderly and economically beneficial outcomes.  We have seen that, on issues like creating a path forward for Puerto Rico and multi-year funding for our surface transportation programs, bipartisan compromise is still possible. But there is much more that requires this kind of progress.  Treasury plays a critical role in finding areas where bipartisan solutions are possible.  In a period when many thought little could be accomplished legislatively, we reached agreement on IMF Quota Reform, an approach to deal with Puerto Rico, and a permanent extension of expansions to the earned income tax credit and child tax credits that will reduce the extent or severity of poverty for millions of families with children.  We have also used our existing authorities to limit corporate tax inversions, shed greater light on beneficial ownership to limit tax avoidance, realize tax parity for same-sex spouses, and opened relations with Cuba.  And we have used our sanctions authorities to bring Iran to the negotiating table and limit the resources available to terrorist regimes and groups. I am proud of the record we have built over the past eight years.  But during calmer economic times, policy makers are often tempted to roll back regulations, weaken reforms, and reduce oversight.  I hope that future policymakers will take careful stock of the successes of this Administration as they consider the next steps forward.  I remain an optimist about America’s future and wish the next team entrusted with responsibility for governing much success as it tackles the many challenges that remain and the new challenges that will present themselves over the coming years.  Margaret Mulkerrin is the Press Assistant at the U.S. Department of Treasury.     ###  

23 октября, 17:35

Заграничные убийства ЦРУ.

История ЦРУ переполнена множеством примеров политических убийств, и не только в США, но и в других странах. Сегодня ЦРУ занимается разработкой различных способов ликвидации политического конкурента США в Азии — северокорейского лидера Ким Чен Ына. Эту акцию должны совершить спецслужбы США и подчинённых им государств. Эта цель согласуется с резким увеличением военного бюджета Южной Кореи. В частности, планируется увеличить расходы на подготовку и вооружение отрядов специального назначения, главная задача которых — политические убийства. В этой группировке будет состоять около 1000 боевиков. Главная их задача — поиск и убийства Ким Чен Ына и других лидеров соседней страны во время разворачивания военных действий. Korea Herald приводит слова источника из Министерства обороны Южной Кореи, из которых следует, что для этой цели планируется использовать беспилотники, террористов-смертников и тяжёлые бомбардировщики. Информация о структуре и планах этой группировки засекречена, но стало известно, что этих боевиков будут обучать по методике, по которой обучались морские пехотинцы США, убившие Усаму Бен Ладена.В то же время, необходимо помнить, что попытка создания в 1968 году специального подразделения в Южной Корее с аналогичными целями закончилась трагически. Это подразделение состояло из 31 южнокорейского преступника, которым пообещали помилование за убийство Ким Ир Сена. Во время тренировок погибли три боевика. Затем их отправили на резиновой лодке в КНДР, но на полпути вернули назад. Ни кого из членов этой группировки не освободили, продолжив тренировки. В 1971 году эта группировка взбунтовалась, убила тренеров и попыталась добраться до Сеула. На их ликвидацию была брошена армия. Несколько боевиков подорвали себя гранатами, четырёх выживших казнили. В 2003 году в Южной Корее вышел фильм под названием Slimido, который рассказал об этой трагической истории. Подобные экстремистские операции против политических оппонентов вряд ли могут кого-то удивить, особенно, когда речь заходит о ЦРУ — главном специалисте по политическим убийствам. Поэтому неудивительно, что глава ЦРУ Майк Помпео открыто заявил однажды, что когда ЦРУ убьёт лидера КНДР Ким Чен Ына, он не признает участия США в этом убийстве.Все знают, что ничто не мешает США удерживать своё господство, особенно если это связано с убийствами нежелательных людей. В 1950-60-х годах было убито множество мировых политиков и общественных деятелей, которые боролись не только за коммунизм, но и за независимость своих стран. Затем наступил период относительного спокойствия, связанный с политикой разрядки в международных отношениях и со скандалом о деятельности ЦРУ, которая в 1975 году расследовалась в сенатском комитете. Это расследование пришло к выводу, что разведывательная служба США нарушала законы. В частности, были доказаны случаи убийств и покушений на убийства множества иностранных лидеров. Это привело к тому, что президент США издал указ о запрете убийств иностранных лидеров. Но в 1981 году Рейган отменил этот указ, и число убитых резко возросло. Многочисленные и сознательно запутанные дискуссии в СМИ не позволяют определить причину скоротечности заболевания президента Венесуэлы Уго Чавеса. Но можно предположить, что его смерть связана с появлением на вооружении спецслужб США нового типа биологического оружия, включая вирус рака.Но самое странное и необъяснимое (если забыть о спецоперациях США) заключается в том, что не только Уго Чавес, но и многие другие латиноамериканские лидеры, противоречащие Вашингтону, внезапно и почти одновременно заболели раком. Среди них оказались: президент Аргентины Нестор Киршнер (предшественник Кристины Киршнер), президент Бразилии Лула да Силва (предшественник Дилмы Русеф) и президент Парагвая Фернандо Луго (в 2012 году для его свержения ЦРУ организовало переворот, не дождавшись результатов заражения раком). Интересно отметить, что у Лулы да Силвы рак был обнаружен в тот момент, когда консервативный и проамериканский президент Колумбии Хуан Мануэль Сантос начал мирные переговоры с Революционными вооруженными силами Колумбии. Венесуэльский писатель Луис Брито Гарсия насчитал более 900 покушений ЦРУ на жизнь кубинского лидера Фиделя Кастро. В последние годы своей жизни Кастро страдал от таинственной опухоли в кишечнике, которая появилась у него после саммита 2006 года в аргентинском городе Кордоба. Мы также помним таинственную смерть главы Палестинской администрации Ясира Арафата, который заболел лейкемией в 2004 году.Стоит также напомнить сообщение Wikileaks о деятельности ЦРУ в 2008 году в Парагвае, которая была связана со сбором информации о четырёх кандидатах в президенты. При этом сотрудники посольства США собрали данные даже о ДНК парагвайских политиков. Информация о ДНК могла использоваться для планирования нападения на каждого кандидата. И если верны предположения, что такая же деятельность проводилась в Бразилии перед выборами, то неудивительно заболевание раком Дилмы Русеф в 2009 году.Таким образом, кроме жестоких убийств своих политических противников (например президента Ирака Саддама Хусейна и лидера Ливии Муамара Каддафи), ЦРУ вполне может применять в своей работе и заражение раком. Следует также учесть, что довольно долгое время подобные эксперименты проводились в секретных лабораториях ЦРУ. Американский доктор Корнелиус Ровадес из Института медицинских исследований Рокфеллера в Нью-Йорке начал свою карьеру в Пуэрто-Рико и стал пионером в области новейших способов убийства людей, включая химические, биологические и радиационные способы. В 1930-х годах институт Рокфеллера проводил в Пуэрто-Рико эксперименты по заражению людей раком.Неужели рак стал новым оружием спецслужб США для поддержки североамериканской империи? Следует отметить, что эта болезнь неуклонно поражает политиков, которые выступают против политического господства США. Наиболее важное преимущество этих методов заключается в том, что трудно обнаружить причину заражения раком или сердечного заболевания, поэтому снижается опасность скандала и ответственности.Источник: السي آي إيه و اغتيالات عبر البحار, al-ahd.net, 26 January 2018.

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13 сентября, 17:23

Президент США оценил информацию о числе жертв ураганов в Пуэрто-Рико

Дональд Трамп прокомментировал сообщения о жертвах ураганов, обрушившихся на Пуэрто-Рико в 2017 году. По мнению...

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13 сентября, 16:24

Trump falsely claims Hurricane Maria death toll was made up by Democrats

Despite evidence showing nearly 3,000 people were killed, US president tweets that figure is scheme ‘to make me look bad’Donald Trump has falsely claimed that 3,000 people did not die in Puerto Rico from Hurricane Maria, and said the number was made up by the Democratic party “to make me look as bad as possible”. Related: Trump calls Puerto Rico hurricane effort an 'unsung success' – here's the reality Continue reading...

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08 сентября, 13:00

The Look: Champions in the Ring, and Out

Since boxing was legalized in Puerto Rico in 1927, the island has produced dozens of world champions and even more casual enthusiasts.

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28 августа, 21:49

Hurricane Maria: Puerto Rico raises official death toll from 64 to 2,975

New estimate is based on the finding that the number of deaths from September 2017 to February 2018 was up 22% year on yearPuerto Rico has raised the official death toll from Hurricane Maria to 2,975 people – a dramatic increase on the previous official figure of 64 – almost a year after the devastating storm struck the island. Related: Puerto Rico quietly moves to update Hurricane Maria death toll from 64 to 1,427 Continue reading...

21 августа, 16:38

Расширение американской оккупации Латинской Америки.

США вводят дополнительных военных в Латинскую Америку. В 2017 году путчистское правительство Мишеля Темера в Бразилии одобрило план «Amazon Log», в рамках которого 6-13 ноября 2017 года в пограничном городе Табатинга прошла операция «United America» при участии армий США, Бразилии, Перу и Колумбии. Таким образом, наблюдается значительный рост иностранной милитаризации региона. План «Amazon Log» разработан по аналогии с планом военных учений НАТО в 2015 году в Венгрии, в которых использовалось около 1700 военнослужащих. Латиноамериканская версия этого плана, как заявляет командование бразильской армии, создаёт многонациональную логистическую базу для проведения операций по контролю незаконной миграции, гуманитарной помощи, мирных операций, действии против наркоторговли и охраны окружающей среды.Однако, бразильский журнал Gauchazh отмечает, что иностранные армейские операции, которые направлены на войну на национальной территории следует считать государственной изменой. Министерство обороны Бразилии не согласно с такой точкой зрения. Проблема с этими военными учениям заключается в размахе военного присутствия США в латиноамериканских джунглях. Один из опаснейших рисков этой ситуации – «временные» военные базы США очень часто становятся постоянными, как это произошло в Венгрии.Интересы США в этом регионе можно определить из всей истории «северной империи». Альтруизм, защита природы и борьба с незаконным оборотом наркотиков всегда используются в качестве предлога для организации иностранных интервенций по всему миру, в последнее время это видно на Ближнем Востоке. Но военные действия США всегда направлены на захват природных ресурсов. Латинская Америка богата природными ресурсами, поэтому мы наблюдаем здесь множество военных США. По данным Всемирного банка, этот регион играет глобальную роль в проблеме климатических изменений, т.к. обладает «крупнейшими запасами пресной воды в мире».Это печальная новость для латиноамериканцев, потому что несколько аналитиков, включая бывшего кандидата в президенты Берни Сандерса, утверждают, что войны будущего будут вестись за воду. Бразилия, Колумбия и Перу – три латиноамериканские страны, сотрудничающие с армией США, которые обладают крупнейшими запасами воды в мире. В 2004 году Министерство обороны США получило секретный доклад о будущих угрозах и необходимых действиях армии США, составленный советником ЦРУ и бывшим директором по планированию Royal Dutch/Shell group Питером Шварцем и Дугом Рэнделлом из Global Business Network.Авторы этого доклада сделали вывод, что климатические изменения и нехватка воды являются угрозой национальной безопасности США и причиной будущих военных конфликтов. Через 13 лет после появления этого доклада США строят новую военную базу на реке Амазонка. Но вода – не единственная причина заинтересованности США этим регионом. Аргентинская журналистка Телма Луззани написала в своей книге «Наблюдаемые территории», что «Амазонка содержит 95% запасов ниобия, который используется для строительства космических кораблей и межконтинентальных ракет, и 96% запасов титана и вольфрама, которые используются в космической сфере и военной авиации, не считая запасов нефти, газа, урана, золота и бриллиантов».Вот почему эти военные учения – это показатель милитаризации региона. Кроме того, в 2017 году были также проведены ещё два военных учения в Тихом океане и Карибском море около берегов Чили и Венесуэлы, в которых участвовало 18 стран и более 2500 военнослужащих. Эти армейские операции показывают возвращение военного влияния США в регионе, которое упало во времена прогрессивных лидеров Латинской Америки. Хотя военные базы в Латинской Америке прошли несколько этапов своего развития, современное их состояние начало формироваться в конце XX века.В 1999 году была закрыта военная база Говард в Панаме, на которой размещалось Южное командование армии США, отвечающее за военные операции в Латинской Америке. Министерство обороны США пересмотрело свою военную стратегию и внешнюю политику. Под прикрытием «Плана Колумбия», «войны с наркотиками» и «гуманитарных операций» в Латинской Америке оформились две модели военных баз. Первая модель – «главная оперативная база (ГОБ)» - военная база с инфраструктурой и соглашениями с правительствами целевых стран: Гуантанамо в Кубе, Сото-Кано в Гондурасе и несколько баз в Пуэрто-Рико. Хотя эти базы продолжают действовать до сих пор, от этой модели начали отказываться, потому что она вызывает возмущение среди местных жителей и приводит к большим инфраструктурным и логистическим затратам.Поэтому появилась другая модель под названием «передовая оперативная локация (ПОЛ)» - это военная база с небольшим количеством военнослужащих, но при необходимости она быстро расширяется. В 1999 году официально были известны 4 таких базы: Аруба, Куразао, Эль-Сальвадор и Манта (контракты на которые не продлевались с 2009 года). Кроме того, появились военные базы под названием «локации совместной безопасности (ЛСБ)» - также небольшие базы, но без постоянного персонала. Как объяснил бывший советник Пентагона Роберт Каплан, «часто ключевую роль в управлении ЛСБ играет частный подрядчик. Он арендует сооружения на базе у местных военных, и берёт плату с ВВС США, чьи самолёты обслуживаются этой базой. Официально подрядчик занимается собственным бизнесом, и это нравится местному правительству, которое может заявлять, что не сотрудничает с армией США. Конечно, никто включая местные СМИ, не верит этому. Но сам факт косвенных, а не прямых отношений с армией США снижает напряжённость».Хотя эта статистика засекречена, мы знаем о 75 базах в регионе, включая ГОБ, ПОЛ, ЛСБ и других видов – например «Региональный комплекс подготовки к катастрофам» в Перу. Больше всего военных баз США находится в Панаме (12), Пуэрто-Рико (12), Колумбии (9) и Перу (8). Кроме того, в 2016 году Колумбия подписала с НАТО соглашение о сотрудничестве. А президент Аргентины Маурисио Макри объявил недавно, что разрешит установку постоянных военных баз в Аргентине на границе с Парагваем и Бразилией, и в южной провинции Ушуайа. Правительство Темера в Бразилии увеличило военный бюджет на 36%, на 20 лет заморозив медицинский и образовательный бюджеты.Эти действия на правительственном уровне узаконивают военное присутствие зарубежных армий. Кроме того, Бразилия надеется, что будет играть ведущую роль в Латинской Америке, если продолжит сотрудничество с армией США. Представитель Бразильской ассоциации международных отношений Эктор Луис Сен-Пьер заявил по этому поводу: «В Южной Америке уважают бразильскую военную школу. Это делает Бразилию стратегическим партнёром в подготовке вооружённых сил на континенте. Если США наладят хорошие отношения с бразильской армией, её значение в регионе усилится». Это печально напоминает «Школу Америк» - учреждение по проведению военных и идеологических тренировок в 1970-90-х годах. Возвращение к колониальной военной модели создаёт серьёзную опасность для всего региона.Даже такие инициативы как Совет южноамериканской обороны, созданный в 2008 году для проведения политики военного сотрудничества, гуманитарных и миротворческих операций, будут участвовать в военных учениях США в качестве наблюдателя. «Это узаконивает пространство, в котором Пентагон проводит свои операции и определяет границы своих приоритетов в Южной Америке», - сказал уругвайский журналист Рауль Зибечи. В условиях, когда США подрывают национальные суверенитеты, поддерживают реваншизм правых вождей и систематически уничтожают прогрессивные проекты в регионе, мысль о реальном единстве Латинской Америки и освобождении её от империализма становится мечтой. Тревожно, что Латинская Америка продолжает заполняться стратегическими военными базами США для контролирования ресурсов, народов и военных операций. Если это не колониализм, то что?Источник: More US Troops In Latin America: Signs Of An Invasion Foretold?, Martín Pastor, blackagendareport.com, popularresistance.org, November 3, 2017.

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09 августа, 18:30

The perfect storm: building a crypto-utopia in Puerto Rico – video

In a time of vulnerability, crypto investors are moving to Puerto Rico, attracted by lucrative tax incentives. They plan to regenerate the island using blockchain technology. But not all of the locals support their bold plans Continue reading...

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09 августа, 18:11

Ricanstruction: how Puerto Rico's artists responded to the storm

Hurricane Maria and its aftermath inspired musicians, visual artists and comedians to produce work and help relief effortsHurricane Maria shattered normal life in Puerto Rico, but the island’s thriving art community was ready to respond.Musicians, visual artists, comedians and artistic collectives orchestrated fundraisers, relief brigades and grant programs to assist people affected by the hurricane – while sharing stories and creating works inspired by the storm. Continue reading...

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09 августа, 18:04

Puerto Rico quietly moves to update Hurricane Maria death toll from 64 to 1,427

Draft report submitted to Congress outlining a recovery plan brings the government closer to official confirmation of numberMore than 1,400 people in Puerto Rico were killed by Hurricane Maria, the US territory’s government said this week, as it inches closer to officially updating the death toll from 64 people. Related: This is what being in love looks like – in pictures Continue reading...

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09 августа, 13:00

My Maria story: six Puerto Ricans on surviving after the hurricane

A university student, a mother with two sons in prison and a food truck owner explain how their lives were uprooted following the storm“When the hurricane came I had just started back at university,” said Camille Mercado Rivera, a 19-year-old science major at the University of Puerto Rico. “We had two days of classes and then we were out.” Continue reading...

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08 августа, 13:00

Ten months without power: the Puerto Ricans still without electricity

Almost a year after Hurricane Maria ravaged the island’s ailing power infrastructure, the Ruiz family is one of 1,000 still off the grid They have eaten by candlelight for the past 10 months, powerless and isolated.Their small home, with its wooden walls and tin roof, nestled high up in the hills of Utuado municipality, somehow survived Hurricane Maria without a scratch. Most others in the surrounding area of this mountainous region were swept apart by the wind. But the hurricane’s raw strength last September didn’t leave everything on their property unscathed. It uprooted a mango tree a few metres down their steep pathway, which crashed onto a pylon that had brought electricity up the slope for 23 years and cut this family of four off from the grid for almost a year. Continue reading...

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07 августа, 13:00

Despair and anxiety: Puerto Rico's 'living emergency' as a mental health crisis unfolds

One powerful hurricane robbed millions of Americans of reliable access to basic necessities. Almost a year later the psychological effects are still being feltFor the first 36 hours after Hurricane Maria, five-year-old Keydiel and his mother Shaina were trapped by the toppled trees that blocked the doors to their home in Yabucoa, Puerto Rico.Eventually, neighbors cleared the sturdy tamarind trees, cutting by hand because there was no electricity. The mother and son emerged to find an island devoured by 155mph winds and harsh rains. Continue reading...

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14 июля, 20:41

Woman harassed for wearing Puerto Rico shirt as police ignored plea for help

Mia Irizarry, who posted incident on Facebook Live, feared for her safety and demands officer be ‘held accountable’A woman who was harangued by a man for wearing a Puerto Rico flag shirt has said she feared for her safety and is unhappy a nearby police officer who ignored her pleas for help was able to resign without facing punishment.Mia Irizarry captured the incident, which occurred on 14 June at Caldwell Woods forest preserve in Chicago, on Facebook Live video. The video shows a man, later identified as 62-year-old Timothy Trybus, repeatedly approaching Irizarry. He tells her “You should not be wearing that in the United States of America” and “You’re not going to change us, you know that”. Continue reading...

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12 июля, 19:44

'We grow up breathing music': how Puerto Rico became a pop superpower

Online streaming and the country’s proximity to the US have led to the likes of Despacito topping the charts – and now the island’s musicians are embracing politicsIt sometimes feels as if there is no getting away from Despacito. At more than 5bn views, Luis Fonsi and Daddy Yankee’s track is now the most streamed video of all time on YouTube. But there is plenty more where that came from: Puerto Ricans such as the Despacito duo were responsible for 27 of the top 100 most-viewed music videos on YouTube in 2017. Over on Spotify, four of the six most popular Latin artists are also Puerto Rican: Fonsi and Yankee again, plus Bad Bunny and Ozuna.All this from an island of just three and a half million souls, plus the other five million Puerto Ricans who live in the US. How did they become such a colossal musical force? Continue reading...

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11 июля, 01:09

Puerto Rico Governor Wants Officer Fired Over Flag Incident Caught on Video

The Illinois officer, now under investigation, appears to ignore a woman’s pleas for help as a man harasses her over her Puerto Rican flag shirt.

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29 июня, 08:33

США могут пополниться 51-м штатом

В Конгресс внесен законопроект о принятии Пуэрто-Рико в состав Соединенных Штатов в качестве 51-ого штата. Законопроект внесен представителем Пуэрто-Рико в нижней палате конгресса США Дженнифер Гонсалес-Колонн, сообщает Новое время со ссылкой на сайт американского законодательного […]

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29 июня, 07:35

Пуэрто-Рико станет 51-м штатом США

В конгресс Соединенных Штатов внесен законопроект о присоединении к государству острова Пуэрто-Рико в качестве 51-го...

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24 мая 2014, 13:54

Самые красивые пляжи

Уайтхэвен, АвстралияУайтхэвен-Бич — это красивейшая 7-километровая береговая линия вдоль острова Витсандей. Всемирную известность пляж получил благодаря белоснежному песку. Его окрас обусловлен наличием чистого диоксида кремния (98 %), который придает ему такой оттенок.  Розовый пляж, БагамыОстров Харбор является одним из самых удивительных мест Багамских островов. Необыкновенный цвет песок приобретает из-за присутствия крошечных частиц раковин Фораминиферы. Это одноклеточные организмы, обитающие на нижней части рифов, под камнями и в пещерах прибрежного дна океана.Плайя-дель-Амор — скрытый пляж острова Мариета, МексикаЕсли бы не шум волн люди, вероятно, даже не знали бы, о скрытом от глаз пляже. Плайя-дель-Амор расположен в нескольких метрах от побережья необитаемого острова Мариета. Только несколько туристов добираются туда. Настоящий рай для любителей уединиться.Наваджо, ГрецияНа греческом острове Закинф находится один из самых прекрасных пляжей в мире. Когда-то здесь потерпело крушение судно Панайотис, которое принадлежало контрабандистам. Корабль так и покоится до сих пор в белопесчаных дюнах.Ипанема, БразилияВ Рио-де-Жанейро 23 пляжа общей протяженностью 72 километра, но Ипанема — самый изысканный и элитный. Этот пляж, прилегающий к богатому району столицы, облюбовала шикарная и модная публика, которая изо дня в день здесь тусуется, играет в волейбол и бегает трусцой. Словом, приходят других посмотреть и себя показать.Махо, Карибские островаДобро пожаловать на Махо — один из самых необычных пляжей в мире. Он находится на Карибах в 300 км от Пуэрто-Рико. И отдыхающих сюда привлекает не теплый песок и синее море. Сюда отправляются за непередаваемыми острыми ощущениями, ведь буквально в 10-20 метрах над пляжем и туристами с грохотом проносятся заходящие на посадку гигантские авиалайнеры. Опасное, но завораживающее зрелище!Стеклянный пляж, СШАНедалеко от города Форт Брэгг в Калифорнии есть интересный пляж, усыпанный разноцветными стекляшками. В начале XX века здесь была городская свалка, потом, в 1967 году власти ее закрыли и в течение многих лет проводили очистку территории. Теперь мусора здесь нет, но берег покрыт мелкими, обточенными волнами стеклянными камушками.Боттом бэй, БарбадосБоттом бэй — лучший пляж на острове Барбадос. Канонический пейзаж этого места является визитной карточкой страны.Хайамс, АвстралияПляж Hyams Beach, который находится в 300 километрах от Сиднея — пляж с самым белым песком в мире. Он такой белый, что, взглянув на него издалека, кажется, что это взбитые сливки.Пляж на острове Ваадху, Мальдивские островаЕсть в мире один пляж, который особенно красив ночью. Планктон выброшенный на пляж острова Ваадху окрашивает берега тысячами огней. Свечение объясняется биолюминесценцией — химическими процессами в организме животных, при которых освобождающаяся энергия выделяется в форме света. Голубые светящиеся волны словно отражают звезды в небе над Мальдивами!Грейс Бэй, Карибские островаВот он рай. Белый чистый и прохладный мелкий песочек манит прилечь и позагорать. Грэйс Бэй не раз признавался одним из самых лучших пляжей в мире.Океанский купол, ЯпонияНу а если все моря вам уже приелись и хочется чего-нибудь необычного, то обязательно посетите Ocean Dome. Пляжи из белого песка, океан с искусственной волной для серфинга, водные каскады, горки и аттракционы, бассейны с гидромассажем и спа, тропическая растительность, яркие экзотические шоу, устраиваемые каждый день, — здесь все создано для полноценного отдыха.