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RAND Corporation
RAND (англ. РЭНД — аббревиатура от Research & Development — «Исследования и разработка») — американский стратегический исследовательский центр. Является некоммерческой организацией. стратегический центр в городе Санта-Моника (Калифорния) Корпорация RAND (сокращение от Research & Development — науч ...
RAND (англ. РЭНД — аббревиатура от Research & Development — «Исследования и разработка») — американский стратегический исследовательский центр. Является некоммерческой организацией. стратегический центр в городе Санта-Моника (Калифорния) Корпорация RAND (сокращение от Research & Development — научно-исследовательские разработки) стала первой в мире «фабрикой мысли» (по-английски — think-tank). http://www.r&.org Этот центр был основан в калифорнийском городке Санта-Моника в 1948 году под эгидой военно-воздушных сил США. В течение первых десятилетий RAND занимался в основном решением технических задач — конструированием самолетов, ракетной техники и спутников. В начале 60-х специалисты RAND активно занимались вычислительной техникой и программированием. Но уже с начала 50-х RAND начал работать по заказам других американских правительственных организаций, проводя исследования по проблемам национальной безопасности. Сначала исключительно по военно-техническим, а затем и по стратегическим аспектам. При этом RAND оставался некоммерческой организацией, весь его бюджет уходил и уходит на текущие проекты. С течением времени в исследовательском центре появились специалисты по социальным наукам — политологии, экономике, социологии, психологии и т. д., и RAND стал выполнять заказы правительства США по все большему кругу проблем. Сегодня RAND публикует отчеты по самой широкой тематике — от проблем здравоохранения и борьбы с наркотиками до исследований рынка труда, региональной интеграции, экологии, международных отношений и вопросов безопасности как США, так и других стран. Так, среди его заказчиков присутствуют автомобильный гигант Ford Motor и фармацевтическая компания Pfizer, Гарвардский и Стэнфордский университеты, ООН, Еврокомиссия и Всемирный банк, фонды Сороса и Рокфеллера и даже Министерство здравоохранения Китая и многие другие. Организационная структура Штаб-квартира корпорации до сих пор расположена в Санта-Монике (Santa Monica, California (corporate headquarters)), однако со временем RAND открыл свои отделения в Нью-Йорке (New York (Council for Aid to Education)), Вашингтоне (Arlington, Virginia (just outside Washington, D.C.)), Питсбурге (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania ), а с начала 90-х за пределами Соединенных Штатов — в Нидерландах (Leiden, The Netherl&s (RAND Europe headquarters)), Великобритании (Cambridge, United Kingdom ), Германии (Berlin, Germany) и Катаре (Doha, Qatar). Кроме филиалов у RAND имеется также три «полевых бюро» (field sites) — в Лэнгли (где расположена штаб-квартира ЦРУ), в Баулдере (штат Колорадо) и с недавних пор в Москве. В ранний период развития коропорация РЭНД имела очень гибкую и подвижную структуру, ее руководство избегало чрезмерного администрирования. Однако по мере роста общего числа сотрудников администрации пришлось выработать более строгие организационные принципы и постоянную структуру. В корпорации РЭНД 11 исследовательских отделов — Вашингтонский отдел оборонных проблем, отделы проблем управления, анализа ресурсов, инженерных наук, наук об окружающей среде, социальных наук, физики, изучения систем, математики, электронно-вычислительной техники и экономики (т.е. отделы скорее соответствуют академическим дисциплинам, а не номенклатуре исследований, деление носит профессиональный, а не функциональный характер). Основной организационный принцип RAND — высокая степень децентрализации. Отдел обладает значительной свободой действий не только при подборе сотрудников, но и при определении программы исследований. Он является независимой единицей и в финансовом отношении — у каждого отдела самостоятельный бюджет, ежегодно утверждаемый руководством корпорации; из этих средств оплачивается работа любого сотрудника отдела независимо от того, выполняет ли он работу внутри отдела или участвует в междисциплинарном проекте. Работа корпорации РЭНД ведется либо в рамках отдела, либо в междисциплинарной группе, специально создаваемой для выполнения того или иного проекта. Работа над проектом начинается с назначения руководителя группы. Некоторое время руководитель работает один, стремясь сформулировать четкую постановку проблемы, цель исследования и средства ее достижения. Завершив подготовительную работу, он приступает к подбору группы, причем в основном этот подбор идет на добровольной основе. Численный состав группы может быть разным — от одного-двух человек до нескольких десятков. Достаточно типичен случай, когда в группу входят три-четыре специалиста в разных областях знания. Итог работы над любым заданием — доклад. Первоначально группа разрабатывает проект доклада исключительно для внутреннего пользования (иногда на этой стадии может быть принято решение о нецелеобразности дальнейшей работы над темой и о роспуске группы). Затем материал дорабатывается и поступает заказчику в форме окончательного доклада, причем каждый доклад по традиции считается выражением личного мнения его авторов, а не всей корпорации в целом (корпорация отвечает лишь за общий профессиональный уровень и сроки выполнения работы). Только в особо важных случаях — когда речь идет либо о жизненно важной для страны проблеме, либо о чрезвычайно противоречивом вопросе — руководство РЭНД может выступить с официальной рекомендацией заказчику от имени всей корпорации. Цели и задачи Официально RAND Corporation — «бесприбыльное учреждение, специализирующееся на улучшении политики [американского] общества путем исследования и анализа». Цели организации определены лаконично, но широко — продвинуть и содействовать научной, образовательной, и благотворительной деятельности в интересах общественного благополучия и национальной безопасности США. РЭНД ставит также задачу разработки и выявления новых методов анализа стратегических проблем и новых стратегических концепций. Для достижения своих целей корпорация организует конференции (международные и национальные), симпозиумы и семинары, брифинги; выпускает пресс-релизы; участвует в создании радио- и телепрограмм; организует брифинги и презентации для членов правительства, оппозиционных политических сил, политических и промышленных организаций, а также ведет образовательные и тренинговые программы. R& также имеет «полностью аккредитованную» школу дипломированного специалиста, которая имеет право присваивать докторскую степень (Ph. D.) по общественно-политическим наукам. Руководство корпорации РЭНД Джеймс А. Томсон является Президентом РЭНДа и первым лицом (Chief Executive Officer), начиная с августа 1989. Под руководством доктора Томсона, РЭНД сдвинул центр своей исследовательской повестки дня к проблемам эры «после холодной войны», расширил клиентскую базу и охватил больший массив клиентуры в общественном и частном секторе, а также резко увеличил филантропическую поддержку своих программ. Майкл Д. Рич — исполнительный вице-президент РЭНДа, второе лицо по рангу в учреждении. Он возглавлял многочисленные засекреченные и незасекреченные работы РЭНДа, включая исследования по стратегии создания бомбардировщика B-2, исследования о тенденциях в развитии оружия, многонациональном совместном производстве аэрокосмических систем, различных вопросов готовности и других тем, связанных с национальной обороной. История развития Во время войны в Соединенных Штатах значительная группа гражданских лиц — преимущественно ученых и инженеров — была мобилизована для ведения войны на «технологическом фронте». В относительно короткий срок эта группа создала такие новшества, как атомная бомба, радар и неконтактный взрыватель. Был также разработан и усовершенствован новый аналитический метод — исследование операций,— который с успехом был применен для повышения эффективности ПВО, бомбометания и военно-морских операций. В конце войны, когда этот коллектив стал распадаться, военное ведомство решило сохранить некоторых наиболее талантливых сотрудников, с тем чтобы они и в последующие годы разрабатывали военную технологию, и в частности продолжили также работы в области исследования операций. Именно с этой целью генерал X. X. Арнольд, командующий авиацией сухопутных войск, представил в вышестоящие инстанции предложение о заключении соглашения между ВВС и авиастроительной фирмой «Дуглас». Предложение было одобрено, и в соответствии с ним было создано уникальное экспериментальное учреждение, получившее наименование «Проект РЭНД». Сокращение РЭНД (RAND) было составлено по первым буквам английских слов Research & Development. «Проект РЭНД» был создан в качестве подразделения фирмы «Дуглас» по контракту стоимостью 10 млн. долл. Организация начала свою деятельность в 1946 г. с официальной целью осуществить «научно-исследовательскую программу по широкой тематике, посвященной межконтинентальной войне во всех аспектах, за исключением наземных военных действий». В поставленную задачу входило также представление военно-воздушным силам рекомендаций относительно «предпочтительных методов и средств». Персонал «Проекта РЭНД» немедленно получил задание рассмотреть новые и неизученные возможности, которые могли бы заинтересовать военных. Его первой крупной работой было исследование, озаглавленное «Предварительный проект экспериментального космического корабля, вращающегося вокруг Земли». Несмотря на то что искусственные спутники в то время считались преимущественно достоянием научной фантастики, в этом документе 1946 г. давалась детальная оценка перспектив использования научных спутников и изучения космоса, подготовленная 50 учеными. Поскольку данное исследование оказалось удивительно пророческим, оно впоследствии в очень большой мере способствовало укреплению престижа «РЭНД». (Космические исследования «РЭНД» оказались пророческими не только в этом случае. Так, когда в середине 1957 г. была названа предполагаемая дата запуска первого спутника, то, как выяснилось впоследствии, ошибка составила всего две недели.). Другие ранние исследования «РЭНД» охватывали такие совершенно новые области, как использование ракетных двигателей для стратегического оружия (ракеты), ядерные силовые установки, теория игр в применении к военному делу, новые концепции ПВО, проектирование новых типов самолетов, усталость металлов и излучение высоких энергий. Уже в первый год своего существования «РЭНД» стала пополнять свой штат специалистами по вопросам политики, экономистами и психологами, с тем чтобы теоретические изыскания не ограничивались только точными науками. По мере роста корпорации «РЭНД» ее создателям стало ясно, что эксперимент оказался удачным. Дело было не только в том, что частично удалось сохранить талантливый научный коллектив, созданный во время войны, но, кроме того, военное ведомство получило в свое распоряжение творческий аппарат такого масштаба и возможностей, который было бы невозможно создать иным путем ни за какие деньги. Корпорация «РЭНД» предоставляла рассчитанные на длительную перспективу теоретические изыскания в самых разнообразных областях, причем эти рекомендации нельзя разработать в кабинетах официальных правительственных учреждений, сотрудники которых приспособили свое мышление к повседневным потребностям и решению узких задач. Стало также очевидным, что организация, подобная корпорации «РЭНД», является более маневренной и более управляемой по сравнению с любым университетским центром, где возникает слишком много проблем в связи с необходимостью обеспечения безопасности и преодоления ведомственных границ между факультетами при комплектовании крупных научных коллективов для изучения проблем, затрагивающих различные научные дисциплины. К 60-м гг. РЭНД обратилась к вопросам внутренней политики и привнесла свою модель эмпирического, бескорыстного, независимого анализа в исследование актуальных социальных и экономических проблем внутри страны. Сегодня корпорация продолжает работать над долгосрочными общественно-политическими программами, охватывающими все сферы общественной жизни; в рамках этих программ она выявляет новые стратегические аспекты национальных проблем. На условиях поштучного спонсорского финансирования ведутся также отдельные проекты, оценки и исследования политики и технологии, разработка программ, операционный анализ. Достижения корпорации РЭНД Корпорацией «РЭНД» была проведена значительная работа по изучению проблем распространения ядерного оружия, в ходе которой осуществлялся анализ экономических, политических и технических аспектов создания ядерного потенциала в различных странах. Корпорация осуществила также ряд секретных программ по разработке технических средств для военных нужд, в том числе вращающейся сканирующей фотокамеры для воздушной разведки, загоризонтной радарной установки, «бесшумного» самолета для ночной воздушной разведки, а также новых методов бомбометания Корпорация провела большую работу для Комиссии по атомной энергии в области проектирования ядерного оружия и изучения его действия. По крайней мере одна из новых ядерных бомб, обладающая повышенной мощностью, которая теперь входит в арсенал США, была создана благодаря идеям, возникшим в результате исследований, проведенных корпорацией «РЭНД». Корпорацией «РЭНД» разработан и еще один метод, основанный на использовании ЭВМ. Это — электронное моделирование или же создание при помощи ЭВМ системы, имитирующей работу другой системы, которая может быть всем, чем угодно,— от модели человеческого сердца до проектируемой системы оружия. Корпорация «РЭНД» разработала целый ряд весьма сложных и тонких математических методов, в частности линейное программирование, динамическое программирование, определение очередности проблем, нелинейное программирование, метод Монте-Карло, теория игр и т.д. Также корпорация «РЭНД» является разработчиком концепции «гибкого реагирования», «контрсилы» и т.п. «РЭНД» разрабатывает также новые подходы в области методов футурологии и технического прогнозирования. Самый знаменитый метод известен под названием «Дельфи». (Источник)
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16 сентября, 21:00

Новая волна — 2017 церемония закрытия последние новости. Главные новости сегодня 16.09.2017 г.

Уже четыре года назад, пишет Брюггман, вместо заявленных 12 500 солдат в учениях было задействовано около 100 тысяч военных, многие из них так и остались на западных границах России. Вот и в этот раз аналитики НАТО на основании разведданных делают … Читать далее →

15 сентября, 18:34

The Problem of Securing London's Tube

Friday's explosion was not fatal, but it shows how transit networks are especially vulnerable to terrorism.

14 сентября, 21:34

This Is America's Not-So-Secret Backup Plan in Case of World War III with China

Robert Beckhusen Security, Asia Just in case.  “Dispersing aircraft across many bases creates redundancy in operating surfaces and facilities. This enhances basic safety of flight by providing bases for weather or inflight-emergency diverts. It also increases the number of airfields that adversary forces must monitor and can greatly complicate their targeting problem (in part by raising the prospect that friendly forces might move among several bases). The United States can no longer count on its Pacific air bases to be safe from missile attack during a war with China. On the contrary, a 2015 paper from the influential RAND Corporation noted that in the worst case scenario, “larger and accurate attacks sustained over time against a less hardened posture could be devastating, causing large losses of aircraft and prolonged airfield closures.” Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, due to its relative proximity, would be hardest hit. To up the stakes, China in September 2015 publicly revealed its DF-26 ballistic missile, which can strike Andersen Air Force Base in Guam—nearly 3,000 miles away—from the Chinese mainland. Andersen and Kadena are among the U.S. military’s largest and most important overseas bases. Enter Tinian. The lush, small island near Guam is emerging as one of the Air Force’s backup landing bases. On February 10, the flying branch announced that it selected Tinian as a divert airfield “in the event access to Andersen Air Force Base, Guam, or other western Pacific locations is limited or denied.” In the Pentagon’s 2017 budget request, it asked for $9 million to buy 17.5 acres of land “in support of divert activities and exercise initiatives,” the Saipan Tribune reported. In peacetime, the expanded Tinian airfield will host “up to 12 tanker aircraft and associated support personnel for divert operations,” according to the Air Force. (This first appeared in 2015.) Tinian is now a sleepy place. During World War II, the 4th and 2nd Marine Divisions captured the island, which later based the B-29 Superfortresses Enola Gay and Bockscar which took off from Tinian’s North Field and dropped the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An arsenal during the war, most of its airstrips are now abandoned and unused. The island’s other former air base, West Field, is a small, neglected international airport. Read full article

30 июня, 03:37

Here's Why the U.S. Navy Could Add 'Light' Aircraft Carriers to the Fleet

Dave Majumdar Security, It might happen.  The U.S. Senate Armed Service Committee (SASC) is inserting language in its markup of the fiscal year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) that would mandate that the U.S. Navy study a preliminary design for a new light carrier. The new ships would not replace the Gerald R. Ford-class (CVN-78) supercarriers, but rather if the new ships were built, they would be used to disperse naval aviation assets across a larger geographical area to help support amphibious ready groups and the like. “Authorizes $30 million for preliminary design of a smaller aircraft carrier, which is in addition to the administration's request,” reads the summary of the SASC version of NDAA. Senate aides told reporters during a background brief on June 29 that the reason they inserted the language was because they are seeking information on different carrier types. Several naval force structure studies commissioned by the Navy have shown that there is a need for a light carrier to complement the service’s massive nuclear-powered supercarriers. “This is something we have continually heard,” a senior SASC aide told reporters. “The thought here is to put some money into some kind of detailed design work…showing us more specifically what if any merit there is as to how a program like this could come together.” Another Senate aide with specific expertise in naval aviation and naval platforms said that all three naval force structure studies have called for the addition of a smaller carrier to the fleet. There is also a RAND Corporation study that calls for such a vessel, the aide said, however that report is classified. The Senate is trying to have the RAND study declassified and released publicly. The Senate aide said that the studies have indicated that a light carrier in the 60,000-ton to 70,000-ton range—roughly the size of an old Forrestal-class or Kitty Hawk-class aircraft carrier—would be the “sweet spot” for such a ship. The ship would also likely only need two catapult launch systems because it would not need to generate the same number of sorties as a full-sized carrier. Read full article

28 июня, 14:00

When Men Hold Top Positions, How Much Can Mentorship Help Women?

The career of one female national-security professional offers some insight.

26 июня, 05:46

A Wide World Of Winless War

Cross-posted from TomDispatch.com The tabs on their shoulders read “Special Forces,” “Ranger,” “Airborne.” And soon their guidon ― the “colors” of Company B, 3rd Battalion of the U.S. Army’s 7th Special Forces Group ― would be adorned with the “Bandera de Guerra,” a Colombian combat decoration. “Today we commemorate sixteen years of a permanent fight against drugs in a ceremony where all Colombians can recognize the special counternarcotic brigade’s hard work against drug trafficking,” said Army Colonel Walther Jimenez, the commander of the Colombian military’s Special Anti-Drug Brigade, last December.  America’s most elite troops, the Special Operations forces (SOF), have worked with that Colombian unit since its creation in December 2000. Since 2014, four teams of Special Forces soldiers have intensely monitored the brigade. Now, they were being honored for it. Part of a $10 billion counter-narcotics and counterterrorism program, conceived in the 1990s, special ops efforts in Colombia are a much ballyhooed American success story.  A 2015 RAND Corporation study found that the program “represents an enduring SOF partnership effort that managed to help foster a relatively professional and capable special operations force.”  And for a time, coca production in that country plummeted.  Indeed, this was the ultimate promise of America’s “Plan Colombia” and efforts that followed from it.  “Over the longer haul, we can expect to see more effective drug eradication and increased interdiction of illicit drug shipments,” President Bill Clinton predicted in January 2000. Today, however, more than 460,000 acres of the Colombian countryside are blanketed with coca plants, more than during the 1980s heyday of the infamous cocaine kingpin Pablo Escobar.  U.S. cocaine overdose deaths are also at a 10-year high and first-time cocaine use among young adults has spiked 61% since 2013.  “Recent findings suggest that cocaine use may be reemerging as a public health concern in the United States,” wrote researchers from the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration in a study published in December 2016 ― just after the Green Berets attended that ceremony in Colombia. Cocaine, the study’s authors write, “may be making a comeback.” Colombia is hardly an anomaly when it comes to U.S. special ops deployments ― or the results that flow from them.  For all their abilities, tactical skills, training prowess, and battlefield accomplishments, the capacity of U.S. Special Operations forces to achieve decisive and enduring successes ― strategic victories that serve U.S. national interests ― have proved to be exceptionally limited, a reality laid bare from Afghanistan to Iraq, Yemen to the Philippines.  The fault for this lies not with the troops themselves, but with a political and military establishment that often appears bereft of strategic vision and hasn’t won a major war since the 1940s. Into this breach, elite U.S. forces are deployed again and again. While special ops commanders may raise concerns about the tempo of operations and strains on the force, they have failed to grapple with larger questions about the raison d’être of SOF, while Washington’s oversight establishment, notably the House and Senate Armed Services Committees, have consistently failed to so much as ask hard questions about the strategic utility of America’s Special Operations forces. Special Ops at War “We operate and fight in every corner of the world,” boasts General Raymond Thomas, the chief of U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM or SOCOM).  “On a daily basis, we sustain a deployed or forward stationed force of approximately 8,000 across 80-plus countries.  They are conducting the entire range of SOF missions in both combat and non-combat situations.”  Those numbers, however, only hint at the true size and scope of this global special ops effort.  Last year, America’s most elite forces conducted missions in 138 countries ― roughly 70% of the nations on the planet, according to figures supplied to TomDispatch by U.S. Special Operations Command.  Halfway through 2017, U.S. commandos have already been deployed to an astonishing 137 countries, according to SOCOM spokesman Ken McGraw.  Special Operations Command is tasked with carrying out 12 core missions, ranging from counterinsurgency and unconventional warfare to hostage rescue and countering the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.  Counterterrorism ― fighting what the command calls violent extremist organizations (VEOs) ― may, however, be what America’s elite forces have become best known for in the post-9/11 era.  “The threat posed by VEOs remains the highest priority for USSOCOM in both focus and effort,” says Thomas. “Special Operations Forces are the main effort, or major supporting effort for U.S. VEO-focused operations in Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Somalia, Libya, across the Sahel of Africa, the Philippines, and Central/South America ― essentially, everywhere Al Qaeda (AQ) and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) are to be found...” More special operators are deployed to the Middle East than to any other region.  Significant numbers of them are advising Iraqi government forces and Iraqi Kurdish soldiers as well as Kurdish YPG (Popular Protection Unit) fighters and various ethnic Arab forces in Syria, according to Linda Robinson, a senior international policy analyst with the RAND Corporation who spent seven weeks in Iraq, Syria, and neighboring countries earlier this year.  During a visit to Qayyarah, Iraq ― a staging area for the campaign to free Mosul, formerly Iraq’s second largest city, from the control of Islamic State fighters ― Robinson “saw a recently installed U.S. military medical unit and its ICU set up in tents on the base.”  In a type of mission seldom reported on, special ops surgeons, nurses, and other specialists put their skills to work on far-flung battlefields not only to save American lives, but to prop up allied proxy forces that have limited medical capabilities.  For example, an Air Force Special Operations Surgical Team recently spent eight weeks deployed at an undisclosed location in the Iraq-Syria theater, treating 750 war-injured patients.  Operating out of an abandoned one-story home within earshot of a battlefield, the specially trained airmen worked through a total of 19 mass casualty incidents and more than 400 individual gunshot or blast injuries. When not saving lives in Iraq and Syria, elite U.S. forces are frequently involved in efforts to take them.  “U.S. SOF are... being thrust into a new role of coordinating fire support,” wrote Robinson. “This fire support is even more important to the Syrian Democratic Forces, a far more lightly armed irregular force which constitutes the major ground force fighting ISIS in Syria.”  In fact, a video shot earlier this year, analyzed by the Washington Post, shows special operators “acting as an observation element for what appears to be U.S. airstrikes carried out by A-10 ground attack aircraft” to support Syrian Democratic Forces fighting for the town of Shadadi. Africa now ranks second when it comes to the deployment of special operators thanks to the exponential growth in missions there in recent years.  Just 3% of U.S. commandos deployed overseas were sent to Africa in 2010.  Now that number stands at more than 17%, according to SOCOM data.  Last year, U.S. Special Operations forces were deployed to 32 African nations, about 60% of the countries on the continent.  As I recently reported at VICE News, at any given time, Navy SEALs, Green Berets, and other special operators are now conducting nearly 100 missions across 20 African countries. In May, for instance, Navy SEALs were engaged in an “advise and assist operation” alongside members of Somalia’s army and came under attack.  SEAL Kyle Milliken was killed and two other U.S. personnel were injured during a firefight that also, according to AFRICOM spokesperson Robyn Mack, left three al-Shabaab militants dead.  U.S. forces are also deployed in Libya to gather intelligence in order to carry out strikes of opportunity against Islamic State forces there.  While operations in Central Africa against the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a brutal militia that has terrorized the region for decades, wound down recently, a U.S. commando reportedly killed a member of the LRA as recently as April.  Spring Training What General Thomas calls “building partner nations’ capacity” forms the backbone of the global activities of his command.  Day in, day out, America’s most elite troops carry out such training missions to sharpen their skills and those of their allies and of proxy forces across the planet.  This January, for example, Green Berets and Japanese paratroopers carried out airborne training near Chiba, Japan.  February saw Green Berets at Sanaa Training Center in northwest Syria advising recruits for the Manbij Military Council, a female fighting force of Kurds, Arabs, Christians, Turkmen, and Yazidis.  In March, snowmobiling Green Berets joined local forces for cold-weather military drills in Lapland, Finland.  That same month, special operators and more than 3,000 troops from Canada, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Latvia, Macedonia, the Netherlands, Slovenia, and the United Kingdom took part in tactical training in Germany. In the waters off Kuwait, special operators joined elite forces from the Gulf Cooperation Council nations in conducting drills simulating a rapid response to the hijacking of an oil tanker.  In April, special ops troops traveled to Serbia to train alongside a local special anti-terrorist unit.  In May, members of Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-Iraq carried out training exercises with Iraqi special operations forces near Baghdad. That same month, 7,200 military personnel, including U.S. Air Force Special Tactics airmen, Italian special operations forces, members of host nation Jordan’s Special Task Force, and troops from more than a dozen other nations took part in Exercise Eager Lion, practicing everything from assaulting compounds to cyber-defense.  For their part, a group of SEALs conducted dive training alongside Greek special operations forces in Souda Bay, Greece, while others joined NATO troops in Germany as part of Exercise Saber Junction 17 for training in land operations, including mock “behind enemy lines missions” in a “simulated European village.”  #Winning “We have been at the forefront of national security operations for the past three decades, to include continuous combat over the past 15-and-a-half years,” SOCOM’s Thomas told the House Armed Services Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities last month.  “This historic period has been the backdrop for some of our greatest successes, as well as the source of our greatest challenge, which is the sustained readiness of this magnificent force.”  Yet, for all their magnificence and all those successes, for all the celebratory ceremonies they’ve attended, the wars, interventions, and other actions for which they’ve served as the tip of the American spear have largely foundered, floundered, or failed.  After their initial tactical successes in Afghanistan in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, America’s elite operators became victims of Washington’s failure to declare victory and go home.  As a result, for the last 15 years, U.S. commandos have been raiding homes, calling in air strikes, training local forces, and waging a relentless battle against a growing list of terror groups in that country.  For all their efforts, as well as those of their conventional military brethren and local Afghan allies, the war is now, according to the top U.S. commander in the Middle East, a “stalemate.”  That’s a polite way of saying what a recent report to Congress by the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction found: districts that are contested or under “insurgent control or influence” have risen from an already remarkable 28% in 2015 to 40%. The war in Afghanistan began with efforts to capture or kill al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.  Having failed in this post-9/11 mission, America’s elite forces spun their wheels for the next decade when it came to his fate.  Finally, in 2011, Navy SEALs cornered him in his long-time home in Pakistan and gunned him down.  Ever since, special operators who carried out the mission and Washingtonpower-players (not to mentionHollywood) have been touting this single tactical success. In an Esquire interview, Robert O’Neill, the SEAL who put two bullets in bin Laden’s head, confessed that he joined the Navy due to frustration over an early crush, a puppy-love pique.  “That’s the reason al-Qaeda has been decimated,” he joked, “because she broke my fucking heart.”  But al-Qaeda was not decimated ― far from it according to Ali Soufan, a former F.B.I. special agent and the author of Anatomy of Terror: From the Death of Bin Laden to the Rise of the Islamic State.  As he recently observed, “Whereas on 9/11 al-Qaeda had a few hundred members, almost all of them based in a single country, today it enjoys multiple safe havens across the world.”  In fact, he points out, the terror group has gained strength since bin Laden’s death. Year after year, U.S. special operators find themselves fighting new waves of militants across multiple continents, including entire terror groups that didn’t exist on 9/11.  All U.S. forces killed in Afghanistan in 2017 have reportedly died battling an Islamic State franchise, which began operations there just two years ago.  The U.S. invasion of Iraq, to take another example, led to the meteoric rise of an al-Qaeda affiliate which, in turn, led the military’s secretive Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) ― the elite of America’s special ops elite ― to create a veritable manhunting machine designed to kill its leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and take down the organization.  As with bin Laden, special operators finally did find and eliminate Zarqawi, battering his organization in the process, but it was never wiped out.  Left behind were battle-hardened elements that later formed the Islamic State and did what al-Qaeda never could: take and hold huge swaths of territory in two nations.  Meanwhile, al-Qaeda’s Syrian branch grew into a separate force of more than 20,000.  In Yemen, after more than a decade of low-profile special ops engagement, that country teeters on the brink of collapse in the face of a U.S.-backed Saudi war there.  Continued U.S. special ops missions in that country, recently on the rise, have seemingly done nothing to alter the situation.  Similarly, in Somalia in the Horn of Africa, America’s elite forces remain embroiled in an endless war against militants.  In 2011, President Obama launched Operation Observant Compass, sending Special Operations forces to aid Central African proxies in an effort to capture or kill Joseph Kony and decimate his murderous Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), then estimated to number 150 to 300 armed fighters.  After the better part of a decade and nearly $800 million spent, 150 U.S. commandos were withdrawn this spring and U.S. officials attended a ceremony to commemorate the end of the mission.  Kony was, however, never captured or killed and the LRA is now estimated to number about 150 to 250 fighters, essentially the same size as when the operation began. This string of futility extends to Asia as well.  “U.S. Special Forces have been providing support and assistance in the southern Philippines for many years, at the request of several different Filipino administrations,” Emma Nagy, a spokesperson for the U.S. embassy in Manilla, pointed out earlier this month.  Indeed, a decade-plus-long special ops effort there has been hailed as a major success.  Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines, wrote RAND analyst Linda Robinson late last year in the Pentagon journal Prism, “was aimed at enabling the Philippine security forces to combat transnational terrorist groups in the restive southern region of Mindanao.”  A 2016 RAND report co-authored by Robinson concluded that “the activities of the U.S. SOF enabled the Philippine government to substantially reduce the transnational terrorist threat in the southern Philippines.” This May, however, Islamist militants overran Marawi City, a major urban center on Mindanao.  They have been holding on to parts of it for weeks despite a determined assault by Filipino troops backed by U.S. Special Operations forces.  In the process, large swaths of the city have been reduced to rubble. Running on Empty America’s elite forces, General Thomas told members of Congress last month, “are fully committed to winning the current and future fights.”  In reality, though, from war to war, intervention to intervention, from the Anti-Drug Brigade ceremony in Florencia, Colombia, to the end-of-the-Kony-hunt observance in Obo in the Central African Republic, there is remarkably little evidence that even enduring efforts by Special Operations forces result in strategic victories or improved national security outcomes.  And yet, despite such boots-on-the-ground realities, America’s special ops forces and their missions only grow. “We are... grateful for the support of Congress for the required resourcing that, in turn, has produced a SOCOM which is relevant to all the current and enduring threats facing the nation,” Thomas told the Senate Armed Services Committee in May.  Resourcing has, indeed, been readily available.  SOCOM’s annual budget has jumped from $3 billion in 2001 to more than $10 billion today.  Oversight, however, has been seriously lacking.  Not a single member of the House or Senate Armed Services Committees has questioned why, after more than 15 years of constant warfare, winning the “current fight” has proven so elusive.  None of them has suggested that “support” from Congress ought to be reconsidered in the face of setbacks from Afghanistan to Iraq, Colombia to Central Africa, Yemen to the southern Philippines.   In the waning days of George W. Bush’s administration, Special Operations forces were reportedly deployed to about 60 nations around the world.  By 2011, under President Barack Obama, that number had swelled to 120.  During this first half-year of the Trump administration, U.S. commandos have already been sent to 137 countries, with elite troops now enmeshed in conflicts from Africa to Asia.  “Most SOF units are employed to their sustainable limit,” Thomas told members of the House Armed Services Committee last month.  In fact, current and former members of the command have, for some time, been sounding the alarm about the level of strain on the force.  These deployment levels and a lack of meaningful strategic results from them have not, however, led Washington to raise fundamental questions about the ways the U.S. employs its elite forces, much less about SOCOM’s raison d’être.  “We are a command at war and will remain so for the foreseeable future,” SOCOM’s Thomas explained to the Senate Armed Services Committee.  Not one member asked why or to what end.  Nick Turse is the managing editor of TomDispatch, a fellow at the Nation Institute, and a contributing writer for the Intercept. His book Tomorrow’s Battlefield: U.S. Proxy Wars and Secret Ops in Africa received an American Book Award in 2016. His latest book is Next Time They’ll Come to Count the Dead: War and Survival in South Sudan. His website is NickTurse.com. Follow TomDispatch on Twitter and join us on Facebook. Check out the newest Dispatch Book, John Dower’s The Violent American Century: War and Terror Since World War II, as well as John Feffer’s dystopian novel Splinterlands, Nick Turse’s Next Time They’ll Come to Count the Dead, and Tom Engelhardt’s Shadow Government: Surveillance, Secret Wars, and a Global Security State in a Single-Superpower World. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

23 июня, 19:33

State’s Afghanistan-Pakistan envoy leaves, spurring confusion about U.S. diplomacy in region

The Trump administration on Friday moved to eliminate the State Department unit responsible for dealing with Afghanistan and Pakistan — transferring its duties to a regional bureau whose leadership ranks have been decimated, two sources told POLITICO.The development came with less than a day’s notice. It deeply rattled U.S. officials who say the shift leaves unclear who is responsible for handling diplomacy toward Afghanistan and Pakistan at a time when President Donald Trump is considering ramping up U.S. military efforts in that region.The phase-out of the office of the Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan (SRAP) was put in motion under the Obama administration, and the unit had been shrinking for some time. The plan had long been to let the State Department's South and Central Asian Affairs Bureau take over the highly sensitive portfolios. But Trump and Secretary of State Rex Tillerson have failed to fill numerous leadership positions across the State Department. And, when compared to other regional bureaus, South and Central Asian Affairs has seen unusually high levels of top staff departures. Unlike other regional bureaus, it does not even have an acting assistant secretary overseeing it.“The Afghanistan and Pakistan function is being dissolved and transferred into a structure that has been dissolved itself,” a U.S. diplomat familiar with the issue told POLITICO. “We’ve long planned for SRAP to go away, but the intention was for the policy to be transferred responsibly.”Added a State Department official familiar with the situation: "There is uncertainty about the leadership of the regional bureau given recent departures."Overall, the developments underscore the rapid erosion of leadership at the State Department under Trump and Tillerson and the potentially damaging effects it could have on U.S. diplomatic efforts. With SRAP gone and the regional bureau's status unclear, it's not certain who will take over the many relationships built with Afghan and Pakistani diplomatic counterparts. Such relationships need constant tending, and can fade quickly.The State Department press office did not immediately respond to a request for comment.The diplomat said the highest-ranking official at the moment in the South and Central Asian Affairs Bureau is the acting principal deputy assistant secretary, Howard Vanvranken, whose background is more in management than policy. The man who had been serving as the bureau's acting assistant secretary, William Todd, was transferred earlier this month to help run State's human resources bureau, which has also seen leadership turnover.Laurel Miller, the acting special representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan, bows out Friday; she was detailed to State from the RAND Corporation. Another person leaving Friday is Jonathan Carpenter, the acting principal deputy assistant at SRAP.The U.S. diplomat said Tillerson and his staff had been repeatedly warned about SRAP's coming phase-out and the need to transfer the policy portfolios in a a proper way. But the secretary of state appears in no hurry to fill out the leadership ranks in any of his regional bureaus. Tillerson is looking at ways to restructure the entire State Department and has indicated that one reason so many positions have been left unfilled is because he'd prefer to reorganize the building before filling all the roles. The Trump administration's budget plan envisions a roughly 30 percent cut to the State Department, so there's anticipation that Tillerson will try to cut many positions. In any case, because many of State's leadership roles require Senate confirmation, it could be well into 2018 before the department's top levels are filled out.Even as U.S. diplomats appear to be increasingly sidelined under Trump, the president has given the Pentagon more deference and intends to increase its budget. That's led to growing concern that the U.S. policy in Afghanistan will be increasingly run by military leaders instead of civilians.

23 июня, 17:43

NORTH KOREAN CHEMICAL WEAPONS: North Korea has them. Assessing the chemical artillery. North …

NORTH KOREAN CHEMICAL WEAPONS: North Korea has them. Assessing the chemical artillery. North Korea is believed to have placed a high priority on chemical weapons ever since Kim Il-sung’s “Declaration of Chemicalization” in 1961. But the quantity, quality, and durability of the North Korean chemical arsenal are unknown. In the 1970s, intelligence estimates by the […]

21 июня, 11:32

Как изменятся методы борьбы США с ДАИШ после освобождения Эр-Ракки?

Последние бастионы так называемого халифата ДАИШ в Ираке и в Сирии – города Мосул и Эр-Ракка – могут быть освобождены в течение нескольких месяцев. Но и после этого, по мнению аналитика RAND, они будут представлять опасность, а освобождение Эр-Ракки усложнит бушующий в регионе конфликтThe post Как изменятся методы борьбы США с ДАИШ после освобождения Эр-Ракки? appeared first on MixedNews.

21 июня, 11:32

Как изменятся методы борьбы США с ДАИШ после освобождения Эр-Ракки?

Последние бастионы так называемого халифата ДАИШ в Ираке и в Сирии – города Мосул и Эр-Ракка – могут быть освобождены в течение нескольких месяцев. Но и после этого, по мнению аналитика RAND, они будут представлять опасность, а освобождение Эр-Ракки усложнит бушующий в регионе конфликтThe post Как изменятся методы борьбы США с ДАИШ после освобождения Эр-Ракки? appeared first on MixedNews.

21 июня, 11:32

Как изменятся методы борьбы США с ДАИШ после освобождения Эр-Ракки?

Последние бастионы так называемого халифата ДАИШ в Ираке и в Сирии – города Мосул и Эр-Ракка – могут быть освобождены в течение нескольких месяцев. Но и после этого, по мнению аналитика RAND, они будут представлять опасность, а освобождение Эр-Ракки усложнит бушующий в регионе конфликтThe post Как изменятся методы борьбы США с ДАИШ после освобождения Эр-Ракки? appeared first on MixedNews.

20 июня, 12:39

Американский ответ российской ТВ-пропаганде

Зеленоглазый блондин с аккуратной бородой Игорь Тихоненко смотрит в камеру и произносит: «Я принял его слова за призыв к действию». Он перефразировал сенсационные показания бывшего директора ФБР Джеймса Коми, связанные с президентом Дональдом Трампом. Белорус Тихоненко ведёт прямое вещание на русском языке в день допроса Коми для аудитории в России и соседних с нею государств. Вскоре после этого его российский коллега Роман Мамонов общается с корреспондентом, находящимся в одном из баров Вашингтона, который открылся в ранние часы, чтобы одержимые политикой клиенты могли выпивать, наблюдая за ходом слушания. Канал транслировал все слушание целиком (трансляция велась и в Facebook) в переводе на русский язык.

19 июня, 09:02

Американский ответ российской ТВ-пропаганде

В Америке с целью снизить популярность российских вещательных компаний Russia Today и Sputnik был запущен 24-часовой телеканал на русском языке Current Time («Настоящее время»), который стал американским ответом российской ТВ-пропагандеThe post Американский ответ российской ТВ-пропаганде appeared first on MixedNews.

19 июня, 09:02

Американский ответ российской ТВ-пропаганде

В Америке с целью снизить популярность российских вещательных компаний Russia Today и Sputnik был запущен 24-часовой телеканал на русском языке Current Time («Настоящее время»), который стал американским ответом российской ТВ-пропагандеThe post Американский ответ российской ТВ-пропаганде appeared first on MixedNews.

19 июня, 09:02

Американский ответ российской ТВ-пропаганде

В Америке с целью снизить популярность российских вещательных компаний Russia Today и Sputnik был запущен 24-часовой телеканал на русском языке Current Time («Настоящее время»), который стал американским ответом российской ТВ-пропагандеThe post Американский ответ российской ТВ-пропаганде appeared first on MixedNews.

12 июня, 19:59

U.S. Military Practices for A Second D-Day Landing (And Its Aimed at Russia)

Russ Read Security, Europe U.S. Marines engaged in a mock beach landing in the Baltics on Tuesday in a scene reminiscent of the D-Day landings of World War II. The drill took place as part of NATO’s Exercise Baltic Operations (BALTOPS), an annual exercise involving approximately 6,000 troops that runs from June 1 to 16. The drill, which took place on a beach in Latvia, is a key component of the exercise which aims to project NATO power from sea at a time when the Russian threat to the Baltics has taken a drastic increase. “What we want to do is practice and demonstrate the ability to deliver sea control and power projection at and from the sea,” said U.S. Navy Adm. Christopher Grady, Joint Force Maritime Component Commander Europe. Reserve Marines from Texas deployed from the the USS Arlington, an amphibious landing transport, onto the beach with various landing craft. The drill was conducted on the 73rd anniversary of the D-Day landings during World War II, the largest amphibious invasion in modern history. The Latvian landing was significantly smaller in scope than the multiple landings on D-Day, but both operations involved a combination of air, maritime and land forces. BALTOPS, like D-Day, is also multinational, with 14 nations participating in various drills. BALTOPS has been recurring since 1972, but this year’s event comes at a time when NATO’s tensions with Russia are at their highest since the end of the Cold War. The ongoing conflict in eastern Ukraine and Russia’s aggressive rhetoric has Balkan countries concerned they could be the next target. “They’re scared to death of Russia,” said Gen. Raymond Thomas, head of U.S. Special Operations Command in January. “They are very open about that. They’re desperate for our leadership.” The U.S. sent a detachment of special operations forces to the Baltics in January in order to help train local forces. Russian forces could reach the capitals of both Latvia and neighboring Estonia in less than 60 hours, according to an assessment by the RAND corporation, even with a week’s notice. Latvia has approximately 4,450 active ground troops, while all three Baltic countries (Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia) have only around 15,750 between them. Estonia can also activate the 16,000 paramilitary troops in the Estonian Defense League, while Lithuania has around 10,000 militia members in the Lithuanian Rifleman’s Union. NATO also has rotating forces throughout the Baltic region, but RAND’s assessment noted that they may not be enough to stave off a Russian attack. “Such a rapid defeat would leave NATO with a limited number of options, all bad,” noted the report. Fortunately for the Baltics, President Donald Trump has noted he is “absolutely committed” to the collective defense of NATO, a stark change from his previously doubtful outlook on alliance. Content created by The Daily Caller News Foundation is available without charge to any eligible news publisher that can provide a large audience. For licensing opportunities of our original content, please contact [email protected]

10 июня, 16:52

TRUMP to rollback some of Obama’s Cuba policies -- FIRST IN PLAYBOOK: Kellyanne complains about West Wing colleagues -- REMEMBERING Zbig Brzezinski -- ASHCROFT hired by Qatar -- KATY TUR profile – B’DAY: Zeleny

Good Saturday morning. THE BELMONT STAKES is 6:37 p.m. tonight on NBC.WE HEAR … PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP is going to roll back some of Barack Obama’s changes to Cuba policy next week. He discussed the changes at a dinner with members of Congress earlier this week -- the dinner included Florida Sen. Marco Rubio, who was sharply critical of Obama’s policy change. The White House didn’t respond to a request for comment, but Marc Caputo and Sergio Bustos -- our POLITICO colleagues in Florida -- report he’ll make the announcement in Miami and also note: “Many expect that Trump will not reverse Obama’s decision to open a U.S. embassy in Havana or reinstate the ‘wet-foot/dry-foot’ policy that allowed Cuban immigrants who touched U.S. shores to become legal residents.” http://politi.co/2rX4B9KYOUR DAILY HEAD SNAP -- “Trump seems to undercut Tillerson’s remarks on Qatar,” by WaPo’s Karen DeYoung and Sudarsan Raghavan: “Secretary of State Rex Tillerson called on a Saudi Arabia-led bloc of Arab nations Friday to immediately ease their blockade of Qatar and urged all involved in the week-long Persian Gulf dispute to quickly resolve their differences, remarks that President Trump seemed to undercut less than an hour later.“Trump began a Rose Garden news conference with the visiting president of Romania by saying that the Saudi-led action against Qatar was ‘hard but necessary.’ He said he had been consulted in advance by nations that ‘spoke to me about confronting Qatar,’ a country he said historically has been a ‘funder of terrorism at a very high level.’ He said he had decided, along with Tillerson and ‘our great generals and military people, the time had come to call on Qatar to end that funding ... and its extremist ideology.’“Earlier, in a brief, formal statement at the State Department, Tillerson had called on Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt to ease their blockade, warning that it was causing humanitarian hardship in Qatar, harming U.S. and international business, and hindering U.S. military actions against the Islamic State.” http://wapo.st/2r549oV-- ANOTHER STRANGE MOMENT from Friday’s press conference withTRUMP and Romanian President Klaus Iohannis. REPORTER: “Thank you. Mr. President, were there any discussion about the Visa Waiver Program for Romania? Is there a time frame for including our country in this program? Thank you.” TRUMP: “We didn’t discuss it --” IOHANNIS: “Yes --”TRUMP: “We didn’t discuss it. But there would be certainly -- it would be something we will discuss. Mr. President.” IOHANNIS: “I mentioned this issue, and I also mentioned it during other meetings I had, because this is important for us, it's important for Romanians who want to come to the United States. And you see more and more people come, President Trump, from Romania to the United States. Some come as tourists. Some come for business. And those who come for business should be encouraged.”FOR MARC KASOWITZ -- “James Comey is a ‘leaker’ — but that doesn’t make him a criminal,” by WaPo’s Matt Zapotosky: “‘He can fairly be criticized for whether that was the best way for him to address his discomfort with his conversation with the president,’ said Barry J. Pollack, a white-collar criminal-defense attorney at Miller & Chevalier who has been involved in leak cases. ‘But that’s all a matter of how he conducts his job, and what his relationship is with the president is not a legal question.’“Prosecutors who bring charges against people for sharing informationwith the public can do so only when classified or other national security material is at issue. Material cannot be classified to conceal legal violations or prevent embarrassment, according to an executive order from President Barack Obama. Telling a reporter nonclassified information of public interest is not only legal, but it’s often the right thing to do.” http://wapo.st/2rcaqTH-- JOSH GERSTEIN: “The FBI’s standard employment agreement reads: ‘I will not reveal, by any means, any information or material from or related to FBI files or any other information acquired by virtue of my official employment to any unauthorized recipient without prior official written authorization by the FBI.’” http://politi.co/2rgDRip-- A DEFIANT TRUMP, via Julie Hirschfeld Davis and Glenn Thrush: “President Trump on Friday accused James B. Comey, the fired F.B.I. director, of lying under oath to Congress, saying he would gladly provide sworn testimony disputing Mr. Comey’s charge that the president forced him out because of his handling of the investigation into the Trump campaign’s possible collusion with Russia. … Asked whether he would be willing to provide his version under oath, Mr. Trump responded, ‘100 percent.’ He said of Mr. Mueller, ‘I would be glad to tell him exactly what I just told you.’” http://nyti.ms/2rXgFrP-- WHAT’S NEXT: “Comey associate has been in contact with Senate Judiciary about memos,” by Kyle Cheney: “Dan Richman, a longtime friend and adviser to former FBI director James Comey, has been in contact with the Senate Judiciary Committee regarding a series of memos that Comey authored about his private conversations with President Donald Trump from January through April. A source familiar with the discussions says Richman connected with the Senate panel via the office of special counsel Robert Mueller ... The source says the matter will be addressed on Monday.”http://politi.co/2sovUMU-- BLOCKBUSTER RATINGS: “More than 19 million saw Comey testimony on TV,” by Hadas Gold: “According to Nielsen ratings, ABC topped all networks, bringing in 3.295 million overall viewers, with CBS close behind with 3.286 million viewers. Fox News was next with 3.096 million viewers, followed by CNN with 3.049 million, NBC with 2.723 million viewers and MSNBC with 2.719 million viewers. ... Twitter, which partnered with Bloomberg to stream the hearing, said 2.7 million viewers tuned in.” http://politi.co/2s7XFce --PER FACEBOOK: There were 89 million views of videos related to Comey’s testimony. Those videos had nearly 8 million comments, reactions and shares. There were also 26 million views of Comey-related live video on Facebook.ABOUT THOSE TAPES -- @tripgabriel: “Personal anecdote: Candidate Trump once said he had taped a call with me, after disputing how he was quoted. I asked to hear it. Never did.” … @mikiebarb replies: “This happened to me as well. He always acted as if he was recording it.”THROWING SHADE -- @lloydblankfein: “Just landed from China, trying to catch up.... How did ‘infrastructure week’ go?”FIRST IN PLAYBOOK -- WHO MNUCHIN MET WITH IN CANADA –Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin made his first official solo foreign trip yesterday to Canada. Mnuchin, who met with Canadian Finance Minister Bill Morneau on the one-day trip to Ottawa, was seeking to highlight the importance of the U.S.-Canada strategic and economic alliance, according to Treasury. Deputy national security advisor Dina Powell and Treasury chief of staff Eli Miller accompanied Mnuchin. They also met Canadian foreign minister Chrystia Freeland, Canadian Ambassador to the U.S. David Mac Naughton and attended a cabinet meeting with top ministers. They discussed a variety of topics including the upcoming G-20 agenda, trade and economic issues and national security challenges. Mnuchin also met with a group of more than 20 CEOs who do business in both the U.S. and Canada, including the heads of Ford Canada, GE Canada and TD Bank. More foreign trips by Mnuchin are in the works, according to our Treasury source. DAVID A. FAHRENTHOLD in WaPo, “New York attorney general ‘looking into’ Eric Trump’s foundation”: “New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman is ‘looking into’ a charitable foundation founded by Eric Trump, a spokesman for Schneiderman said, after Forbes magazine raised questions about whether President Trump’s son had made misleading statements about how the foundation spent its money. ... One item at issue, the attorney general’s office said, was that the Eric Trump Foundation has rebranded itself ‘Curetivity’ and held a fundraiser under that name. But, after a query from The Washington Post on Friday morning, the attorney general’s office said the charity had not officially changed its name with New York charity regulators.” http://wapo.st/2t5KuWrROMNEYSTOCK – ALEX ISENSTADT’S HARDSHIP ASSIGNMENT to Deer Valley, Utah: “Romney reveals that Clinton nudged him to consider Trump’s secretary of state overture”: “Romney, appearing before a group of major Republican Party donors here, said that he reached out to Clinton last year after getting a phone call from then-Vice President-elect Mike Pence informing him that he was on the shortlist for secretary of state. ... Romney ... was golfing in Hawaii when he received the call ... He then turned to former secretaries of state, including the just-defeated Clinton, to ask whether he should consent to the offer. ‘In each case, each of them said, “Please, please take that job if it’s offered to you. We’d very much like to see you serve in that capacity,”’ Romney said.” http://politi.co/2seggUP--“Biden encourages 2012 foe Romney to run for the Senate”: “During a closed-door appearance with Romney here on Friday evening, Biden said Romney should consider a Senate bid. The remark came during the second day of the E2 Summit, an annual Romney-hosted donor conference. Attendees were gathered to hear a dialogue between the two men, who were on opposite sides of the 2012 election. Romney, according to two sources present, offered little by way of response other than to smile. ... There has been considerable speculation that Romney may seek the seat of longtime Utah Sen. Orrin Hatch should he forego reelection. Neither Romney ... nor his aides have denied interest in the seat should it become open.” http://politi.co/2s7YMbUMITCH MCCONNELL’S LATEST HEADACHE -- “Conservatives near revolt on Senate health care negotiations,” by Burgess Everett: “As Obamacare repeal talks enter crunchtime with a vote as soon as this month, the Senate bill continues to tilt toward more moderate members of the GOP on keeping some of Obamacare's regulatory structure and providing a more generous wind-down of the law's Medicaid expansion. The movement has made Republicans increasingly pessimistic that two critical conservative senators, Mike Lee of Utah and Rand Paul of Kentucky, will be able to vote for the GOP's ultimate agreement on healthcare, according to senators and aides.” http://politi.co/2s7Z42lCOMING ATTRACTIONS -- “Trump Will Meet With Tech Leaders To Talk About Emerging Tech Like Drones,” by BuzzFeed’s Ryan Mac: “The White House is planning a second gathering of technology leaders later this month, in which President Donald Trump is expected to meet with venture capitalists and entrepreneurs from emerging tech firms. Three sources confirmed to BuzzFeed News that the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) is organizing the event, scheduled for June 22 — three days after Trump is expected to meet with the likes of Apple CEO Tim Cook, Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos, Oracle co-CEO Safra Catz and technology executives in Washington. ... [T]he second meeting ... will address emerging technologies trends including the Internet of Things, commercial drones and the funding of those companies.” http://bzfd.it/2rgABUfREMEMBERING ZBIGNIEW BRZEZINSKI -- “Washington Remembers Brzezinski, and a Very Different Era,” by NYT’s Matt Flegenheimer: “One after another, the mourners filed into the stately Cathedral of St. Matthew -- ambassadors, cabinet secretaries, television hosts, a president -- hunkering together behind the grand doors, at least for a little while, to consider a man and a capital from a bygone political moment most seemed to prefer. The occasion was the funeral of Zbigniew Brzezinski ... ‘He was a realistic optimist,’ one eulogizer, the former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, said of Mr. Brzezinski, recalling his commitment to human rights, his belief in the power of considered diplomacy and his fierce wariness of Russia. The crowd nodded. ... [F]or two hours on Friday, the city’s beleaguered establishment seemed to revel in a collective embrace, capping a week in which it rallied to defend some treasured Washington traditions -- congressional oversight, the independence of the F.B.I. -- in the face of persistent executive chaos.” http://nyti.ms/2s8bvLr-- Hundreds of people attended the funeral, at St. Matthew’s Roman Catholic Cathedral in Washington. President Jimmy Carter, Madeline Albright, John Hamre, and Ian, Mark and Mika Brzezinski all gave remarks. Albright read a note from John Kerry and Hamre read a note from Henry Kissinger. SPOTTED: Jonathan Capehart, Chris Licht, Robin Wright, Andrew Schwartz, Al Hunt, Bob Gates, Ambassadors from Finland, China, Japan, Sweden, Italy, and UAE, Carl Bernstein, Kathy Kemper, Maureen Orth, Bob Schieffer, Margaret Carlson, Boyden Gray, Katty Kay, House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, Susan Rice, Chuck Todd, Ernest Moniz, and Margaret Warner.TRUMP’S WEEKEND -- The president is at his golf club in Bedminster, New Jersey. PENCE is in Milwaukee, where he’ll talk to small businesses with Gov. Scott Walker and give a speech about Obamacare. He’ll return to D.C. and speak at the Faith & Freedom Coalition’s Patriot’s Gala.THE JUICE …-- @rchammond: “The President has announced his intent to nominate Eric Ueland of Oregon to serve as Under Secretary of State for Management. @StateDept”. Ueland is Republican staff director of the Senate Budget Committee, worked on the Trump transition and earlier in his career was chief of staff to former Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist.-- FIRST IN PLAYBOOK: FROM HADAS GOLD: KELLYANNE CONWAY was overheard Thursday night talking about her West Wing co-workers to fellow revelers at a party. Conway was having an off-the-record conversation with a group of reporters and other attendees at the British Embassy at their election-night watch party. She said President Donald Trump told her to “go out there and say ‘Jim Comey is going to have to wait and see about the tapes.’”“I mean, that’s basically the same thing as ‘no comment,’” she said. Conway also mimicked Reince Priebus urging White House aides to stop leaking, and wondered aloud what Marc Short -- the legislative director -- does all day. She also said she is “the one catching the slings and arrows in the West Wing.” The source who heard Conway created a Twitter account about the evening, naming it @kellyanneleaks and posting photos and tweets from the event. Two other sources confirmed Conway’s remarks.White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer said Conway disputed the account, explaining that she is very close to Short. Spicer said Conway was not mocking Priebus, but rather reporters for palace intrigue stories “and how wrong they’ve been.” Spicer disputed that Conway had pushed back on the presidents request on how to comment about Comey, saying that she was simply explaining what the lawyers said the White House can say.JOHN ASHCROFT’S FIRM HIRED BY QATAR – “Singled Out by Trump, Qatar Hires Former Top Law Man to Lobby,” by Bloomberg’s Bill Allison: “Qatar hired Ashcroft Law Firm, LLC for 90 days, agreeing to pay it $2.5 million to help the Persian Gulf nation comply with U.S. money laundering and counterterrorism financing regulations and to stress its efforts to combat global terrorism, according to disclosures filed under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. ... The contract cites the ‘urgent need to commence work immediately’ which will be ‘a top priority’ for the firm. ...“Aschroft’s firm promised to provide crisis response and management, program and system analysis, media outreach and advocacy, stressing Qatar’s efforts to combat global terror, according to the contract. As part of that effort, the firm plans ‘a comprehensive legal and government relations strategy,’ one that will communicate broadly and to ‘certain domestic agencies and leaders.’” https://bloom.bg/2rcumWs WHAT DAN SCAVINO IS READING -- “Inside The Chaotic Battle To Be The Top Reply To A Trump Tweet,” by BuzzFeed’s Charlie Warzel: “[S]econds after the president sounds off to his 31 million-plus followers, he’s bombarded with replies -- almost all of them extreme. There are breathless condemnations of Trump policy; cries for his speedy impeachment; furious demands for his administration to admit its role in any number of global and political conspiracies; #Resist-ers; #TrumpTrain conductors and passengers; impassioned defenses of his character; praise for Trump as chessmaster-in-chief, 10 steps ahead and constantly outwitting enemies. There are comedians, actors, doctors, scientists, admirers, goons, politicos, activists, journalists, and trolls. ... And within seconds they’re all just a few pixels below the president’s missive — yelling, arguing, and looking to be the one Donald Trump sees when he checks his Twitter feed.” http://bzfd.it/2r57m7T-- “Dan Scavino is the other @realdonaldtrump,” by Eliana Johnson: “The White House is brimming with aides, lawyers, and communications gurus who are begging President Donald Trump to stop tweeting. The lone exception is Dan Scavino, the president’s former golf caddy who now oversees the White House’s messaging on social media. Scavino is in many ways the president’s mini-me, a man whose bombast, impulse control, and instinct for a good punch match those of his boss.“After Trump last weekend blasted London Mayor Sadiq Khan after a terror attack that killed eight people, Scavino posted a message citing Khan’s own 2016 criticism of Trump’s rhetoric on Muslims and terrorism—complete with a Trumpian, all-caps ‘WAKE UP!!!!’ And like his boss, Scavino has ignored warnings from high-level White House officials to tone down his tweets. Scavino was reprimanded on Friday for violating the Hatch Act, which prohibits senior executive branch officials from using their authority to interfere with elections, by calling in April for the ouster of Michigan Republican Justin Amash.” http://politi.co/2s7Uz7XTRUMP INC. -- “Trump Can Take Payments From Foreign Governments, U.S. Says,” by Bloomberg’s Bob Van Voris: “George Washington did it, so Donald Trump can too. That’s the Justice Department’s take on why the 45th president isn’t violating the U.S. Constitution by accepting payments for goods and services from foreign governments without congressional approval. The foreign emoluments clause of the Constitution doesn’t apply to fair-market commercial transactions, such as hotel bills, golf club fees, licensing payments and office rent, the Justice department argued Friday in a filing.” https://bloom.bg/[email protected]: “Among DOJ’s arguments why Trump emoluments suit should be dismissed. ‘Ten Facts about the Gristmill, George Washington’s Mount Vernon’”NEW POLITICO SERIES – “5 things Trump did while you weren’t looking: Behind the scandal-of-the-day news, the White House really is changing American policy. A new series from The Agenda explains how,” by Danny Vinik: “1. A boost for Uber and McDonald’s. ... 2. A trade war with Mexico averted—for now. ... 3. The end of a DOJ ‘slush fund.’ ... 4. A win for nursing homes. ... 5. Get THAAD out of here.” http://politi.co/2rWYsum2018 WATCH -- “Senate Democrats try to spark rural comeback in 2018,” by Maggie Severns: “While many voters in rural areas complained that Democrats forgot them in 2016, and party strategists rush this year to find a new message to bring them back in the fold, Democratic senators up for reelection in 2018 have little time to spare to fix their party’s issues. These battleground-state Democrats are quick to note that they got elected in the first place by tending to voters outside their states’ biggest population centers. And they are focused this year on winning back voters their party has failed to connect with since the last time they appeared on the ballot.” http://politi.co/2rWX22ZLUNCH WITH THE FT -- BERNIE SANDERS in DUBLIN! -- by Simon Kuper: “Sanders’ car pulls up (brilliantly, his Irish driver is called Bernie Saunders) and the senator clambers out, his shoulders hunched, his suit crumpled, his strands of white hair unkempt, not the standard American politician with Botox and a hair transplant. Today he is tieless, too: he has been assured that Irish president Michael D Higgins won’t mind. The tiny Higgins appears, dispensing handshakes and hugs.“‘I think Trump is actually quite smart -- in his own way and for his own reasons. He may not know a lot about foreign policy or healthcare, but he is not a dumb man by any means. I think what Trump is doing is filling the agenda of people like the Koch brothers: essentially doing away with every major programme passed since Franklin D Roosevelt that would help working people, the elderly, children, the sick and the poor, and at the same time providing massive tax breaks to the rich and large corporations. In this budget, Trump did not propose cuts to social security [the American retirement programme], but I have zero doubt that will be coming down the pike.’” http://on.ft.com/2sobq70KATY TUR PROFILE -- AND SHE’S A PHISH FAN! -- COVER OF NYT SUNDAY STYLES -- “Katy Tur Is Tougher Than She Looks: The NBC correspondent’s swift and surprising rise at the network mirrored that of the presidential candidate she covered and occasionally battled with,” by Luisita Lopez Torregrosa: “Mr. Trump’s sudden rise mirrors that of Ms. Tur’s. Just two years ago she was a foreign correspondent for NBC, living in London. But she happened to be in New York when the future president announced his candidacy, on June 16, 2015. ‘How would you like to spend the summer in New York?’ an NBC News executive asked her. ‘We want you on Trump’s campaign. It will be six weeks, tops. But hey, if he wins, you’ll go to the White House.’“A year or so later, she had captured national attention. Colleagues rallied around her, thousands tweeted #iamwithtur, magazines came calling, and HarperCollins engaged her to write a book on the 2016 campaign; ‘Unbelievable’ is due out in September. Then there is the afternoon anchor slot, which MSNBC gave her in January. In April, she received a Walter Cronkite Award for excellence. And this month she will become a contributor to the much publicized new NBC News program ‘Sunday Night With Megyn Kelly.’” http://nyti.ms/2t5S6Z4MEDIAWATCH -- “10 months ago, Univision bought Gawker in a fire sale, and it’s been messy ever since,” by Business Insider’s Maxwell Tani: “CEO Raju Narisetti ... is leading GMG through the media company’s merger with Fusion Media Group, which is owned by the Spanish-language juggernaut Univision. According to the CEO, the transition has been a success. But conversations with over a dozen current and former employees painted a starkly different picture. Since the deal, the six former Gawker Media sites -- Gizmodo, Jezebel, Deadspin, Kotaku, Jalopnik, and Lifehacker -- have struggled with indecision, a dysfunctional bureaucracy, and an exodus of top leadership and institutional knowledge that gave Gawker Media its editorial bite.” http://read.bi/2rLXwKQ-- DANIEL HALPER, former D.C. bureau chief for the N.Y. Post who recently was hired by Matt Drudge, quietly joined the Washington Free Beacon as a contributing editor recently, Hadas Gold tells us. Halper and the Free Beacon did not respond to requests for more details.CLICKER – “The nation’s cartoonists on the week in politics,” edited by Matt Wuerker -- 14 keepers http://politi.co/2sbxstYDESSERT -- HOW MANY HAVE YOU SEEN? – “The 25 Best Films of the 21st Century So Far,” by NYT’s Manohla Dargis and A.O. Scott: “1. There Will Be Blood ... 2. Spirited Away ... 3. Million Dollar Baby ... 4. A Touch of Sin ... 5. The Death of Mr. Lazarescu ... 6. Yi Yi ... 7. Inside Out ... 8. Boyhood ... 9. Summer Hours ... 10. The Hurt Locker.” With in-depth discussions of each film on the list http://nyti.ms/2t5IkG7GREAT WEEKEND READS, curated by Daniel Lippman:--“Why Men Don’t Live as Long as Women,” by Richard G. Bribiescas in Nautilus Magazine – per The Browser’s description: “Are we at peak male testosterone? Testosterone raises the sex drive, builds muscle and burns fat. It also shortens the lifespan by encouraging recklessness, weakening the immune system, and raising the risk of prostate cancer. The reproductive payoff favoured high testosterone in ancient times: More children meant more surviving children. But now, thanks to monogamy and medicine, the trade-off is less clear. The evolutionary advantage may be passing to fathers who live longer.” http://bit.ly/2sKN0lp--“America’s Hidden H.I.V. Epidemic,” by Linda Villarosa in the NYT Magazine: “Why do America’s black gay and bisexual men have a higher H.I.V. rate than any country in the world?” http://nyti.ms/2sLamrg (h/t Longreads.com)--“The Real Story Behind Elon Musk’s $2.6 Billion Acquisition Of SolarCity And What It Means For Tesla’s Future–Not To Mention The Planet’s,” by Fast Company’s Austin Carr: “The Tesla CEO’s merger with his cousins’ sustainable-energy company, SolarCity, is totally logical–and hugely risky. With eyes now on the private sector for environmental leadership, can Musk pull off another miracle?” http://bit.ly/2scvObB--“Soccer for Intellectuals,” by Bécquer Seguín in Public Books: “Any baseball or boxing narrative can be easily embodied in the momentary struggle between two individuals. Soccer, on the other hand, isn’t wedded to the fate of individuals. Its beauty is most often in the battle between two ideas, two philosophies, two tactical approaches.” http://bit.ly/2t2yox5--“Challenging Mainstream Thought About Beauty’s Big Hand in Evolution,” by NYT’s James Gorman: “Are aesthetic judgments about mates invariably tied to traits we see as adaptive and worth passing on? Or, does beauty just ‘happen’?” http://nyti.ms/2s4QxNz (h/t ALDaily.com)--“Bill Maher Knows Exactly What He’s Doing: Just Ask Him,” by Stephen Rodrick in Esquire: “Real Time’s format is a throwback to a seventies talk show -- with a monologue, an interview, a panel discussion, some jokes, and a closing argument -- but here everything is done without the benefit of breath-catching commercial breaks. This setup sometimes leads to what can feel, in the moment, like a random car wreck, but Maher’s been doing comedy for forty years. He’s addicted to provocation, and more often than not, he’s driving his show into a brick wall by design.” http://bit.ly/2s52a7h--“Proust and Dreyfus,” by Joachim Kalka in Tablet Magazine: “In an excerpt from the newly translated ‘Gaslight,’ by German writer Joachim Kalka, an examination of how the scandal that rocked France bled into European literature.” http://bit.ly/2rJ7bl6--“Who Do You Want Elisabeth Moss to Be?” by Emily Gould in Elle Magazine: http://bit.ly/2rIYAyU--“Welcome to the Green Machine,” by John Nova Lomax in the June issue of Texas Monthly: “My son was jobless, directionless, and apartmentless. So when he decided to join the Army, we were just glad he was out of the house. What we didn’t know was just how much the military would change him—and us.” http://bit.ly/2sL0TAb (h/t Longform.org)--“The horrors of getting hit by a pitch,” by Tim Kurkjian in ESPN on Aug 3, 2012: “When that baseball is flying directly at a hitter at 95 mph, and that batter can hear the ball spinning, like the sound of a giant bee attacking, and then it hits that batter and those red seams bore into the skin like the teeth of a buzz saw, well, the elegance and romance of that pearl is replaced by piercing, pulsating, primal pain. It is pain that can last for weeks, it can leave a hideous mark that can last for months and it can instill a fear that can last forever.” http://es.pn/2t2UsI6--“The Impossible Profession,” by Janet Malcolm in the November 24th, 1980 issue of The New Yorker: What it’s like to be a psychoanalyst in NYC. http://bit.ly/2smxM8L--“Athens, Sparta and Rome: the Ancient election,” by Mary Beard in The Times Literary Supplement: “Voters individually picked out their ballot slips (wax on wood, probably) from a basket as they walked across some form of bridge, then wrote the name of their candidate in the wax as they walked, and finally dropped it into the ballot box.” http://bit.ly/2sbKsQt--“The White Wedding Dress Industrial Complex,” by Helena Fitzgerald in Racked: “A fantasy of wealth beyond reality or responsibility is built into the details of these dresses, all the way down to the tiny rows of covered buttons. Mostly when we spend too much money, we pretend that the money isn’t real. This is why part of the point of the dress is that you can’t wear it again — it becomes a perfect object, distilled and frozen in time, lifted out of the ordinary cycles of use and value and repetition.” http://bit.ly/2r2ZS5k--“How ‘Eureka’ Moments in Science Happen,” by Cathy Newman in NatGeo: “From bathtubs to falling apples, find out what really drives some of the iconic tales of ‘light bulb’ moments in science.” http://bit.ly/2r3tYFRSUMMER BUCKET LIST -- WAPO: “The 40 most essential D.C. restaurant dishes of 2017” http://wapo.st/2sNLwXzSPOTTED: Sen. Rand Paul (R-Ky.) last night watching the Cavs/Warriors game at the Trump Hotel.OUT AND ABOUT – PATRICK STEEL and LEE SATTERFIELD’s 50thbirthday celebration last night at the Meridian International Center: Virginia Gov. Terry McAuliffe, Robert and Elena Allbritton, Dan and Rhoda Glickman, Nancy Bagley and Soroush Shehabi, Rob and Capricia Marshall, Ann Stock, Tony Blinken and Evan Ryan, Elizabeth Bagley, Jonathan Capehart and Nick Schmit, Kiki McLean, Melissa Moss, Adam and Tracy Bernstein, H.P. Goldfield and Kristin Mannion, Kim Cubine, Joel Johnson and Sara Latham, Debbie Fine, Erick Mullen and Kelly Craighead, Karen Finney, Stuart and Gwen Holliday, Kimball Stroud, Dan and Aviva Rosenthal, Linda Moore, Neal Wolin and Nicole ElkonBIRTHDAYS: Jeff Zeleny, CNN’s senior Washington correspondent and the pride of Exeter, Nebraska, celebrating with a 29-hour birthday: breakfast in London and dinner in DC ... Sasha Obama is 16 ... Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal is 46 ... John Edwards is 64 ... Eliot Spitzer is 58 ... Jeff Greenfield is 74 ... F. Lee Bailey is 84 ... Sidewire’s Meredith Carden, a Michelle Obama alum, the pride of Chicago and a birthday bride today! (h/ts Herbie Ziskend and boss Tucker Bounds) ... Joe Trippi, political consultant, Fox commentator, author, digital strategist, believer ... Stef Weiss (h/ts Jon Haber) ... John DiBiase ... Rep. Lynn Jenkins (R-Kans.) is 54 ... NBC’s Kate Snow ... Carlos Elizondo (h/t Marc Adelman) ... Joe Nolan ... Chad Rhoades, general counsel for Sen. Tillis ... Politico Europe’s Simon Marks ... AAJ’s Paula J. Burris, the pride of Arlington, Va., and the best office manager in the USA (h/t Randy White) ... Politico’s Javier Ruiz ... Nicole Hager, Sen. Inhofe’s press assistant (h/t Daisy Letendre) ... Jennifer Donnelly, a senior associate on the organizing and campaign management team at Precision Strategies (h/t Tom Zigo) ... Rob Morello, Romney and RNC alum, now co-founder of Fraym, is 3-0 (h/t wife Rachel Sorensen) ...... David O’Brien, senior comms manager at CRAFT, is 31 ... Google’s Cameron Foxgrover ... John Yoo ... Daryn Iwicki ... Obama DOJ alum Shirlethia Franklin ... Thomas Showalter ... Al Mottur, shareholder of Brownstein Hyatt, is 5-0 (h/t Stewart Verdery) … Semonti Mustaphi Stephens, a Michelle Obama alum and the pride of Crystal, MN ... Charmion Kinder, director of comms at My Brother’s Keeper Alliance … WSJ’s Corinne Ramey ... Suzy Vilmain ... Louisa Wachs ... Jim Wisley (h/ts Teresa Vilmain) ... John Pearson … Courtney Pearson Drake ... Jan Ruckman ... Pete Slover (h/t Dick Keil) ... Chris Merriman ... Teryn Norris ... Prince Philip is 96 ... Elizabeth Hurley is 52 ... Kate Upton is 25 (h/ts AP)THE SHOWS by @MattMackowiak, filing from Austin:--ABC’s “This Week”: Former U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara … Alan Dershowitz … Sen. Mike Lee (R-Utah) … Sen. Joe Manchin (D-W.Va.). Panel: Alex Castellanos, Matthew Dowd, Donna Brazile, Rep. Keith Ellison (D-Minn.) and Sara Fagen--CBS’s “Face the Nation”: Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) … Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.) … Sen. James Lankford (R-Okla.). Panel: Julie Pace, David Ignatius, Susan Page and Ed O’Keefe--“Fox News Sunday”: Sen. Jack Reed (D-R.I.) … RNC Chairwoman Ronna Romney McDaniel. Panel: Karl Rove, former Rep. Donna Edwards (D-Md.), Newt Gingrich and Charles Lane--CNN’s “State of the Union”: Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif.) … Sen. Susan Collins (R-Maine). Panel: Rep. Luis Gutierrez (D-Ill.), former Rep. Mike Rogers (R-Mich.), Neera Tanden and David Urban. Dana Bash is anchoring--NBC’s “Meet the Press”: Preempted for French Open coverage--CNN’s “Reliable Sources”: Panel: Jeff Greenfield, Clara Jeffrey and Matt Lewis … Adam Goldman … Andy Borowitz ... Tim O’Brien--CNN’s “Inside Politics” with John King: Panel: Jackie Kucinich, Carl Hulse, Manu Raju and Sara Murray--Fox News’ “Sunday Morning Futures”: Rep. Peter King (R-N.Y.) … House Majority Whip Steve Scalise (R-LA) … Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton … Steve Hilton … Bud Cummins. Panel: The Daily Beast’s Betsy Woodruff and Rich Lowry--Fox News’ “MediaBuzz”: Former Bush and Obama national security council staffer Gillian Turner … Mollie Hemingway … Juan Williams … Ed Henry … Amy Holmes … Jessica Tarlov … Carley Shimkus--CNN’s “Fareed Zakaria GPS”: R. James Woolsey … Elizabeth Foley and Laurence Tribe … Canadian foreign affairs minister Chrystia Freeland--Univision’s “Al Punto”: Panel: Former Treasurer of the U.S. Rosario Marin and Adolfo Franco … journalist and independent Mexican presidential hopeful Pedro Ferriz de Con … “Compassion & Choices” national Latino communication manager Patricia Gonzalez-Portillo and mother of a child with a deadly form of brain cancer Nilsa Centero … actress Salma Hayek--C-SPAN: “The Communicators”: Part 1 of discussion with Recode editor at large and columnist and The Verge executive editor and columnist Walt Mossberg … “Newsmakers”: NRCC chairman Rep. Steve Stivers (R-Ohio), questioned by The Hill’s Scott Wong and Politico’s Scott Bland … “Q&A”:Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum director Paul Sparrow--Hearst / Sony’s “Matter of Fact” with Soledad O’Brien: Sen. Jerry Moran (R-Kan.) … Sen. Al Franken (D-Minn.) … report on the Trump administration’s $200 billion infrastructure proposal … author and Auschwitz survivor Michael Bornstein … discussion about ISIS internet recruitment efforts with RAND Center for Applied Network Analysis and System Science co-director and Rand Corporation engineer Elizabeth Bodine-Baron … a tribute to journalists who give their lives covering conflicts around the world--Washington Times’ “Mack on Politics” weekly politics podcast with Matt Mackowiak (download on iTunes, Google Play, or Stitcher or listen at http://bit.ly/2r37J6h): Sen. Mike Lee (R-Utah).

10 июня, 08:49

Главное для Трампа — продать оружие

В капиталистической системе военные расходы не являются предметом академической дискуссии. Главное — интересы. Вам не убедить премьеров и министров, которые клянутся повысить военные расходы до двух процентов ВВП, в том, что все это опасная глупость. Таких политиков нужно просто заменять, иначе они так и будут вооружаться, вооружаться и вооружаться — вплоть до трагической развязки.

08 июня, 20:40

If Russia and NATO Went to War Would It Go Nuclear (And Kill Millions)?

Kris Osborn Security, Europe A rapid assault on the Baltic region would leave NATO with few attractive options, including a massive risky counterattack, threatening a nuclear weapons option or simply allowing the Russian to annex the countries. One of the limited options cited in the study could include taking huge amounts of time to mobilize and deploy a massive counterattack force which would likely result in a drawn-out, deadly battle. Another possibility would be to threaten a nuclear option, a scenario which seems unlikely if not completely unrealistic in light of the U.S. strategy to decrease nuclear arsenals and discourage the prospect of using nuclear weapons, the study finds.   A third and final option, the report mentions, would simply be to concede the Baltic states and immerse the alliance into a much more intense Cold War posture. Such an option would naturally not be welcomed by many of the residents of these states and would, without question, leave the NATO alliance weakened if not partially fractured. How much of a threat do Russia's emerging 5th-generation stealth fighter, nuclear arsenal, high-tech air defenses, anti-satellite weapons, conventional army and submarines pose to NATO and the U.S.? Current tensions between Russia and NATO are leading many to carefully assess this question and examine the current state of weaponry and technological sophistication of the Russian military -- with a mind to better understanding the extent of the kinds of threats they may pose.  Naturally, Russia’s military maneuvers and annexation of the Crimean peninsula have many Pentagon analysts likely wondering about and assessing the pace of Russia's current military modernization and the relative condition of the former Cold War military giant’s forces, platforms and weaponry. Russia has clearly postured itself in response to NATO as though it can counter-balance or deter the alliance, however some examinations of Russia’s current military reveals questions about its current ability to pose a real challenge to NATO in a prolonged, all-out military engagement. Nevertheless, Russia continues to make military advances and many Pentagon experts and analysts have expressed concern about NATO's force posture in Eastern Europe regarding whether it is significant enough to deter Russia from a possible invasion of Eastern Europe.  Also, Russia’s economic pressures have not slowed the countries’ commitment to rapid military modernization and the increase of defense budgets, despite the fact that the country’s military is a fraction of what it was during the height of the Cold War in the 1980s. While the former Cold War giant’s territories and outer most borders are sizeably less than they were in the 1980s, Russia’s conventional land, air and sea forces are trying to expand quickly, transition into the higher-tech information age and steadily pursue next generation platforms. Russia’s conventional and nuclear arsenal is a small piece of what it was during the Cold War, yet the country is pursuing a new class of air-independent submarines, a T-50 stealth fighter jet, next-generation missiles and high-tech gear for individual ground soldiers. The National Interest has recently published a number of reports about the technological progress now being made by Russian military developers.  The various write-ups include reporting on new Russian anti-satellite weapons, T-14 Armata tanks, air defenses and early plans for a hypersonic, 6th-generation fighter jet, among other things. Russia is unambiguously emphasizing military modernization and making substantial progress, the reports from The National Interest and other outlets indicate. For instance, Russia has apparently conducted a successful test launch of its Nudol direct ascent anti-satellite missile, according to The National Interest. "This is the second test of the new weapon, which is capable of destroying satellites in space. The weapon was apparently launched from the Plesetsk test launch facility north of Moscow," the report from The National Interest writes. In addition, The National Interests' Dave Majumdar reported that Russian Airborne Forces plan six armored companies equipped with newly modified T-72B3M  tanks. Over the next two years, those six companies will be expanded to battalion strength, the report states. Russia is also reportedly developing a so-called "Terminator 3" tank support fighting vehicle. During the Cold War, the Russian defense budget amounted to nearly half of the country’s overall expenditures. Now, the countries’ military spending draws upon a smaller percentage of its national expenditure. However, despite these huge percentage differences compared to the 1980s, the Russian defense budget is climbing again. From 2006 to 2009, the Russian defense budget jumped from $25 billion up to $50 billion according to Business Insider – and the 2013 defense budget is listed elsewhere at $90 billion. Overall, the Russian conventional military during the Cold War – in terms of sheer size – was likely five times what it is today. The Russian military had roughly 766,000 active front line personnel in 2013 and as many as 2.4 million reserve forces, according to globalfirepower.com. During the Cold War, the Russian Army had as many as three to four million members. By the same 2013 assessment, the Russian military is listed as having more than 3,000 aircraft and 973 helicopters. On the ground, Globalfirepower.com says Russia has 15-thousand tanks, 27,000 armored fighting vehicles and nearly 6,000 self-propelled guns for artillery. While the Russian military may not have a conventional force the sheer size of its Cold War force, they have made efforts to both modernized and maintain portions of their mechanized weaponry and platforms. The Russian T-72 tank, for example, has been upgraded numerous times since its initial construction in the 1970s. On the overall Naval front, Globalfirepower.com assesses the Russian Navy as having 352 ships, including one aircraft carrier, 13 destroyers and 63 submarines. The Black Sea is a strategically significant area for Russia in terms of economic and geopolitical considerations as it helps ensure access to the Mediterranean. Analysts have also said that the Russian military made huge amounts of conventional and nuclear weapons in the 80s, ranging from rockets and cruise missiles to very effective air defenses. In fact, the Russian built S-300 and S-400 anti-aircraft air defenses, if maintained and modernized, are said to be particularly effective, experts have said. Citing Russian news reports, the National Interest reported that the Russians are now testing a new, S-500 air defense systems able to reportedly reach targets up to 125 miles.   In the air, the Russian have maintained their 1980s built Su-27 fighter jets, which have been postured throughout strategic areas by the Russian military. Often compared to the U.S. Air Force’s F-15 Eagle fighter, the Su-27 is a maneuverable twin engine fighter built in the 1980s and primarily configured for air superiority missions. Rand Wargame: While many experts maintain that NATO’s size, fire-power, air supremacy and technology would ultimately prevail in a substantial engagement with Russia, that does not necessarily negate findings from a Rand study released last year explaining that NATO would be put in a terrible predicament should Russia invade the Baltic states. NATO force structure in Eastern Europe in recent years would be unable to withstand a Russian invasion into neighboring Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, the Rand study has concluded. After conducting an exhaustive series of wargames wherein “red” (Russian) and “blue” (NATO) forces engaged in a wide range of war scenarios over the Baltic states, a Rand Corporation study called “Reinforcing Deterrence on NATO’s Eastern Flank” determined that a successful NATO defense of the region would require a much larger air-ground force than what is currently deployed. In particular, the study calls for a NATO strategy similar to the Cold War era’s “AirLand Battle” doctrine from the 1980s.  During this time, the U.S. Army stationed at least several hundred thousand troops in Europe as a strategy to deter a potential Russian invasion. Officials with U.S. Army Europe tell Scout Warrior that there are currenty 30,000 U.S. Army soldiers in Europe. The Rand study maintains that, without a deterrent the size of at least seven brigades, fires and air support protecting Eastern Europe, that Russia cold overrun the Baltic states as quickly as in 60 hours. “As currently postured, NATO cannot successfully defend the territory of its most exposed members. Across multiple games using a wide range of expert participants in and out of uniform playing both sides, the longest it has taken Russian forces to reach the outskirts of the Estonian and/or Latvian capitals of Tallinn and Riga, respectively, is 60 hours. Such a rapid defeat would leave NATO with a limited number of options,” the study writes. “AirLand” Battle was a strategic warfighting concept followed by U.S. and allied forces during the Cold War which, among other things, relied upon precise coordination between a large maneuvering mechanized ground force and attack aircraft overhead.  As part of the approach, air attacks would seek to weaken enemy assets supporting front line enemy troops by bombing supply elements in the rear. As part of the air-ground integration, large conventional ground forces could then more easily advance through defended enemy front line areas. A rapid assault on the Baltic region would leave NATO with few attractive options, including a massive risky counterattack, threatening a nuclear weapons option or simply allowing the Russian to annex the countries. One of the limited options cited in the study could include taking huge amounts of time to mobilize and deploy a massive counterattack force which would likely result in a drawn-out, deadly battle. Another possibility would be to threaten a nuclear option, a scenario which seems unlikely if not completely unrealistic in light of the U.S. strategy to decrease nuclear arsenals and discourage the prospect of using nuclear weapons, the study finds.   A third and final option, the report mentions, would simply be to concede the Baltic states and immerse the alliance into a much more intense Cold War posture. Such an option would naturally not be welcomed by many of the residents of these states and would, without question, leave the NATO alliance weakened if not partially fractured. The study spells out exactly what its wargames determined would be necessary as a credible, effective deterrent. “Gaming indicates that a force of about seven brigades, including three heavy armored brigades—adequately supported by airpower, land-based fires, and other enablers on the ground and ready to fight at the onset of hostilities—could suffice to prevent the rapid overrun of the Baltic states,” the study writes. During the various scenarios explored for the wargame, its participants concluded that NATO resistance would be overrun quickly in the absence of a larger mechanized defensive force posture. “The absence of short-range air defenses in the U.S. units, and the minimal defenses in the other NATO units, meant that many of these attacks encountered resistance only from NATO combat air patrols, which were overwhelmed by sheer numbers. The result was heavy losses to several Blue (NATO) battalions and the disruption of the counterattack,” the study states. Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia could be likely Russian targets because all three countries are in close proximity to Russia and spent many years as part of the former Soviet Union, the study maintains. “Also like Ukraine, Estonia and Latvia are home to sizable ethnic Russian populations that have been at best unevenly integrated into the two countries’ post-independence political and social mainstreams and that give Russia a self-justification for meddling in Estonian and Latvian affairs,” the study explains. The Rand study maintained that, while expensive, adding brigades would be a worthy effort for NATO. Buying three brand-new ABCTs and adding them to the U.S. Army would not be inexpensive—the up-front costs for all the equipment for the brigades and associated artillery, air defense, and other enabling units runs on the order of $13 billion. However, much of that gear—especially the expensive Abrams tanks and Bradley fighting vehicles—already exists,” the study says.   The actual NATO troop presence in Eastern Europe is something that is still under consideration and subject to change in this new administration. For quite some time, NATO and the US have been considering adding more troops to the Eastern flank as a way to further deter Russia. The Pentagon’s European Reassurance Initiative, introduced last year, calls for additional funds, forces and force rotations through Europe in coming years, it is unclear what the force posture will ultimately be.  At the same time, the Pentagon’s $3.4 Billion ERI request does call for an increased force presence in Europe as well as “fires,” “pre-positioned stocks” and “headquarters” support for NATO forces. Officials with U.S. Army Europe tell Scout Warrior that more solidarity exercises with NATO allies in Europe are also on the horizon, and that more manpower could also be on the way. For example, NATO conducted Swift Response 16 from May 27 through June 26 of last year in Poland and Germany; it included more than 5,000 soldiers and airmen from the United States, Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Spain. This first appeared in Scout Warrior here. Image Credit: Creative Commons. 

08 июня, 08:12

Возвращение проекта «Большого Ближнего Востока». За что расплачивается Катар?

Кажется, этот маленький эмират оказался, с одной стороны, слишком богатым, с другой – довольно скупым на выплату дани Соединённым Штатам. Кроме того, Катар с 2015 года вёл линию на укрепление отношений с Ираном, а с некоторых пор принимает опосредованное (через Турцию) участие в переговорах в Астане по сирийскому урегулированию.

11 января 2015, 17:18

ЦНАБ (CNAS) – демократический оплот колониального империализма (Ястребы США против Обамы)

Вашингтон не проводит единую внешнюю политику - он действует противоречиво и лишь в ответ на внешние вызовы, а «либеральные ястребы» объединяются вокруг генерала Дэвида Петреуса и Центра новой американской безопасности (ЦНАБ). Тьерри Мейсан представляет нам этот мозговой центр, который сегодня играет ту же роль, что и Проект нового американского века при Буше – обеспечивать американскую экспансию и доминирование над всём миром. Сирийский кризис, выход из которого был предложен ещё во время первой конференции в Женеве в июне 2012 г., продолжается, несмотря на все соглашения, заключённые с США. По-видимому, администрация Обамы не подчиняется президенту, и она разделена на две политические линии: с одной стороны, империалисты, склонные к разделу мира с Китаем и, возможно, с Россией (это позиция президента Обамы), а, с другой стороны, империалистические экспансионисты, объединившиеся вокруг Хиллари Клинтон и генерала Дэвида Петреуса. Ко всеобщему удивлению, отставка директора ЦРУ и госсекретаря после переизбрания Барака Обамы не только не положила конец разногласиям в администрации, но и обострила их. Именно экспансионисты возобновили войну против Корейской народной республики под предлогом кибер-атаки против Sony Pictures, якобы предпринятой Пхеньяном. Президент Обама, в конечном счёте, согласился с их доводами и подписал декрет о «санкциях». Представляется, что сторонники имперской экспансии первоначально объединились вокруг Центра новой американской безопасности, который в Демократической партии играл роль ту же самую роль, что и Проект нового американского века (а сегодня также и Foreign Policy Initiative) в Республиканской партии. Важную роль они играли и во время первого мандата Барака Обамы, и по некоторым данным образовали «глубинное государство», откуда продолжают дёргать за верёвочки. Либеральные ястребы Центр новой американской безопасности был создан в 2007 г. Куртом Кэмпбеллом и Мишель Флурнуа. Ранее оба эти интеллектуала работали в Центре стратегических и международных исследований (ЦСМИ - Center for Strategic and International Studies). В нём спустя два месяца после событий 11 сентября они руководили публикацией книги To Prevail : An American Strategy for the Campaign Against Terrorism (Всё для победы: американская стратегия по борьбе с терроризмом) [1]. В книге развивалась идея о том, что необходимо атаковать не только террористические группировки, о чём говорил президент Буш, но и государства, если им самим не удавалось эти группировки уничтожить на своей территории. Вдохновившись работами оперативной группы по борьбе с терроризмом из ЦСМИ, они выступали за значительное увеличение разведывательных агентств для наблюдения за всем миром. Короче, Кэмпбелл и Флурнуа принимали официальные представления о терактах и оправдывали «войну против терроризма», которая на целое десятилетие погрузила в траур весь мир. В 2003 году Кэмпбелл и Флурнуа вместе с другими тринадцатью демократами-интеллектуалами подписали документ под названием Progressive Internationalism : A Democratic National Security Strategy (Прогрессивный интернационализм: демократическая стратегия национальной безопасности) [2]. Этот манифест поддерживал все войны после 11 сентября и критиковал дипломатическую слабость президента Буша. После выборов кандидата-демократа в 2004 г. подписанты намеревались продвигать американский имперский проект (сторонником которого был Джордж Буш-младший) при этом критикуя его за то, что он оказывал пагубное влияние на руководителей, и, в частности, сеял сомнения среди союзников. Всем подписантам тогда приклеили ярлык «либеральных ястребов». ЦНАБ Во время своего создания в 2007 г. ЦНАБ выражал стремление обновить американскую стратегическую мысль после Комиссии Бейкера-Гамильтона и отставки министра Обороны Дональда Рамсфельда. На открытии центра присутствовали такие лица как Мадлен Олбрайт, Хиллари Клинтон и Чак Хейгел. В ту пору Вашингтон пытался выпутаться из трясины, в которую он попал в Ираке. Кемпбелл и Флурнуа выступали за военное решение, которое позволило бы американским войскам продолжать оккупировать Ирак, не истощая при этом свои силы. Для продолжения имперской экспансии американский империализм должен был прежде всего выработать определённую антитеррористическую стратегию, которая позволила бы сократить численность американских войск в Ираке. Нет никакого противоречия в том, что Кемпбелл и Флурнуа работали совместно с генералом Дэвидом Петреусом, которого только что назначили командующим военной Коалицией в Ираке, потому что он был автором пособия по предотвращению смуты в сухопутных войсках США. Они склоняют на свою сторону австралийского эксперта Дэвида Кикуллена, который станет гуру генерала Петреуса и разработчиком плана Surge (Удар). Согласно этому плану переориентация иракских повстанцев должна осуществляться путём использования двух факторов (пряник и кнут): с одной стороны, платить деньги боевикам, которые перейдут на сторону агрессора и будут устанавливать порядок на своей территории, а, с другой стороны, оказывать на них принудительное воздействие путём временного усиления военного присутствия США. Эта стратегия будет успешно использована: страна вначале погружается в фазу интенсивной гражданской войны, а затем после глубокой разрухи она медленно возвращается в состояние покоя. Но на самом деле частичная переориентация иракского сопротивления стала возможной лишь потому, что оно было организовано на племенной основе. Весь этот период ЦНАБ и генерала Петреуса водой не разлить. Килкуллен становится сначала советником Петреуса, а затем госсекретаря Кондолизы Райс. Сплав этот настолько прочен, что полковник Джон Нейгл, советник Петреуса, станет президентом ЦНАБа после того, как Кемпбелл и Флурнуа войдут в администрацию Обамы. Особенность ЦНАК состоит в том, что он является мозговым центром демократов, но с ним сотрудничают и в него входят республиканские ястребы. Впрочем, он не отказывается от встреч и дебатов с членами Проекта нового американского века. Финансирование центра осуществляется производителями вооружений и компаниями, сотрудничающими с оборонным ведомством (AccentureFederal Services, BAE Systems, Boeing, DRS Technologies, Northrop Grumman), финансовыми компаниями (Bernard L. Schwartz Investments, Prudential Financial), фондами (Carnegie Corporation of New York, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, PloughsharesFund, Smith Richardson Foundation, ZakFamily Charitable Trust) и иностранными правительствами (Израиль, Япония, Тайвань). Во время предвыборной кампании Кемпбелл и Флурнуа издают для будущего президента рекомендации The Inheritance and the Way Forward (Наследие прошлого и путь в будущее) [3]. Начиная с периода президентства Буша они ставят под сомнение принцип «превентивной войны» и использование пыток. Кроме того, они выступают за переориентацию войны с терроризмом с тем, чтобы избежать «столкновения цивилизаций», которое могло бы лишить Вашингтон его мусульманских союзников. Администрация Обамы После избрания президентом Барак Обама поручает Мишель Флурнуа контроль за перестройкой оборонного ведомства. По логике, она становится заместителем министра Обороны по политической части, то есть она должна вырабатывать новую оборонную стратегию. Она при этом считается вторым лицом в министерстве и распоряжается бюджетом в 200 миллионов долларов. Курт Кемпбелл, в свою очередь, назначается в госдепартамент и руководит в нём отделом по Дальневосточному и Тихоокеанскому регионам. И Кемпбелл, и Флурнуа придерживаются стратегии типа «оплот». Согласно этой стратегии США должны готовиться к будущему столкновению с Китаем. С этой точки зрения, они должны постепенно передислоцировать свои вооружённые силы из Европы и Большого Среднего Востока на Дальний Восток. ЦНАБ настолько популярен, что его сотрудники скоро войдут в состав администрации Обамы: Ренд Бирс станет секретарём госбезопасности, Эштон Картер, замминистра Обороны по закупкам, а затем министр Обороны, Сьюзан Райс, представитель ООН, а затем советник по национальной безопасности, Роберт Уорк, заместитель министра Обороны и далее: Шон Бримли, специальный советник министра Обороны, а затем директор по планированию в Совете национальной безопасности, Прайс Флойд, ассистент помощника министра Обороны по связям с общественностью, Элис Хант, специальный ассистент в министерстве Обороны, Колин Кал, ассистент министра Обороны по Ближнему Востоку, затем советник по национальной безопасности при вице-президенте, Джеймс Миллер, заместитель помощника министра обороны США по вопросам политики, Эрик Пирс, заместитель министра Обороны, ответственный за связи с Конгрессом, Сара Сьюэлл, назначена в 2014 году заместителем госсекретаря по вопросам демократии и прав человека, Уэнди Шерман, назначена в 2011 году заместителем госсекретаря по политическим вопросам, Викрам Сингх, специальный советник министра обороны по Афганистану и Пакистану, Гейл Смит, директор по развитию и демократии при Совете национальной безопасности, Джеймс Стейнберг, заместитель госсекретаря, Джим Томас, заместитель помощника министра Обороны США по финансам, Эдвард (Тед) Уорнер III, советник министра Обороны по контролю над вооружениями. В настоящее время ЦНАБ уже готовит программу для будущего президента США. Влияние ЦНАБ Мишель Флурнуа всё время стремилась занять пост министра Обороны, но не была допущена на эту должность в 2012 году, так как считалось, что она слишком тесно связана с Израилем. Однако сегодня она присутствует почти во всех инстанциях министерства Оброны, занятых планированием: она является членом научного Совета Обороны (Defense Science Board), политического Совета Обороны (Defense Policy Board) и консультативного президентского совета по разведке (President’s Intelligence AdvisoryBoard). Видно, что все её политические рекомендации учитываются как по «Большому Среднему Востоку», так и по Дальнему Востоку. ЦНАБ поддержал усилия Уэнди Шермана по возобновлению дипломатических отношений с Тегераном. Было отчётливо заявлено, что проблема Ирана в большей степени связана не с ядерным вопросом, а с экспортом иранской революции. Им была предложена серия чрезвычайно суровых мер по урезанию иранских трубопроводов в Африке, Латинской Америке и на Ближнем Востоке [4]. В отношении Сирии ЦНАБ считает, что невозможно свергнуть власть в республике в короткий срок. Поэтому он выдвинул «стратегию турникета» : использовать сложившийся против Исламского государства консенсус и принудить все вовлечённые в конфликт государства оказать давление на Дамаск и оппозиционные формирования для того, чтобы добиться военной деэскалации, при этом не вступая в коалицию с президентом аль-Ассадом против Исламского государства. Будут предприняты усилия по включению в состав правительства республики представителей проатлантической оппозиции и предоставлению гуманитарной и материально-технической помощи в районы, занятые повстанцами, с тем, чтобы привлечь к ним внимание. После того, как проатлантисты войдут в правительство, их задача будет состоять в том, чтобы распознать все секреты государственного аппарата, чтобы после этого уничтожить его. Но главная цель этого плана состоит в том, чтобы потребовать для повстанцев, которые отказываются войти в правительство, всю сирийскую пустыню. А эта пустыня представляет около 70% всей территории, и в ней расположены основные газовые месторождения [5]. Особое внимание в ЦНАБ уделяется Интернету. Речь идёт об ограничении правительственной цензуры с тем, чтобы облегчить контроль со стороны АНБ [6]. Вместе с тем там обеспокоены тем, что народный Китай защищает себя от шпионажа со стороны АНБ [7]. В тихоокеанском регионе ЦНАБ выступает за сближение с Индией, Малазией и Индонезией. С этой целью разработан план совершенствования механизма, направленного против Северной Кореи. Ответственные лица ЦНАБ из бывшего органа по сотрудничеству демократов с республиканскими неоконсерваторами постепенно превратился в главный исследовательский центр колониального империализма. Кроме Курта Кемпбелла и Мишель Флурнуа в состав администрации входят: генерал Джон Аллен, командующий Коалицией сил по борьбе с ИГИЛ, Ричард Эрмитейдж, бывший помощник госсекретаря, Ричард Данциг, вице-президент компании Rand Corporation, Джозеф Либерман, бывший пресс-секретарь израильского Сената, генерал Джеймс Маттис, бывший командующий ЦентрКома. ЦНАБ и в дальнейшем будет развиваться, потому что теперь он является главным мозговым центром, способным повлиять на оборонный бюджет и перевести экономику страны на военные рельсы. [1] To Prevail: An American Strategy for the Campaign Against Terrorism, Csis Significant Issues Series, CSIS, ноябрь 2001. [2] Progressive Internationalism: A Democratic National Security Strategy, Институт прогрессивной политики (Progressive Policy Institute), 30 октября, 2003 г. [3] The Inheritance and the Way Forward, Курь Кемпбелл, Мишель Флурнуа, ЦНАБ (CNAS), 2007. [4] Pushback Countering the Iran Action Network, Скотт Модель и Дэвид Ашер, Центр новой американской безопасности (Center for a New American Security), сентябрь 2013 г. [5] The Tourniquet. A Strategy for Defeating the Islamic State and Saving Syria and Iraq, Марк Линч, Центр новой американской безопасности (Center for a New American Security), октябрь 2014. А также How This Ends. A Blueprint for De-Escalation in Syria, Дафна Ранд и Николас Герас, Центр новой американской безопасности (Center for a New American Security), ноябрь 2014 г. « Американский «мирный план» для Сирии », Тьерри Мейсан, Перевод Эдуард Феоктистов, Al-Watan (Сирия), Сеть Вольтер, 1 января 2015. [6] Bringing Liberty Online. Reenergizing the Internet Freedom Agenda in a Post-Snowden Era, Ричард Фонтен, Центр новой американской безопасности (Center for a New American Security), сентябрь 2014 г. [7] Warring State: China’s Cybersecurity Strategy, Эми Чанг, Центр новой американской безопасности ( Center for a New American Security), декабрь 2014г. http://www.voltairenet.org/article186374.html