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Выбор редакции
19 февраля, 10:17

Ветроводонапор (Ctavr)

В Германии проектируется небольшой ветропарк, совмещённый с гидроаккумулирующей станцией. В проекте участвуют компании Max Boegl Wind AG и GE Renewable Energy. На холмах в Северной Баварии в 2017 г. будут установлены четыре ветровые турбины мощностью по 3,4 МВт, основания и башни которых будут «по совместительству» работать как водяные накопители. 52 комментария

18 февраля, 18:30

ANOTHER #MERKELFAIL: Germany’s Energy Mistakes Are Hurting its Neighbors, Too. It’s one thin…

ANOTHER #MERKELFAIL: Germany’s Energy Mistakes Are Hurting its Neighbors, Too. It’s one thing for a country’s radical energy decisions to burden its own citizens, but it’s another altogether when those negative effects start to spill over into neighboring nations. That’s what’s happening in Germany right now, where headlong subsidization of renewable energy has not only […]

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18 февраля, 02:31

The Shift Towards Renewables Is Picking Up Pace

Renewable energy may have finally found its moment. Amid reports of solar power that is cheaper than any other energy source and massive investments in wind power across the mid-West, there are now calls for more renewables even from some former champions of traditional power sources. Take the recent full page advertisement that Energy Australia published in many major newspapers across Australia earlier this week. In that advertisement, Managing Director Catherine Tanna said the way that Australia generated energy “had to change”,…

17 февраля, 17:30

Zacks Industry Outlook Highlights: Arch Coal, Alliance Resource Partners, CONSOL Energy and SunCoke Energy

Zacks Industry Outlook Highlights: Arch Coal, Alliance Resource Partners, CONSOL Energy and SunCoke Energy

14 февраля, 23:23

Lithium: The Fuel of the Green Revolution

How is lithium-ion powered battery technology fueling the green revolution? See how much of the metal is in various everyday devices in this infographic. The post Lithium: The Fuel of the Green Revolution appeared first on Visual Capitalist.

14 февраля, 02:00

How renewable energy could create new jobs in Egypt

How an ILO pilot project that produces biogas in two Egyptian villages is creating jobs and reducing pollution.

14 февраля, 01:37

U.S. Judge Denies Native American Request To Halt Construction As Anti-DAPL Laws

A federal judge refused a request by Native American tribes objecting to the construction of the last portion of the Dakota Access Pipeline on Monday, according to emerging reports on the matter. "We're disappointed with today's ruling denying a temporary restraining order against the Dakota Access Pipeline, but we are not surprised," Chase Iron Eyes, a member of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe, wrote in a statement. The request was a last-minute effort by the Standing Rock Sioux and the Cheyenne River Sioux tribes to stop the 1,170-mile-long pipeline…

14 февраля, 00:35

U.S. D.O.E. Finds Renewables Employed More Americans Than Oil and in Gas in 2016

A new report by the United States Department of Energy concludes that American renewable energy firms are creating more jobs than their fossil fuel counterparts. Solar and wind energy companies generated more jobs than oil, coal and natural gas combined, even though the green companies still account for a small portion of total domestic power production. The findings were part of the U.S. Energy and Employment report released last month and support claims by climate activists that supporting renewables can rejuvenate the economy while revitalizing…

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12 февраля, 19:01

Here comes the sun

Solar panel in Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province yesterday. As of the end of last year, the renewable energy capacity in the northern part of Hebei reached about 12,810 megawatts, 51 percent of the total capacity in the area.

11 февраля, 17:35

How Trump's Environmental Policies Can Kill 220,000 Jobs And Eradicate Dozens of Species

This story has been condensed from a piece on Ecosystem Marketplace US President Donald Trump and his cohorts in Congress have vowed to revive rural America by eliminating what he claims are burdensome environmental regulations, but the best that can be said about the initiatives launched so far is that they  might boost profits for some of the energy and agriculture interests that support Republicans on the House Resources Committee. You can't, however, say they'll create more jobs than they destroy, because profits aren't jobs. In fact, they're often the opposite: companies save money by cutting jobs, and in this case, the jobs they cut will be those that pay people to plant trees, restore rivers, and turn soggy, unproductive farms into wetlands that filter water, purify air, and slow climate change. Those jobs are part of a $25 billion "restoration economy" that directly employs 126,000 people and supports 95,000 other jobs - mostly in small businesses - according to a 2015 survey that environmental economist Todd BenDor conducted through the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. That's more jobs than logging, more than coal mining, and more than iron and steel, as you can see here: The restoration economy is already providing jobs for loggers across Oregon, and even some coal miners in Virginia, but it could disappear if the GOP environmental rollback continues. Here are 11 things you need to know to understand it. 1.   It's not Solar and Wind The restoration economy is not to be confused with the renewable energy boom that employs 374,000 people in solar parks and 101,738 on wind farms. Like those, however, the restoration economy is part of a burgeoning "green economy" that's transforming forests, farms, and fields around the world. 2.   It's Government-Driven State and federal governments helped the wind and solar sectors get off the ground, but both of those sectors are humming along on their own now because they provide a cost-effective way to produce electricity, which everyone needs. The demand for restoration, however, isn't as automatic as the demand for electricity is, because most companies and even some landowners won't clean up their messes without an incentive to do so. Economists call these messes "externalities" because they dump an internal responsibility on the external world, and governments are created in part to deal with them - mostly through "command-and-control" regulation, but also through systems that let polluters either fix their messes or create something as good or better than what they destroy. Under the Endangered Species Act, for example, a local government that wants to build a road through sensitive habitat can petition the Fish and Wildlife Service for permission to do so. If permission is granted, it still has to make good by restoring degraded habitat in the same region. 3.   It's Often Market-Based Pioneered in the 1960s, environmental markets offer flexibility in meeting commitments. That local government mentioned above, for example, can either restore the land itself, or it can turn to a "conservation bank". These are usually created by green entrepreneurs who identify marginal land and restore it to a stable state that performs ecosystem services like flood control or water purification. They make money by selling credits to entities - personal, public, or private - that need to offset their environmental impacts on species, wetlands or streams. At least $2.8 billion per year flows through ecosystem markets in the United States, according to Ecosystem Marketplace research. 4.   Infrastructure Also Drives Restoration The federal government - especially the military - holds itself to high environmental standards, as do many states. Government activities alone support thousands of restoration jobs. Government agencies are big buyers of credits, often to offset damage caused by infrastructure projects, but the link between infrastructure and restoration goes even deeper than that. In Philadelphia, for example, restoration workers are using water fees to restore degraded forests and fields as part of a plan to better manage storm runoff. In California, meadows and streams that control floods are legally treated as green infrastructure, to be funded from that pot of money. "Green infrastructure", it turns out, is prettier than concrete and lasts longer to boot. Trump wants to "expedite" infrastructure roll-outs, and he can do so without weakening environmental provisions by removing unnecessary delays in the permitting process (see point 11, below). 5.   Markets Can Reduce Regulations Nature is complex, and rigid regulations often fail to address that complexity, as environmental economist Todd BenDor makes clear when he points to regulations requiring the placement of silt fences in new subdivisions along waterways. "They're supposed to prevent erosion, but they often fail or are put in the wrong places," he says. "Markets can simply enact a limit on erosion, allowing the landowner the freedom to be creative and efficient in any way they see fit in order to meet that limit." Done right, environmental markets can replace overly prescriptive regulations, but they still require government oversight and regulation. "Markets are entirely reliant on strong monitoring, verification, and enforcement of limits," says BenDor. "Provisions must be made to ensure that, but in reality it's often a problem." 6.   Restoration Stimulates Rural Economies In 2015, BenDor published a study called "Estimating the Size and Impact of the Ecological Restoration Economy", which found restoration businesses in all 50 states. California had the most, but four "Red" states filled out the top five: Virginia, Florida, Texas, and North Carolina. Last place went to North Dakota. By their very nature, restoration projects are located in rural areas, and a study by Cathy Kellon and Taylor Hesselgrave of EcoTrust found that Oregon alone had more than 7,000 watershed restoration projects, which generated nearly 6,500 jobs from 2001 through 2010. Many of those jobs went to unemployed loggers. "The jobs created by restoration activities are located mostly in rural areas, in communities hard hit by the economic downturn," report authors wrote. "Restoration also stimulates demand for the products and services of local businesses such as plant nurseries, heavy equipment companies, and rock and gravel companies." 7.   It's been Mapped Last year, the US Department of Agriculture's Office of Environmental Markets, together with Ecosystem Marketplace publisher Forest Trends and the Environmental Protection Agency, published an online Atlas of Ecosystem Markets, which you can access here. 8.   The Jobs are Robot-Proof Environmental regulations didn't kill coal; natural gas and renewables did. Regulations didn't stifle the western oil boom, either; that was low energy prices. Even if Trump & Co do prop the coal sector, jobs won't go to people; they'll go to machines, which took most of the jobs America lost in the last decade. BenDor's research shows restoration jobs are evenly divided between white-collar planners, designers, and engineers and the green-collar guys doing the actual earth moving and site construction. Almost all involve time in the great outdoors, and they can't be exported or done by robots. 9.   The Jobs are Cost-Effective Because restoration work is labor-intensive, the money goes to people instead of machines, and every $1 million invested generates 33 jobs on average. Every $1 million invested in oil, on the other hand, generates 5.2 jobs per $1 million invested. In coal, the figure is 6.9 jobs. 10.  It Doesn't Stifle Business Some industry groups claim the Endangered Species Act blocks development, but researchers reviewed 88,000 consultations between 2008 and 2015 and found that no projects had been stopped or even changed in a major way to protect habitat. Even proponents of the system concede, however, that the permitting process is slow and tedious. 11.  It Can Be Improved While the Fish and Wildlife Service administers credits for mitigation of endangered species, the Army Corps of Engineers approves mitigation credits for streams and wetlands, and they're notoriously underfunded. This leads to long and costly delays, according to unpublished research that BenDor conducted with Daniel Spethmann of Working Lands Investment Partners and David Urban of Ecosystem Investment Partners. Delays are so costly, they argue, that companies in the restoration sector might be better off paying 50-fold higher permitting prices that would give the agencies the staff needed to properly process permits, akin to expedited building permits, rather than paying banks the interest on loans for land where environmental improvements are being held up. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

11 февраля, 02:09

Energy Storage Set To Boom In 2017

The problem with today’s power grid isn’t the lack of electricity but rather the lack of it at certain times. The United States has progressively moved towards adding renewable energy to the grid but solar and wind power are rather intermittent. Worst of all, some of this power is completely wasted because our grid is unable to store it properly. Tesla, along with other companies, has begun to solve this pressing issue. Three new storage plants are in the works and they’re unlike anything before. The plants will be completely…

Выбор редакции
10 февраля, 09:14

Solar Created More Jobs in 2016 Than Oil, Gas and Coal Combined

Carbon Tracker Initiative's Luke Sussams says the dropping costs of renewable energy could see global demand for oil and coal peak by 2020 Help support The Real News by making a donation today: http://therealnews.com/donate

09 февраля, 19:01

Australians boil while leaders row

A POWER outage during a searing heat wave in South Australia state has worsened a row with the federal government over energy security and the state’s heavy reliance on wind and solar power. Australia’s

09 февраля, 17:47

PPG Industries (PPG) Gets DOE Funding to Develop Agilon

PPG Industries (PPG) declared that the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") will provide funds to support a $1.14 million project.

09 февраля, 02:51

Electric Car Showdown: China And Tesla Scramble For Supply

As China moves stealthily on the world’s cobalt and lithium supplies to feed an unprecedented US$360-billion renewable energy push, watch what happens next in Chile, where Chinese investors are talking about a mega $2-billion battery factory to rival Tesla. Tesla in January switched on the power at its Nevada battery gigafactory—and we’re just getting started here. Battery factories are popping up all over Europe as well. SGF Energy is planning a gigafactory in Sweden. Later this year, two are expected to open: BMC’s in…

08 февраля, 19:01

EU to phase out Chinese solar panel duties

THE European Union said yesterday it aimed to phase out anti-dumping duties on Chinese solar panel imports after 18 months, ending a bitter dispute with one of its largest trading partners. Stung by

08 февраля, 13:18

White House eyeing fossil fuel lobbyist for energy adviser job

Fossil fuel industry lobbyist Mike Catanzaro is under consideration to serve as an energy adviser on the National Economic Council, sources told POLITICO, an appointment that would test President Donald Trump’s promise to limit the number of lobbyists who serve in his administration.Catanzaro, who was a registered lobbyist as of last month, is a partner at the firm CGCN Group. His clients include American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, an industry trade group; natural gas company Devon Energy, renewable energy company NextEra Energy; and fossil fuel companies Noble Energy and Hess Corporation, among others, according to lobbying disclosure records.During the presidential campaign, Trump repeatedly vowed to “drain the swamp” in Washington. He signed an executive order late last month that bars registered lobbyists from participating in “any particular matter” on which they lobbied in the past two years. Those lobbying restrictions last for two years from the time the person joins the administration.The order allows for the administration to issue a waiver that would let lobbyists serve in the administration, but it does not include a provision like the one in an order signed by President Barack Obama in 2009 that requires disclosure of the waivers.It’s unclear if Catanzaro would sign a waiver or recuse himself from working on specific issues on which he lobbied.Trump’s National Economic Council is led by former Goldman Sachs Group President and Chief Operating Officer Gary Cohn. The council will advise Trump on a range of economic policy issues.Catanzaro is among the lobbyists listed in CGCN’s January lobbying registration for Goldman Sachs Group.Before he became a lobbyist, Catanzaro held a number of high-profile energy policy jobs in Washington. He was a Republican aide on the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, an energy adviser to George W. Bush’s 2004 presidential campaign, a top staffer in Bush’s EPA and his White House Council on Environmental Quality, and a member of Mitt Romney’s presidential transition team in 2012. He was a former adviser to House Speaker John Boehner as well.Catanzaro also briefly served on Trump’s transition team. But he stepped down in November after the transition imposed new rules that required lobbyists serving on the transition to drop all their clients.Catanzaro did not respond to requests for comment. The White House did not respond to a request for comment. CGCN declined to comment.

07 февраля, 16:18

Canadian Solar (CSIQ) Sells 3 Solar Plants to Fengate Unit

Canadian Solar Inc. (CSIQ) closed the sale of the outstanding shares of three utility-scale solar farm holding companies to Fengate SSM Holdco LP, an affiliate of Fengate Real Asset Investments.

05 февраля, 07:57

Trump Perverts American History Pushing Religious Power Grab

As President Donald Trump continues his attempt to shock doctrine America with a flurry of executive orders, geopolitical posturings, sophomoric outbursts, and outrageous pronouncements, it is not hard to lose focus. At the National Prayer Breakfast Thursday morning, Trump continued his strange attacks on former Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, whom he reportedly resents for taking over for him on 'Celebrity Apprentice' in lieu of daughter dearest Ivanka. Oh, and for having the temerity to oppose his presidential candidacy. I can easily mount a defense of Schwarzenegger, an old friend who did some terrific things as governor, but there's no need to get distracted. Arnold can take care of himself. Because climate change denier Trump did something far worse than strangely snipe at renewable energy champion Schwarzenegger's ratings on an ancient reality TV show. While most focused on a spat, Trump engaged in the grossest sort of historical perversion to promote a political pay-off for Christian fundamentalist voters who were essential to his minority vote victory in the presidential race. Largely lost in the shuffle of Trump's manic, dizzyingly dizzy approach. the popular vote loser president is promising to shatter the separation between church and state that lies at the core of modern American democracy. While Trump is showing himself to be a largely fake populist, appointing just the sort of manipulative megabucks insiders he decried in the campaign, he is proving to be a reliable neo-medievalist in pushing for more Christian fundamentalist influence in American politics. Perhaps not a surprise, that, since Trump got more votes from white evangelical Christians -- even though his lifestyle and attitudes quite laughably have little in common with the actual teachings of Jesus -- than Hillary Clinton got from black and Latino voters combined. So, even though religiosity plays a bigger role in American politics -- with supposedly divine authority routinely spread over controversial policies like so much ketchup over mystery meat in a cheap diner -- than in any other major advanced industrial state in the world, Trump promises even more religiosity in politics. Trump vowed to "totally destroy" the Johnson Amendment, the 1954 legislation, signed without incident by Republican President Dwight Eisenhower, authored by then Texas Senator Lyndon Johnson, to specifically bar tax-exempt organizations, including churches, from direct intervention in American elections. That's bad enough. But Trump compounds the outrageousness by directly citing Thomas Jefferson as rationale for the move. "It was the great Thomas Jefferson," intoned Trump, whose name is out of place in the same sentence with the legendary Enlightenment philosopher, "who said, the God who gave us life, gave us liberty. Jefferson asked, can the liberties of a nation be secure when we have removed a conviction that these liberties are the gift of God? Among those freedoms is the right to worship according to our own beliefs. That is why I will get rid of and totally destroy the Johnson Amendment and allow our representatives of faith to speak freely and without fear of retribution. I will do that, remember." Maybe Trump, who studied real estate at his Ivy League university, Penn, and notoriously never reads books, doesn't understand how dishonest this is and in gravely undermining the separation of church and state is simply parroting what he is told by some of his extremist advisors. Because the reality is that Jefferson was a great champion of reason and science and a staunch opponent of the Christian fundamentalism Trump seeks to further empower. Jefferson was one of the foremost champions of the Enlightenment, which vociferously opposed the promotion of religious dogma in politics. Indeed, it was Jefferson who coined the term "wall of separation between church and state." As principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson cited "the Laws of Nature and Nature's God," not the biblical God of Christian fundamentalism which Trump seeks to further promote, as the foundation for our ethic of liberty. That is "the god who gave us life and liberty." For Jefferson, like most of the key Founding Fathers, was a deist, someone who believes that there may be a creator of the universe but not an all-powerful, obedience-demanding figure. In fact, Jefferson literally re-worked the Bible to excise its supernatural elements, producing 'The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth,' better known as the 'Jefferson Bible.' It excludes the supernatural, removing all accounts of "miracles" and depictions of Jesus as divine. Jefferson viewed good works in this life as the mark of morality rather than obedience to a creed, seeing Jesus as an incredibly valuable moral and ethical teacher but rejecting the Trinity. Jefferson denied that Jesus meant "to impose himself on mankind as the son of God," deriding the producers of the New Testament as "ignorant, unlettered men" who promoted "superstitions, fanaticisms, and fabrications." "In every country and in every age," Jefferson wrote, "the priest has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own. It is easier to acquire wealth and power by this combination than by deserving them." Well, as Jefferson put it, "alliance with the despot." Add would-be and what new president does that sound like? Nearly five years ago, I began writing about opposition and support for the Enlightenment as one of the most crucial dividing lines in American politics, noting in "The Enlightenment Divides American Politics" that the anti-Obama "birther" lies promoted by Trump and climate change denialism were on the rise in a country in which upwards of 40 percent believe in biblical "Creationism" rather than the science of evolution. Many wondered why I did that. Now Donald Trump, as I feared from summer 2015 on, is president and know-nothingism is ascendant. And Trump feels so emboldened that he lies about Thomas Jefferson as he seeks to end the separation of church and state. Never be distracted from the fundamentals of politics, and the fundamental truths of American history. Facebook comments are closed on this article. William Bradley Archive http://www.huffingtonpost.com/william-bradley/ -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

04 февраля, 00:18

The Koch Brothers Are Attacking New Mexico Solar. Here's How Lawmakers Can Fight Back.

Solar power is wildly popular. So, in recent years, fossil fuel companies and utility monopolies have had to figure out a new strategy for attacking it. Allies of the Koch Brothers and other big polluters are now pretending to be pro-solar while pushing secretive or incomprehensibly complex policies that seek to undermine clean energy. During the 2016 election, a Koch-backed oil and coal advocate was caught on tape explaining how lobbyists should use "the language of promoting solar" to push anti-solar policies like Florida's Amendment 1, which aimed to make green energy costlier and put installers out of business. Thankfully, Florida voters caught on to the deception and defeated the ballot measure. But opponents of renewable energy are now trying this cynical approach around the country. This week, a similar strategy is being employed in another sun-rich state, New Mexico. In the Land of Enchantment, State Senator Clemente Sanchez and State Rep. Debbie Rodella just introduced companion bills that are advertised as measures to ensure consumer protection in the solar industry and to require greater transparency in solar contracts with homeowners. These are laudable goals, but the legislation has other aims. The Koch Brothers' American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) has spent years designing measures to defeat solar companies--particularly small- and medium-sized ones--by encumbering them in regulations that are far more stringent than those governing the purchase of other home improvements or big-ticket consumer items. The bills now under consideration in New Mexico are based directly on ALEC's model anti-solar bills in Arizona and Nevada. This helps explain why the bills--which are being pushed by the state's investor-owned utility--were developed without serious consultation with workers, some key industry leaders, government agencies, or even consumers. The New Mexico legislation, which is moving through legislative committees in the coming days, is a perfect example of monopolists' and polluters' savvy new strategy: pretend to be pro-solar and pro-consumer, then do damage through legislative details. While the solar industry already has serious consumer protection standards that could be codified into state law, the new legislation presents a range of requirements with which many of the state's solar firms cannot feasibly comply. At a time when regulatory, legal, and other "soft costs" of solar installation already hover around 25%, champions of "keeping limited government" and "cutting bureaucratic red tape" are somehow getting passionate about imposing costly new regulations on an industry in which they are few known instances of abuse. Right now, solar is a leading driver of job creation and corporate investment across the country. Solar has unique capacity to unite left and right ideologically on matters from individual liberty to environmental quality. But positive rhetoric isn't enough. Lawmakers need to stand up for genuine pro-solar policies like net metering, renewable portfolio standards, and tax credits that accelerate job creation and help level the playing field with heavily-subsidized industries like oil gas. Policymakers also need to guard against "greenwashing" campaigns that co-opt progressive rhetoric to advance the interests of absentee investors or big polluters. For New Mexico legislators, this vote is a crucial test. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website.

27 ноября 2014, 12:39

Почему Google отказалась от "зеленой" энергетики

Несколько лет назад компания Google инициировала амбициозный энергетический проект. Но даже мастеру инноваций современной эпохи не удалось найти реальную замену углю и другим ископаемым источникам топлива. Целью проекта RE

10 июня 2014, 09:23

Налоги на нефть. Mother Jones

Обсуждение налогов на добычу полезных ископаемых, а также льгот в этой области зачастую оказывается значимой частью политической полемики. Эту тему энергично освещают СМИ; она же в ряде случаев фигурирует как знаковый момент политической или активистской риторики. В США последняя волна налоговых льгот в недавней истории пришлась на 1995 г., когда цены на нефть упали настолько, что вложения в отрасль стали казаться невыгодными. Чтобы дать стимул к развитию нефтедобычи, правительство стало вводить налоговые льготы, вплоть до полного устранения налогов для тех, кто разрабатывал нерентабельные или низкорентабельные месторождения (например, глубоководные). В результате эти льготы продолжают действовать в отношении разработок, начавшихся в период с 1996 по 2000 г. Властям США в условиях бюджетного дефицита такие льготы в настоящее время очень невыгодны, тем более что цены на нефть, с тех пор как льготы были введены, выросли в десятки раз. В связи с этим тема устранения этих льгот обсуждается регулярно. В 2013 г., например, за нее энергично взялся [1] конгрессмен Эдвард Марки (Edward Markey, демократ из Массачусетса), член Комитета по природным ресурсам. Он, в частности, подсчитал, что если бы налоговые льготы отменили сразу после того, как цены на нефть начали расти, то общий доход бюджету от налогов, выплачиваемых нефтяными компаниями, мог бы составить порядка $11 млрд. Входящие в состав Комитета демократы выпустили отчет, в котором сообщалось, что около 25% нефти, добываемой только в Мексиканском заливе в настоящий момент не подлежит налогообложению, то есть более 100 нефтегазовых компаний арендуют не менее 200 не облагаемых налогом нефтеносных участков. По их прогнозам, если снять льготы, то за следующие 10 лет дополнительный доход бюджета составит порядка $15,5 млрд. Нефтяные компании, в свою очередь, стали высказываться резко против этой инициативы Комитета. В частности, они сразу стали апеллировать к тому, что устранение льгот приведет к сокращению объемов нефтедобычи, так как у компаний пропадет стимул к разработке труднодоступных месторождений, а дохода федеральному бюджету, соответственно, не прибавится. Еще один распространенный аргумент [2] состоит в том, что уплата налогов в итоге ляжет не на корпорации, а на плечи конечного потребителя, который будет больше платить за нефтепродукты . Компромисс до сих пор не был найден, и полемика продолжается. В апреле 2014 г. был опубликован большой материал [3] в левом некоммерческом издании Mother Jones, которое, конечно, поддерживает отмену льгот для крупных корпораций. Авторы, в частности, приводят следующие цифры. За последние сто лет федеральное правительство вложило в нефтегазовую отрасль более $470 млрд. в виде налоговых льгот, которые «первоначально были призваны поддержать американских нефтяников, а потом превратились в чистый бонус для самых доходных в мире компаний». При этом налогоплательщики сейчас спонсируют нефтедобычу в размере примерно $4,8 млрд. в год, из которых половина идет пяти крупным нефтяным компаниям (ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron, BP и ConocoPhillips). Их льготный налог в среднем составляет $3,34 за баррель, притом что цены на нефть превысили $100 за баррель. Авторы также отмечают, что со времени введения первых государственных субсидий для нефтедобывающих компаний (это произошло в 1916 г.) вопрос о непропорциональном распределении налоговой нагрузки поднимался неоднократно – преимущественно при президентах-демократах. В частности, приводится высказывание Гарри Трумэна, который назвал правила взимания налогов с нефтедобывающих компаний самой вопиющей дырой в системе налогообложения. Тем не менее, вплоть до настоящего момента нефтяники удерживают за собой льготы. Технически говоря, они сейчас действительно ничего не получают от государства, помимо налоговых поблажек, а для того чтобы отменить их, нужно изменить законодательство. Когда цены на нефть после 1998 г. только начали расти, министерство внутренних дел США (DOI - iv_g) попыталось ввести ограничения на льготы, поставив порог в $28 за баррель, после которого льготы считались недействительными. Большинство компаний последовали этому требованию, однако корпорация Kerr McGee, которую позднее купила Anadarko, подала на министерство в суд на том основании, что у него не было права вводить такие ограничения. Kerr McGee выиграла процесс, после чего все компании, уже выплатившие налоги, получили эти средства обратно. Больше подобных инициатив пока не было. Британские нефтяные компании сейчас энергично разрабатывают месторождения в Северном море. Прибыль с этого они начали получать во второй половине 1970-х гг., а в середине 1980-х гг. наступил первый пик их доходности, составившей более 3% национального дохода. По некоторым подсчетам, с начала разработок к настоящему моменту доход государству должен составить 850 млрд. фунтов. В отличие от США, полемика о налоговых льготах в области добычи нефти в Соединенном Королевстве не настолько острая. Стимулирующие льготы там обычно встраиваются в бюджетный план на предстоящий год. Это, конечно, тоже может быть поводом для возмущения, но менее массового. В частности, когда в 2012 г. ряд компаний, в том числе BP, получили льготы [4] на разработку глубоководных месторождений к северу от Шотландии, это вызвало недовольство у экологов и сторонников зеленых движений. Оно было вызвано тем, что нефтяные компании не просто получили разрешение на проведение своих неэкологичных работ (особенно BP, отметившаяся в 2010 г. тем, что разлила в Мексиканском заливе нефть и устроила там экологическую катастрофу), но еще и удостоились за это вознаграждения. Всерьез тема налогов на добычу нефти стала обсуждаться в британской прессе – также, в первую очередь, с позиции политического противостояния – в 2014 г. Поводом послужило поступившее в январе сообщение [5] норвежского национального Пенсионного фонда о том, что каждый норвежец стал потенциальным миллионером, так как объемы фонда достиг 5 трлн. крон, в миллион раз превысив численность населения страны (около 5 млн. человек). В 1990 г. был создан Нефтяной фонд, куда стали поступать налоги из нефтегазовой отрасли (в том числе налоги на добычу). Позднее он был объединен с Пенсионным фондом, в результате чего получился такой эффект. Естественно, граждане не могут просто прийти в фонд и забрать деньги. Однако известно, что эти средства идут на обеспечение гражданских нужд, в том числе строительство дорог и обеспечение отопления. По подсчетам экспертов [6], доход от нефтяных налогов на душу населения в Великобритании, конечно, был бы меньше - с учетом большей численности населения, однако всё равно составил бы около 13 000 фунтов на человека. Но ничего в этой сфере не изменилось, и ни о каком использовании этих средств для прямого обеспечения гражданских нужд речи не идет. Эти средства шли и продолжают идти на установление налоговых льгот для крупных корпораций вне нефтяной сферы. Левые комментаторы ставят это в упрек консервативным правительством, по чьей инициативе это было организовано так. Их оппоненты указывают на общественную полезность стимулирования развития бизнеса http://www.oilru.com/news/412616/ http://polit.ru/article/2014/06/01/oil_royalty/ 1/ http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/lawmaker-attacks-oil-companies-free-drilling-in-gulf/2013/02/26/cc55014a-806a-11e2-b99e-6baf4ebe42df_story.html 2/ http://www.foxandhoundsdaily.com/2014/04/californians-already-pay-oil-severance-tax-states/  3/ http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/04/oil-subsidies-renewable-energy-tax-breaks 4/ http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2012/mar/21/budget-2012-oil-industry-tax 5/ http://www.radioazadlyg.ru/content/article/25225524.html 6/ http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/jan/13/north-sea-oil-money-uk-norwegians-fund  - - - - Выжимка из статьи i/ В США последняя волна налоговых льгот в недавней истории пришлась на 1995 г., когда цены на нефть упали настолько, что вложения в отрасль стали казаться невыгодными. Чтобы дать стимул к развитию нефтедобычи, правительство стало вводить налоговые льготы, вплоть до полного устранения налогов для тех, кто разрабатывал нерентабельные или низкорентабельные месторождения (например, глубоководные). В результате эти льготы продолжают действовать в отношении разработок, начавшихся в период с 1996 по 2000 г. ii/ около 25% нефти, добываемой только в Мексиканском заливе в настоящий момент не подлежит налогообложению, то есть более 100 нефтегазовых компаний арендуют не менее 200 не облагаемых налогом нефтеносных участков. iii/ если снять льготы, то за следующие 10 лет дополнительный доход бюджета составит порядка $15,5 млрд. iv/ За последние сто лет федеральное правительство вложило в нефтегазовую отрасль более $470 млрд. в виде налоговых льгот v/ налогоплательщики сейчас спонсируют нефтедобычу в размере примерно $4,8 млрд. в год, из которых половина идет пяти крупным нефтяным компаниям (ExxonMobil, Shell, Chevron, BP и ConocoPhillips). Их льготный налог в среднем составляет $3,34 за баррель, притом что цены на нефть превысили $100 за баррель. Выводы i/ Убивать курицу, несущую золотые яйца, чтобы получить в среднем прибавку $1,5 млрд. в год неразумно. ii/ Налоговые льготы за 100 лет в среднем $4,7 млрд. в год, вероятно, большая часть в последние 20 лет. Очень немного, принимая во внимание мультиплицирующий эффект на экономику и значительную степень выработанности запасов - - - - Mother Jones Mother Jones (abbreviated MoJo) is an American magazine featuring investigative and breaking news reporting on politics, the environment, human rights, and culture. First issue February 1976 Company Foundation For National Progress http://www.motherjones.com/search/apachesolr_search/oil Jan. 2, 2013 Big Oil's Billions in Tax Perks Survive Fiscal Cliff Deal http://www.motherjones.com/mojo/2013/01/big-oil-tax-subsidy-fiscal-cliff Apr. 14, 2014 A Brief History of Big Tax Breaks for Oil Companies http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/04/oil-subsidies-energy-timeline  Oil derricks and a "lake" of spilled crude in Santa Barbara, California, in 1935. Associated Press      Chart sources Estimated Annual Tax Breaks for the Big Five: Center for American Progress Estimated Tax Break per Barrel of Oil Produced in US: Calculation based on companies' SEC filings and Center for American Progress data Total Tax Breaks…/Average Annual Tax Breaks: DBL Investors (PDF), Congressional Budget Office (PDF) Political Giving Center for Responsive Politics Federal Lobbying: Center for Responsive Politics Campaign Spending by Top 20 Donors: Center for Responsive Politics Energy Tax Breaks: Congressional Budget Office (PDF) Where Our Energy Comes From: Energy Information Administration http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/04/oil-subsidies-renewable-energy-tax-breaks  О диаграммах i/ Налоговые льготы ВИЭ весьма существенны ii/ Лоббирование ВИЭ значительно, особенно если посмотреть как долю от продаж iii/ Сравнивать 2005 и 2011 не совсем корректно. 2005 - пик добычи традиционной нефти в мире и в отдельных компаниях iv/ Журнал демократов ведет кампанию против нефтяных компаний, которые плохо финансируют демократов. И более благосклонен к ВИЭ, которые приносят демократам больше, чем республиканцам v/ Налоговые льготы ВИЭ весьма существенны особенно если сравнивать объем льгот и производство энергии. На максимуме в 2008 г. налоговые льготы на ВИЭ превосходили все льготы на ископаемое топливо в более чем в 5 раз, а сейчас превосходят более чем в 2раза.

18 февраля 2014, 14:14

Успехи Техаса и США: нефть и газ животворящие :)

Richard W. Fisher, President and CEOFederal Reserve Bank of DallasDallas, Texas February 11, 2014             - - - - - - - 05 Февраль 2014 О ценах на газ в США http://iv-g.livejournal.com/997777.html   23 Октябрь 2013 U.S. Natural Gas Proved Reserves, 2011. 2 http://iv-g.livejournal.com/956077.html   28 Август 2013 McKinsey: Five opportunities for US growth and renewal (Energy) http://iv-g.livejournal.com/931584.html  26 Август 2013 API.org: Инфографика о добыче сланцевых нефти и газа. 2 http://iv-g.livejournal.com/931067.html   24 Август 2013 API.org: Инфографика о добыче сланцевых нефти и газа http://iv-g.livejournal.com/929565.html   17 Январь 2013 IEA: World Energy Outlook 2012. Presentation to the press http://iv-g.livejournal.com/818512.html  26 Декабрь 2012 forbes: Влияние нетрадиционных газа и нефти на экономику США http://iv-g.livejournal.com/806390.html   25 Июль 2012 Занятость в США и добыча углеводородов http://iv-g.livejournal.com/715320.html     28 Март 2012 Citigroup report. Energy 2020: North America as the new Middle East http://iv-g.livejournal.com/633928.html