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25 марта, 20:06

Exeter’s Don Armand shines in defeat of Sale to put Chiefs joint top

• Exeter 30-25 Sale• Armand caps fine display with powerful tryExeter’s head coach, Rob Baxter, said recently he wants his captain, Don Armand, to commit to the club for the rest of his career – and on this evidence it is not hard to see why. The Zimbabwe-born flanker rolled up his sleeves, puffed out his cheeks and powered over for a late try to seal a gritty bonus-point victory for the Chiefs, who remain on course for a return to the end‑of-season play-offs.Baxter, however, was far from pleased. Exeter, now level on points with Wasps at the top of the table, have not lost in the Premiership since October but Baxter was fearful his players were beginning to believe their own hype, having won handsomely away to Leicester on their last league outing. Indeed, Sale, who were 22-20 ahead with 15 minutes to go, can consider themselves unfortunate to leave with just a losing bonus point after AJ MacGinty’s flawless kicking performance and another reminder of Denny Solomona’s sharp finishing. Continue reading...

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25 марта, 09:40

Zimbabwe floods leave villagers stranded

More than 250 people have been killed so far this rainy season as floods have left remote communities isolated.

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24 марта, 15:34

Zimbabwe's cash-strapped tobacco farms

Small-scale tobacco farmers in Zimbabwe have little to invest due to poor profit margins and a weak economy.

24 марта, 11:02

Zimbabwe’s war veterans speak out against Mugabe

President Robert Mugabe is facing mounting pressure to stand down. The protests come not just from opposition parties, but also from war veterans who previously endorsed him. They say they would rather support someone who is not from Mugabe’s ruling Zanu-PF party than be led by a “dictator”. Al Jazeera’s Haru Mutasa reports from Harare. - Subscribe to our channel: http://aje.io/AJSubscribe - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/AJEnglish - Find us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/aljazeera - Check our website: http://www.aljazeera.com/

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24 марта, 10:36

Corrupt Chinese fugitive repatriated from Zimbabwe

A retired Chinese tax official has been returned from Zimbabwe to China less than four months after he fled a corruption probe and hid in the southern African country.

23 марта, 14:00

Being an Ethical Business in a Corrupt Environment

Most business leaders hesitate to take a firm stand against corruption, even in environments where it is widespread. Some may see benefits from indulging in corrupt practices such as faster processing of permits or less interference from governmental officials. At the same time, the perceived costs of corruption are low, due to poorly formulated anti-corruption laws and ineffective enforcement, which leads to a very low likelihood of prosecution and punishment. As a result, as much as they may detest corruption, most business leaders end up succumbing to it. Indeed, many see themselves as victims of the endemic corruption rather than as its perpetrators – “Everyone else is doing it,” they may tell themselves, “So we have to do it too.” This does not have to be the case, and in fact, it should not be the case. Our research in Egypt, Zimbabwe, and India shows that organizations should view the prospect of building a strong ethical reputation in such environments as an opportunity, and consider the costs of resisting corruption as an investment in building such a reputation. Moreover, our research illuminates specific steps companies can take to maintain high ethical standards in environments where corruption seems widespread. We also find that these steps are most effective in countries with a free and plural press, an independent judiciary, and a potential for collective action (such as a community that can be appealed to or organized, such as a religious community, a civic organization, or a trade association). When these conditions are in place, it will be easier for an organization to take a firm stance against corruption, especially political corruption. Ethics Can Be a Differentiator Ethical behavior is in scarce supply in corrupt business environments such as Zimbabwe, Egypt and India, relative to highly ethical ones. Therefore, stakeholders — such as customers or investors — place a higher value on ethical behavior in corrupt environments. Moreover, ethical behavior is more noticeable in corrupt environments than it would be in ethical ones; it is easier for an ethical company to stand out in a corrupt environment. Finally, organizations typically underestimate the latent support for ethical behavior in corrupt environments. They should realize that stakeholders’ silence on endemic corruption does not mean that they are satisfied with the status quo. An organization showing ethical leadership can galvanize ethically sensitive stakeholders into supporting it in its endeavor to fight corruption, which can lead to reputational benefits for the organization. Resisting Corruption in Corrupt Environments How should firms go about resisting corruption? First, they need to frame their ethical behavior in a way that resonates with as wide a network of stakeholders as possible. Importantly, we find that it is crucial for organizations to reach beyond the immediate family and friends networks of their company leaders for support. For example, Strive Masiyiwa was able to elicit significant support from the large Christian community in Zimbabwe by framing his commitment to ethics as emanating from his religious beliefs. India’s Infosys repeatedly invoked its “middle class values” to position itself as an ethical organization, which resonated with the young university-educated workforce that it was trying to attract. Ibrahim Abouleish, founder of Sekem in Egypt, found that appealing to a larger goal such as nation-building or leaving a better country for the next generation was effective in justifying his commitment to ethics. Research NoteOur study is based on 120 semi-structured interviews with the subjects of five organizations in India, Zimbabwe, and Egypt. Our subjects included the founders of the organizations, their employees, former employees, and other external stakeholders. We also had access to vast amounts of archival data on these organizations and the contexts in which they operated. We developed research case studies on two companies and teaching case studies on four companies. We have published research articles in Organization Studies (based on one subject company) and Journal of Management Studies (based on two companies). We published a teaching case on one company in the International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education (now called International Review of Entrepreneurship). Second, entrepreneurs and managers need to understand that there are gradations of corruption. Often, business leaders of private firms mistakenly assume that all governmental officers in corrupt environments are irremediably corrupt. At other times, the initiators of the corrupt transaction are the private firms themselves; they resort to bribery to incentivize the governmental official to accelerate the approval process or to turn a blind eye to violations of regulatory norms. Business leaders should instead understand that corruption exists along a continuum. For example, the head of the governmental relations department of Alacrity Housing in India told us that in his fourteen years on the job, 40-50% of the governmental officers he had interacted with had directly or indirectly made it known to him that they were expecting a bribe. While that might sound like a lot, what it shows us is that between 50 and 60% of the governmental officers did not expect bribes — even in the construction industry, which is known for its high corruption due to the multiple governmental departments that need to provide permits and approvals, and in a country where corruption is quite widespread. In any country, there will be governmental officers who perform their duty without asking for bribes or accepting them if offered; others who would not ask for a bribe but will not refuse one either; a third group who ask for bribes but can be persuaded not to insist; and a fourth group that don’t budge until their demands are met. Business leaders should not assume every government official they meet is in this fourth group. Third, organizations need to acquire a fine-grained understanding of their stakeholders. We classify them into four categories based on their likely response to an organization’s ethical behavior. These four categories cut across the traditional stakeholder groupings of customers, suppliers, employees, investors, regulators, and evaluators, who business leaders tend to segment according to their business operations. Instead, we think ethical companies should segment stakeholders this way: indifferent stakeholders, who are only interested in whether the organization can satisfy their expectations as a supplier, customer, employee, or investor, and who are indifferent to the means that the organization uses to achieve this; pragmatic stakeholders, who find some tangible value in the ethical behavior of the organization; absentee stakeholders, who in the absence of ethical behavior would not participate in the market because of the very high uncertainty caused by the corruption; and ethical stakeholders, who will support an ethical organization even at a cost to themselves. Organizations need to prioritize the pragmatic, absentee and ethical stakeholders. As for the indifferent stakeholders, the organization should accept that many of them will probably defect to a company that isn’t fussy about the means they use to achieve their ends; ethical firms in corrupt environments actually create more uncertainty for these stakeholders, who may worry about whether the firm can actually deliver. But our research suggests that when a firm shows ethical leadership, many of the stakeholders who were seemingly indifferent  convert to pragmatic and ethical stakeholders. Others who had stayed away from the market (absentee) emerge. Fourth, ethical organizations need to strategically build partnerships with high-status individuals and organizations, so that their ethical reputations can diffuse as widely as possible. This tactic, referred to as “reputation borrowing,” has been used by startups to build their prominence among a wide group of stakeholders at an early stage in their business cycle when they have limited reputation. In extreme cases, organizations seeking to operate ethically will need to resort to judicial action to further their fight against corruption and work with other like-minded groups to support their cause.

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23 марта, 12:26

At 93 years old, Zimbabwe’s Mugabe remains a jet-setter

Zimbabwe’s 93-year-old leader might be slowing down, but his busy foreign travels have led the opposition to call him the “non-resident president.”

23 марта, 08:34

Zimbabwe opposition rallies for fair elections

Zimbabwe opposition rallies for fair elections Opposition parties in Zimbabwe have staged a protest in the capital, Harare, over concerns of rigging in next year’s elections. They are worried President Robert Mugabe's ruling Zanu-PF party will try to manipulate the voter roll. Police fired water cannons on opposition supporters to prevent them from marching. Al Jazeera's Haru Mutasa reports from Harare. - Subscribe to our channel: http://aje.io/AJSubscribe - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/AJEnglish - Find us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/aljazeera - Check our website: http://www.aljazeera.com/

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22 марта, 17:15

Zimbabwe opposition groups protest over 2018 election

Opposition politicians, activists and outspoken church leaders in Zimbabwe have gathered to protest what they call attempts to rig next year’s presidential election.

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21 марта, 17:08

Zimbabwe opposition parties want UN to handle 2018 election

Zimbabwe’s opposition parties are demanding United Nations involvement in next year’s presidential election after a preparatory meeting fell apart amid an argument with election officials.

20 марта, 01:36

Is a falling population contractionary?, by Scott Sumner

One often comes across articles that suggest Japan faces "headwinds" of a falling population. This is supposed to contribute to falling aggregate demand and deflation. That may be true, but if so it's almost certainly not for the reason that many people assume. One of the best examples of a falling population occurred in Europe between 1345 and 1400, when the population may have fallen in half (I'm not sure how accurate the data is.) There is some evidence that the effect of the Black Death was actually inflationary, especially for wages: But the Black Death had other economic effects. Although the rise in real wages after the plague was not as dramatic as many assume, it was persistent, as this graph from Gregory Clark (who looks at England) illustrates: This is exactly what I would have expected. A plague does not reduce "M" in the famous equation of exchange. It might reduce velocity, but over a period of many decades I doubt it would have much impact on the speed at which medieval people spent money. If MV doesn't decline, then that means there is no impact on aggregate demand. Since the Black Death would clearly reduce real output (Y) we can infer that it probably raised prices. Many people get confused on this point, because they wrongly visualize "aggregate demand" in terms of "lots of people going shopping". That is, they think of AD as a real concept, when it is in fact a nominal concept. The most explosive growth in aggregate demand in recent decades occurred in Zimbabwe during 2008, yet there weren't all that many Zimbabweans at the shopping malls---it was mostly inflation. Japan is in the midst of an episode of falling population that may eventually rival the Black Death (fortunately with much longer life expectancy). Here is the Wall Street Journal discussing the Japanese labor market: TOKYO--A labor shortage is helping Japan's temporary and part-time workers win greater pay increases than its full-timers, a reversal that adds to signs of gains by lower-wage workers globally. . . . In January, part-time hourly wages rose 2.6% from the previous year, compared with a 0.4% increase for full-time workers' base wages. On b-style, a listing site for part-time jobs, the average position was offering ¥1,087 an hour in February, up by more than 7% in two months. "There is a labor crunch overall due to the falling birthrate. If you don't raise hourly wages, you can't secure people," said Keitaro Kawakami, head of b-style's research unit. I'm not sure what to make of that, as those wage increases are not all that impressive. But the basic point is correct. Other things equal, a falling population would lead to rising wages. Why then does Japan usually have such weak wage increases? Because other things are not equal---Japan has an extremely tight monetary policy, leading to slow NGDP growth. Another mistake is to assume that a falling population leads to weak AD because there is less "need" for goods. In fact, needs are limitless. Here's a FT article discussing Japan's housing market: You could pity the Japanese house. Its average lifespan is only 26 years. Or, you could revel in a culture of exuberant renewal that has made the Japanese house the crucible of contemporary architectural experimentation. It is no accident that Japan has the highest number of architects per capita in the world -- about five times as many as the UK and more than seven times as many as the US. Their country needs them. In 2015, Japan built almost a million new housing units. That's almost as many as the 1.108 million homes built in America that year. If I had not read that FT article, I might have guessed that the US built 10 times as many homes as in Japan. After all, our population is still growing at a decent clip while theirs is falling rapidly. So on a per capita basis I'd expect far more home construction US as compared to Japan. Add in the fact that we have almost three times as many people, and you'd expect dramatically higher home construction here than in Japan, perhaps an order of magnitude higher. The high level of Japanese housing construction makes sense if you think in terms of wants being unlimited. Japan has no problem coming up with lifestyles that people aspire to; it's just a question of whether the central bank will produce enough NGDP growth to make those dreams come true. PS. There is one sense in which a falling population could reduce AD. A falling population might reduce the Wicksellian equilibrium interest rate. If the central bank is foolish enough to target interest rates instead of NGDP expectations, then a lower equilibrium interest rate could lead to tighter money and reduced AD. But that's due to dumb monetary policy, not a falling population. (13 COMMENTS)

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18 марта, 13:30

For Zimbabwe’s Mugabes, marriage is political and personal

Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe plucked her from the secretarial pool decades ago to become his wife. Now Grace Mugabe is stirring speculation that she wants to succeed her 93-year-old husband as leader.

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18 марта, 08:01

Жители Зимбабве распотрошили крокодила, чтобы извлечь останки ребенка

В Зимбабве жители одной из деревень распотрошили крокодила, после того как он убил и съел 8-летнего мальчика, сообщает NUR.KZ со ссылкой на Daily Mirror. Фото: Daily Mirror Их худшие опасения были подтверждены, когда они разрезали живот огромного животного. Останки мальчика, имя которого не было раскрыто, были удалены из крокодила и захоронены двумя днями позже на похоронах. «Крокодил был застрелен, а затем разрезан. Остатки мальчика были обнаружены в желудке зверя», - сообщил местный репортер. Читайте также:  Назарбаев рассказал о возможности участия в следующих выборах>> Алматинка пострадала после увеличения губ (фото)>> Наркобарон был пойман после публикаций гламурных фото в Сети>> Предварительное слушание по делу Аблязова состоялось в Алматы>> Пожилой водитель спровоцировал массовое ДТП в Алматы из-за плохого самочувствия>>

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17 марта, 19:33

В Зимбабве мачеха выколола глаза мальчику за то, что он провинился

Жительница провинции Масвинго в Зимбабве выколола глаза своему четырёхлетнему пасынку из-за того, что тот помочился на кровать, сообщает The Mirror. На допросе в полиции женщина призналась в совершении преступления. На вопрос правоохранителей о мотивах такого поступка злоумышленница просто рассмеялась и ответила, что ребёнок ей не родной. Информации о местонахождении отца мальчика пока нет. В настоящее время полицейские выясняют все обстоятельства преступления.

17 марта, 16:25

Российские элиты продолжают богатеть, пока население страны стремительно погружается в нищету.

Очередное подтверждение тем, кто опирается на фундаментальный анализ в торговле парой Доллар-рубль, что фундамент работает очень плохо на кратко-среднесроке. Статистика, приведенная в статье ниже, как раз отлично подтверждает, кто такие «нерезиденты» в ОФЗ — это офшоры, по большей части приближенные к структурам Путина. Откуда такая прибавка богачей? — Перераспределение резервных фондов через госбумаги, увеличение налогов, душащих экономику, маниакальное укрепление инфляции, не имеющей никакого смысла для структуры нашей экономики. 4% и менее, почти как в развитых странах с РАБОТАЮЩЕЙ деверсифицированной экономикой и это все на фоне падающего ВВП, ухудшения платежного баланса, разрастания дефицита бюджета, сокращения доходов домохозяйств и потребления (а последнее — 70% ВВП). Но ТА в данной паре работает отлично, исполняются дивергенции, линейные зависимости трендов. На мой взгляд, проще всего вообще отключить любые новости по данной паре и торговать исключительно ТА. Фундамент здесь — это прямой путь к сливу. Лучше всего представить, что торгуешь долларом Зимбабве, чтобы отсутствовал вопрос, «Ну как так может быть»? Вот только ТА не будет работать, когда рванет, а это произойдет точно — вопрос времени. По моему ощущению, крысы начинают готовится покинуть корабль. Российские элиты продолжают богатеть, пока население страны стремительно погружается в нищету.Несмотря на падение экономики и самый тяжелый с 1990х годов кризис доходов, по итогам 2016 года Россия стала мировым лидером по скорости, с которой росло число долларовых миллионеров и миллиардеров, сообщает в ежемесячном «Мониторинге» РАНХиГС.За год отметку в 1 млн долларов совокупного состояния смогли преодолеть 12 тысяч россиян; 1 млрд долларов «разменяли» 8 граждан РФ.Количество долларовых миллионеров и миллиардеров в стране выросло на 10% и 11% соответственно, что стало рекордом среди всех регионов мира.Так, в целом по планете число миллиардеров увеличлось на 3%, в США — на 6%, в Азии — на 8%, а в Европе и Латинской Америке — уменьшилось на 4%.Богатеющая на фоне кризиса прослойка составляет менее 0,1% российского населения, в то время как подавляющее большинство граждан вынуждены экономить на самом необходимом и не видят улучшения экономических перспектив, отмечают в РАНХиГС.Реальные доходы россиян в 2016 году были на 9,5% ниже, чем в последний докризисный год (2013). В режим экономии перешли три четверти граждан, а общий объем потребления сжался на 12,6%.Каждый второй был вынужден отказаться от покупки отдельных продуктов питания, каждый третий — от приобретения одежды и обуви, каждый четвертый — от платных медицинских услуг, каждому пятому пришлось экономить на лекарствах.Продажи продовольствия сократились за время кризиса на 13,6%. В первую очередь из потребительской корзины ушли рыба, морепродукты и мяса, а практически единственным продуктом, потребление которого возросло, стала картошка (+11,8%).Согласно опросу ФОМ, который приводит РАНХиГС, 77% населения могут позволить себе только товары первой необходимости — одежду и еду; у 40% — денег не хватает даже на это.27% могут позволить себе расходы на питание, но одежду покупать уже не в состоянии, 13% сообщили, что денег не хватает даже на еду.По данным Росстата, 19,3 млн человек в России, или каждый седьмой, живут за чертой бедности — то есть имеют доход ниже прожиточного минимума, составляющего 10524 рубля для трудоспособных граждан, 8025 рублей — для пенсионеров и 9677 рублей для детей.За два года армию официально нищих пополнили более 3 млн россиян. К 2020му году, по Счетной палаты к ним присоединятся еще 1,4 млн человек.

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17 марта, 15:45

В Зимбабве крокодил проглотил 8-летнего малыша

В Зимбабве местные жители убили и распотрошили крокодила, который съел 8-летнего мальчика, сообщает Daily Mirror. Для того чтобы извлечь останки малыша, людям пришлось разрезать брюхо крокодила, затем то, что осталось от мальчика, было похоронено.

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17 марта, 15:22

Жители деревни распотрошили крокодила, чтобы извлечь останки 8-летнего ребёнка

В Зимбабве местные жители застрелили и распотрошили крокодила, которого подозревали в том, что он съел восьмилетнего мальчика, сообщает Daily Mirror. По информации газеты, для того чтобы извлечь тело ребёнка, людям пришлось разрезать крокодилу брюхо. Спустя два дня после операции останки мальчика были захоронены в деревне.

16 марта, 21:08

Is God a Macro- or Micro- Economist?, by Contributing Guest

by G. Patrick Lynch In an essay published in 1978 the late economist Paul Heyne grappled with the place of ethics in economics. Long before scholars such as Deirdre McCloskey had taken it upon themselves to try and awaken the economics profession to the colorless and barren depiction of human life they were presenting and in some ways promoting, Heyne noted that "Economists are accused of doing economics on the basis of analytical preconceptions that cause them to count as solutions what their critics perceive as problems that prevent them from even seeing certain social relationships as in any sense problematic." (from "Economics and Ethics: The Problem of Dialogue," in Are Economists Basically Immoral? Available in the Online Library of Liberty.) Perhaps no recent critic has taken the economics profession to task quite as publicly as Pope Francis in his recent encyclical "Laudato Si," which received a lot of attention from journalists, environmentalists and social justice advocates when it was published last year. In this week's edition of EconTalk, host Russ Roberts and Wake Forest economist Robert Whaples discuss the Pope's work with more sophistication and care than the average economist, but one can still wonder whether members of the economics profession can ever fully divorce themselves from the perspective of utility maximization, a topic they discuss during the podcast. The key question raised, from my perspective, is one that Roberts himself addresses - do markets encourage human flourishing or inhibit it? As he acknowledges at one point, the tendency of economists to marvel at the ability of the unplanned coordination of markets to create wealth and, undoubtedly, enhance material well-being is pretty clear. One doesn't have to compare North Korea to Singapore to understand that fact. But where Roberts is perhaps letting his inner economist get carried away is when he describes the Pope's view of the workings of markets as "sterile", "cruel", or "heartless". To my way of thinking the discussion over "Laudato Si" shows how Catholic thinking, like economics, is divided into macro and micro level concerns. Roberts and Whaples obviously have a lot of aggregate level data to support the notion that much of the empirics in the encyclical are not nearly rich enough to address issues as broad as environmental degradation, economic development, the morality of markets, and ultimately the nature of the good life. And from a micro perspective as they point out, people do tend to act in ways that generally, although not always, enhance their material well-being. However "Laudato Si" challenges these simplistic notions of whether growth alone is sufficient to provide for human flourishing, although it might be close to necessary, and how individuals at the micro level view work as self-affirming and relationships that are non-economic as more fundamental and profound than are market interactions. Roberts and Whaples speculate that the Pope's dim view of capitalism might be motivated by his upbringing in Argentina with an unhappy father who Whaples describes as an "overworked accountant". Of course it's doubtless true that we are all influenced to some degree by our upbringings. However, the important question here seems to me to be what are the limits of material wealth? Or perhaps more pointedly, can "more" be bad for humanity? The two discuss the question superficially when it comes to their experiences teaching undergraduates and thinking about utility maximization, but it's a bit surprising that Roberts in particular did not refer to one of his heroes, Adam Smith. Smith famously noted that commercial society produced lots and lots of stuff, but he had various concerns about how markets and exchange might have spill-over effects to society at large as wealth grew and influenced the incentives of markets participants. The corresponding changes were not merely relevant in markets; Smith also speculated that as wealth increased individuals would potentially lose their "martial virtues" (Book V of the Wealth of Nations) which could affect the support of classical republicanism among members of the community. It is still important to realize here how sensitive Roberts and Whaples are in taking the encyclical's concerns in some respects quite seriously. First off, they note quite rightly, that the tendency among economists to simply accept the fact that the death of small producers as markets grow is a good thing. Net sum it probably is, but when one focuses on the poor, particularly the poorly educated and unskilled poor in parts of the world that are not easily connected to the global market, one has to acknowledge the importance of supporting the few opportunities that exist for those individuals or providing those individuals with help when market "disruptions" leave them without the means to work. Here the emphasis in the encyclical on "micro" forces is stronger. Individuals suffer during transitional periods. Additionally, the Pope's support for work as a key component to leading a full and productive life receives ample attention during the podcast and is a key element to understanding how human nature is best served by social and economic institutions. Another key element in Heyne's essay was the difficulties that lay on the path towards scientism that economics had chosen. Setting aside for a moment the very complicated question of whether or not any social science can achieve the lofty standards applied to science in say chemistry or physics, the deeper challenge that "Laudato Si" seems to be raising is what the costs of employing such an approach have when human life always raises moral questions that need answering. Finally, much as been made about the encyclical's emphasis on environmental concerns. Whaples himself teaches environmental economics and therefore has great sympathy for the state of the planet and ways to coordinate economic activity with preserving the condition of the earth. However, it is important to recognize, as they both do, that viewing growth as the single greatest risk to the environment is simply wrong. Whaples cites the so-called "environmental Kuznets curve" as just one example in which making human life materially richer has had a positive impact on environmental quality in many places. Looking at a map of say Zimbabwe, where economic growth is stunted and backwards and property rights not respected, we can see the consequences of deforestation and wide spread environmental degradation. No one points to Cuba or the former Soviet Union as examples of good stewards of the environment. Here the encyclical needed more emphasis on alternative viewpoints and data to make a better case of how economic freedom and progress are frequently friends of the environment and planet, and could very well make a growing population, a key point for the Roman Catholic Church, more feasible and sustainable for all. Dr. G. Patrick Lynch is a Senior Fellow at Liberty Fund. He is currently working on a book length manuscript focusing on the "state of nature" in political theory. He also contributes at the Library of Law and Liberty. (8 COMMENTS)

15 марта, 15:09

ICC reform and ‘Big Three’ break-up threatened as chairman offers to resign

• Shashank Manohar offers resignation after eight months as ICC chair• Manohar had attempted to scale back India, England and Australia’s influencePlans for reform at the International Cricket Council and the creation of a world Test championship have been left in a state of flux after Shashank Manohar, the chairman of the governing body and a driving force for change, tendered his resignation on Wednesday.Manohar, the 59-year-old Indian lawyer who was only eight months into a two-year term as the ICC’s first independent chairman, cited “personal reasons” in his letter to the chief executive, Dave Richardson, but his decision comes amid reports that India, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh are ready to block moves to shake up the global game. Continue reading...

14 марта, 11:17

How grandmothers help fight depression in Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe's public health system, like other sectors, has been hit by a financial crisis. With a population of around 16 million, doctors say there are only 12 public health psychiatrists in the whole country. Now, a group of grandmothers is using what they call ‘friendship benches’ to help thousands of people suffering from mental health problems in the country. Al Jazeera's Haru Mutasa reports from Harare. - Subscribe to our channel: http://aje.io/AJSubscribe - Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/AJEnglish - Find us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/aljazeera - Check our website: http://www.aljazeera.com/

02 марта 2014, 11:28

А ведь завтра будет новый финансовый день на Украине

Прошлый раз страна, оказавшаяся на одной из линий европейского разлома. Произошло это 68 лет назад. В январе 1946 года в этой стране была введена в обращение параллельная единица адопенгё, первоначально равная пенгё, а к июлю того же года — 2000 триллионов пенгё. В том же месяце была выпущена купюра в 1 миллиард. В том же месяце была выпущена купюра в 1 миллиард B.-пенгё (секстиллион, то есть миллиард триллионов, или 1021 пенгё) — самая большая по номиналу банкнота на Земле. Гиперинфляция произвела рекорд для своего времени по уровню ежемесячного темпа инфляции, когда в июле 1946 года она составила 4,19·1016 %, то есть цены удваивались каждые 15 часов. Страна эта -- Венгрия. Именно в Венгрии, оказавшейся на одной из линий европейского разлома, был один из самых высоких уровней инфляции за всю историю денежного обращения. И ситуация в бюджете (насколько я понял после беглого изучения) Венгрии было ничем не хуже (а в чем-то даже лучше), чем на Украине марта 2014 года и еще некоторые детали  На фото справа изображен дворник, сметающий купюры в канализацию -- этим фото обычно иллюстрируют статьи про гиперинфляцию и в частности статьи о гиперинфляции в Германии 1921—23 годах -- русская Вики в этом отношении (вероятно) оказалась более точно и относит фото к 1946 году и гиперинфляции в Венгрии. На фото не Германия, а Будапешт - 1946 год. К июлю 1946 года золотой пенгё 1931 года стоил 130 триллионов бумажных пенгё. 1 августа 1946 года был введен форинт по курсу 400 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000, или 4х1029 пенго за 1 форинт. Вероятно венгры не хуже нашего знают, что к чему в этом непростом подлунном мире -- и уже сейчас, несмотря на сомнительную конъюнктуру снижают стоимость коммунальных услуг, воспользовавшись кредитом из России. Подробнее можно почитать в Вики А вот -- самая большая по номиналу банкнота в мире -- 1 секстиллион (миллиард триллионов)  К слову денежную реформу Германии 1923 года, остановившую гиперинфляцию, можно приурочить к февралю 1924 года, когда была напечатана самая большая по номиналу купюра -- 100 триллионов марок. Вот она  Чуть позже в марте 1924 года с гиперинфляцией покончили и в России: Согласно декрету СНК СССР от 7 марта 1924, эмиссия совзнаков была прекращена, а выпущенные банкноты подлежали выкупу по соотношению 1 рубль золотом (казначейскими билетами) за 50 000 рублей совзнаками образца 1923 года. Банкноты более ранних выпусков также обменивались по курсу 1 рубль за 5 000 000 рублей образца 1922 года или 1 рубль за 50 000 000 000 рублей более ранних выпусков Вот таблица уровней гиперинфляции - получается Венгрия "переплюнула" даже Зимбабве  Подборка фото Германия Сначала за зарплатой (у кого была работа) ходили с чемоданами и саквояжами:  Потом для зарплаты понадобились уже ящики:  дешевле поклеить стены купюрами, чем покупать обои:  стало дешевле дать детям играть с пачками денег, чем покупать им кубики:   Деньги стали самым дешевым материалом для отопления помещений и растопки кухонных плит:   Полученная утром зарплата к вечеру могла обесцениться в 2 разa. Поэтому люди стали переходить на расчет продуктами. В театре, кино, цирке посетителей стали просить приносить продукты вместо денег. Вот тут объявление в театре, где цена дешевых мест указана в размере 2 яиц, а билеты на более дорогие места оцениваются в килограмм масла: касса цирка с объявлением, что билеты можно купить также за хлеб, колбасу и фрукты:  кошелёк    люди вполне жизнерадостные  Еще купюры     Африка   

31 января 2014, 11:45

Ирония судьбы

В одной небольшой африканской стране хорошо знают, что такое гиперинфляция. Она наверняка оставила ярчайший след в памяти нынешнего поколения и вряд ли успела подзабыться. Слишком недавно она там была. Эта страна – Зимбабве. В 2008 году на своем пике гиперинфляция достигала там почти 90 секстильонов процентов. Это двадцать два нуля после девятки. Логическим финалом стал окончательный подрыв доверия к местной валюте и полный отказ от ее использования в расчетах. Страна в апреле 2009 года полностью отказалась от зимбабвийского доллара и перешла на расчеты в американской, европейской, английской и южноафриканской валютах. Официальной валютой для государственных расчетов стала американская валюта. Это позволило стабилизировать экономическую ситуацию внутри страны и начать процесс постепенного восстановления. Такой подход был вполне понятен. Когда твоя валюта катастрофически теряет свою покупательную способность, необходимо найти что-то иное, что более устойчиво и позволяет создать некую опорную точку для начала возрождения. Однако не прошло и пяти лет, как правительство Зимбабве объявило о решении, которое трудно назвать иначе, чем иронией судьбы. В среду оно сообщило, что китайский юань наряду с другими валютами становится законным платежным средством на территории страны. Полностью от американской валюты власти страны не отказываются, но, судя по всему, решили, что пора взять на вооружение и валюту основного экономического конкурента Америки. Похоже, что в Зимбабве не горят желанием увидеть повторение 2008 года уже в ближайшие годы и таким образом подстраховываются на случай возможных эксцессов. К тому же манера поведения США в точности повторяет ту, что была шесть лет назад в Зимбабве. Нынешние США также в неограниченных количествах печатают свою валюту, как это делала чуть раньше Зимбабве. И бывший глава центрального банка Зимбабве Гидеон Гоно открыто говорил, что все, что они делают, делается в рамках рекомендаций Международного валютного фонда и Всемирного банка. Разница между нынешними США и Зимбабве 2008 года лишь в том, что американскую валюту пока еще с удовольствием принимают во всем мире, полагая, что она остается столь же надежной, как была когда-то. Однако этот уровень доверия снижается. Если в 2001 году 75% мировых валютных резервов были в американской валюте, то сегодня они чуть превышают 60%. К тому же различные страны активно накапливают золото и все активнее используют другие валюты во взаиморасчетах между собой. Причем если сейчас доверие к надежности США и их валюте пока уменьшается постепенно, то в какой-то момент оно может быть окончательно потеряно скачкообразно. Это напоминает ситуацию с гиперинфляцией. Еще вчера ее не было, а сегодня она уже внезапно появилась. Вряд ли можно назвать точные сроки, когда финансовая система США и ее валюта окончательно потеряют доверие. Это может произойти завтра, а может через пять или десять лет. Но вероятность того, что это произойдет, устойчиво нарастает, и к моменту, когда это может случиться, стоит быть готовым, так как это станет чрезвычайно серьезным потрясением и испытанием для всей мировой финансово-экономической системы.